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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

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Presented to the 




Hugh Anson-Cartwrigbt 






PaCU 3^97—44*6 



>CAHffaH«. Some rMnow. 4257 
A4ailrmltr. Wife ul Pimt Ix>rd of. »74l 
AtHna Kspkinm— Triamph of Woman, 

AMbm MatrlBce Cwlomm 4000 
Aamrj lor Oorfcm— M and Teachera— 

Work lor Women, S900 
m«^ 4SM 


Or. G«T 


" Aattqw** 8l»|v I 
Applm hi Daatei. 
Afttle fa p lowi i I riiiiti]>i> 

n, 3838 

an, 4350 
'I Woman, 

Aigytt. Pwrfcm of (H.R.H. Princess 

Aredt, lUfgMVi, 4277 

AfU, t7««. ltl». 4039. 4171, 4275?S 

Dmwteg Mid Painting, Liters- 
tmt. Stage, etc., tee thiMc titles 
ypMli^ Womcm4277 

- ' M., 4127. 4256V 


Avtetlo*— TMomph of Woman. 4020 

A]moii.iiiiL, wh 

IliMia^ Me Chfldiea 
Bahr liaea OoUIUcn— Worlc 
^ITomaL STM 
■irtMrtw ifmdag. 40U 
itaeiM. Mim Oerteode, 4021 
Bakv. Lady. SW774022 

ova, Mile. Alexandra, 3775 

LmIj Fiance*. 40ll 
and Pa n cee Parkian Etiquette, 

Bkauty CnTUiiE— Continued 

Kxerciscs witli Indian Clubs, 4099, 

4198, 4331 
Kyes. Care of, 3720 
HairdrcRsinp, etc. 
Care of Hair, 3721 
Ear Plaits, 3956 
Xattelina, (k)iffure k la, 3954 
Practical Coiffure (to jface 4057), 

Wav in jz— Marcel and Pin Waving, 
Hands, Care of, 3720 
Housewife's Good Looks, 3720 
Patch, Story of, 3718 
Physical Exercises and Carriage, 

Teeth, Care of, 3721 
Bed Linen, 4061 
Beds and Bedding, 3847, 4061 
Bent, Mrs. Theodore, 3901 
Bcringer, Mr. Oscar, 4039 
Beringer, Mrs. Oscar, 4257 
Berri, Duchesse de, 3958 
Besant, Mrs. Annie, 4377 
Bijou Bag, 4179 

Birds as Pets — Fancy Pigeons, 4288 
Bishop, Mrs. (Isabella Bird), 4022 
Blake, Dr. Jex, 4380 
Blood Poisoning — Cause and Treat- 
ment, 4156 
" Blossoms of Spring," 4144 Keeping — Work for 

Women, 3877 
Book-carriers, How to Make, 4143 
Books, Famous Books by W^omen, 3922 

Oigflt, 4103 

' f the Stag Home." 4102 

_ _ «77«, 4014. 4154, 4249X 

Pwaet. 4014 ^ 

Head. 41S4 

T1i%h, 4249>2 
Barelar. Mn. Flocenoe L., 4376 
BmIov. Him Jane, 4200 


S715. S8S6, 3058, 

Beantlftil Women in HiHt«r>'. 3715 
S836 S0S8, 4004, 4198. 4328 
Berri. DacheMe de, 3058 
Jeney. Lady, 4004 
t, Prtai 

Ijunballe, Prinoewe de. 4106 

4^ ^"^ ^'^^ Wortlcy, 
Stanhope. Lady Heater, 3836 
Vernon, Dorothy, of Haddou HaU 
Beautiful Women of all Nations. 

Lady Levinge, to face 3937 
Beauty Adorned, refer to title Dress 
^^Wren. Types of Beautiful, 

Blossoms of Spring," 4144 
Dreas as a Frame for Beauty, ««!Dres.« 
Marriage. Influence in, 4364 
Beauty Culture, 3720, 3839, 3954 4097 
4198, 4201 ' ' "'» 

Chilblains, Cures for, 3957 
Complexion, Care of, 3721 

*^o^, a Frame for Beauty, 3960, 

4^1 j 

/or details, see title Dress I 

Booth, Catherine, 4378 

Boots and Shoes, see title Dress 

Boston Terrier, 4413 

Boy and (;irl Love, 4354 

Braddon, MLss, 4127 

Braid, Possibilities of, in Needlework 

Breadalbane, Lady, 4121 
Breakfast Dishes, see title Kitchen 

and Cookery 
Breakfast Jacket, 3708 
Bronte, Emily, 3922 
Bronte Family, 4126 
Brough, Miss Fanny, 4017 
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 4127 
Bryant. Dr. Sophie, 4260 
Buckingham Palace, 4221 

Blue Drawing-room, 4220 
Bulb-growing on Sponges, 4284 
4094. 4196 'drP"'8*''ia Queen Eleonore of, 3777 
'^ Burton, Lady, 4022 

Buss, Miss Frances Mary, 4260 
Butler, Lady, 4126 
Butler, Mrs. Josephine, 4377 
Bnttorfly Dog, 4415 
Buttons, Decorative, 3833 


Calendars, How to Make, 3927 
Cameron, Agnes Deans, 3900 
Canziani, Mme., 4125 
Cats as Pets— Manx Cats, 4166 
Cederstrom, Baroness (Mme. 


'Cello Playing, 4398 
Chairs for the Hall, 3725 
Chemist*, Women as, 4380 
Chesterfield, Countess of, 4120 
Chihuahua Dog, 4415 
^'"^^^o^n*' Prevention and Cure, 3957 

4o7U ' 

Children, 3733, 3771, 3854, 3973, 4227 

Ambulance, Teaching for, 3858 

Children — Continued 

Baby's First Year, 3771, 3894, 4010 
Crawling, 4016 
Jolting and Jumping, 4016 
Keeping Baby Quiet, 4016 
Teething, 3771 
Weaning, 3894 
Baby's Second Year, 4252, 4372 
Crawling, 4252 
Diet, 4372 

Habits and Health, 4372 
Walking, 4252 
Beautiful Children, Types of—" Blos- 
soms of Spring," 4144 
Christian Names, Girls, 3740, 3860, 

3980, 4233, 4341 
Dancing, 3737, 3854, 4336 
Fancy Dances 

Cymbal Dance, 3737 
Gavotte, 3854 
One-step, 4336 

Fancy Dress {to face 3697), 3733 
Growing Girls, 4084 
Education — Home Kindergarten, 

4149 4231 4339 
Games and Pa,rties, 3772, 4145, 4227 
Games Without Hard Balls or 
Advancing Statues, 4229 
Flags, 4228 
Fox and Geese, 4229 
Movable Waxw^orks, 4229 
Rounders, 4227 

Snake and Humming Birds, 4229 
Tug of War, 4229 
Living Statuary, 4145 
Japan, 3972, 3973 
Birth in Japan, 3973 
Dress, 3974 

Festivals for Boys, 3976 
Games, 3975 
Music, 3975 

Naming Children, 3973 . 
Schooldays, 3974 
Nursery, Hygiene in, see Medicine 
Painting of Children, 3919 
Pocket Money, Children's, 4230 
Reading and Writmg, Right and 

Wrong Ways, 3981 
Sewing, Right and Wrong W' ays, 3981 
Skipping, Fancy Skipping, 3977 
Wait a Minute," 4226 
Children's Care Committee, Women 

Organisers of, 4355 
China, Old, 3968, 4063, 4301 
Leeds Pottery, 4301 
Pinxton, Mansfield, and Torksev 

Porcelains, 3968 
Spode Pottery and Porcelain, 4063 
Chmese Paradise Fish, 4169 
Chivalry, Women and Orders of, 4346 
Christian Excavators' Union, 4159 
Christian Names, Girls, 3740, 3860 
3980, 4233, 4341 > ^o , 

Circulating Library, Management of— 

Work for Women, 4116 
Civet Cats as Pets, 4168 
Coins, Making Patterns with, 4076 
Colic— Nursing, 4013 
Collar, Embroidered, 4092 
Common Ailments and their Treatment 
3892, 4014, 4156, 4252 '"*'"'^"^' 
Companion, Paid — Occupation for 

Women, 4114 
Complexion, Care of, 3721 
Concert Lovers, Musical Culture for, 

Conservatory, Small, 4162 
Consumption *> 

Cause and Treatment, 3892 

Prevention, 3767 

Convalescents, Homes for — Work for 

Women, 4003 
Cookery, see Kitchen and Cookery 
Corks and Stoppers, Removing, 3853 
Corridor Problem, 4297 
Couching and Laid Work, 4080 
" Country Neighbours," 4348 
Court, Presentation at, 3982, 3983 
Craigie, Mrs., 4257 
Creeping and Climbing Plants, 3811 
Creighton, Mrs., and Britain's Homes, 

Cretonne and Xet Cushion Cover, 3941 
Cricket for Girls, 3773 
Crochet, Gold and Silver, 3700, 4182 
Cumming, Miss Gordon, 3901 
Curie, Mme., 4022 
Curran, Sarah, and Robert Emmet — 

Love Story, 3747 
Cu.shion Covers 

Cretonne and Net, 3941 

Patchwork, 4180 
Cymbal Dance, 3737 

Dances — Parisian Etiquette, 3987 

Fancy Dances for Children, 3737, 
Cymbal Dance, 3737 
Gavotte, 3854 
One-step, 4336 

Singhig Training, Value in, 4173 
Darnley, Countess of, 3775 
Davies, Miss Emily, 4260 
Davies, Miss Fanny, 4378 
Davies-CoUey, Miss Eleanor, 4378 
Dentistry for Women, 4380 
Derby, Countess of (Charlotte de la 

Tremouille), 4122 
Diet, 3771, 3889, 4247, 4372 

for details, see title Medicine 
Dingo, 4416 

Dining-room, Furnishing, 4297 
Dinners — Parisian Etiquette, 3987 
Dogs as Pets, 3813, 3933, 4053, 4290, 

Domesticating a Husband, 3762 
Donalda, Mine., 3895 
" Door of the Fold, The," 4158 
Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall, 3715 
Douglas, Lady Alfred, 4278 
Dove, Miss, 4261 

Drawing and Painting, 3798, 3919 
Children, Painting of, 3919 
Famous Pictures by Women 
" Riders, The," 4274 
" The First Audience," 4038 
Religious Pictures by Women 
" Annunciation, The." 4280 
" Door of the Fold, The," 4158 
" Salvator Mundi," 4034 
Triumph of Woman in Art, 4124 
Where to Study — Royal Academy 
Schools, 3798 
Dress, 3706, 3826, 3944, 4084, 4185, 

Embroidered Collar, 4092 
Velvet Neckband, 4324 
Breakfast Jacket, 3708 
Children— Fancy Dress (to face 3697), 

Decorative Buttons, 3833 
Dressing Gowns and Jackets, 3706 
Evening Cloak for Winter, 3831, 3944 
Colour, 3944-5 
Design, 3946 

Japanese and Chinese Em- 
broideries, 3946 
Lining, 3946 
Materials, 3944 
Evening Gowns 
Beads on, 4189 
Fur Trimmed, 4318 
Frame for Beauty, 3960, 4201 
Bells and Sashes, 4201 
Collar, 4201 
Eccentricities and Exaggerations, 

Fashion, Servitude of, 3961 
Height, Management of, 3961 
Low Dresses, 3962 
Sleeves, 4201 
Symmetry, Rule of, 3962 
Trimmings, 4201 
Furs, see that title 
Hanging Clothes in Wardrobe, 3952 

Dkess— Continued 

Japanese Children, 3974 
Juliet Caps, Home-made, 4321 
Millinery, see that title 
Mutfs, 4322 

Quaker Influence in Dress, 4185 
Apron Tunic, 3709 
Fur, Use of, 3709 
Poppy Gown, 3711 
Shoes, 4090, 4187 
Bridal Shoes, 4092 
Chopines, 4090 
Coloured Foot-gear, 4090 
Louis XV. Shoes, 4091 
Quaker Influence, 4187 
Queen Elizabeth Shoes, 4091 
Sport, Shoes for, 4092 
Skating, Ice, 3804 
Tea-gowns, 3826 
Wedding Veils, 3883 
Winter, Clothes for, 3829, 3889 
Coats, 3830 
Colours, 3829 
Evening Coats, 3831, 3944 
Gloves, 3832 
Hat Trimmings, 3832 
Indoor Dresses, 3830 
Materials, 3829 
Mufflers, 3832 
Underclothing, 3832 
Windy Weather, 3832 
Dressing Gowns and Jackets, 3706 
Dressmaking, 3948, 4084, 4326 
Altering Dresses for Growing Girls, 

Drafting and Dress Cutting, 3948, 

Cuttmg Out Pattern, 3951 
Drafting, 3949 
Armhole, 3950 
Front, Completing, 3951 
Measures, 3949 
Requisites for Drafting, 3949 
Skirt Measurements, 3948 

Cutting Out Pattern, 4327 
Drafting, 4326 
Durbar Embroidery, 3817 

Earache — Nursing, 4013 
Home Kmdergarten, 4149, 4231, 4339 
Gifts 4, 5, and 6, 4149 
Gift 7, 4231 

Stick, Ring, and Thread Laying, 
Music and Singing, Teaching of, see 

title Music 
Payment of Women Teachers in 

New York City, 4261 
Pioneers of Higher Education- for 

Women, 4258 
University Education for Women, 
Elderly Wives and Young Husbands, 

Electric Light, Shades for, 3731 
Electrical Heaters, 'f208 

Management, 4306 
Eliot, George, 4126 
Ellicott, Miss Rosalind, 4378 
Elocution, 4041 

Bead, S703, 4189 
Collar, 4092 

Durbar Embroidery. 3817 
Nature, Embroidering from, 3697 
Shadow Embroidery, 3937 
Stitches, 3822, 3942, 4080, 4181 
Emmet, Robert and Sarah Curran — 

Love Story, 3747 
English Love Proverbs, 3874 
Esher, Lady, 4278 
Etiquette, see Lady of Quality 
Explorers, Triumph of Woman, 3897, 
African Explorers. 3897 
Arctic Explorers, 3900 
Mountaineers, 3901, 4021 
Eyes, Care of, 3720 

Fancy Dances for Children, 3737, 3854 
Fancy Dress for Children (to face 3697), 


• |..iiist "— Story of Com|>ofiition,<4279 
Fawcett, Mrs. Millioent Garrett, 42dO 
I'erns, Cultivation of, 4409 
1' ife. Princess Maud of, 4342 
Fire Grates 
Open Grates, 3726 
Hall, 3722 

Improved Designs, 3849 
Stoves, »«e tliat title; aiso Gas Stoves 
" First Audience, The," 4038 
Chinese Paradise Fish, 4169 
Japanese Goldfish, 4056 
Fish Recipes, see Kitchen and Cookery, 

Lenten Fare 

Furnishing for £100 (to face 3817) 
3842 '' 

Love in a Flat, 4112 
Flemish Giant Rabbit, 3816 
Fletcher, Constance, 4257 
Florestore, Flowers in, for iiillinery. 
4316 '• 

Cultivation, refer to title Gardens 

and Gardening 
Language of, 3752, 3873, 4219, 4353 
Fly Danger, 3767 
Food, refer to title Kitchen and Cookery ; 

also Medicine 
Forbes, Lady Helen, 4255 
" Forget-me-not Club," 3902 
France — Parisian Etiquette, 3987 
French Bulldog, 3813 
French Gardening for Women, 4411 
for details, see title Gardens and 
French Polishing, 4408 
Friere-Marreco, Miss, 3901 
Fruit Culture for Profit, 3809, 3931, 
4047, 4165, 4287 
for details, see Gardens and Gardening 
Fry, Elizabeth, 4262 
FiuTiished House — Law, 4272 
Furnishmg, 3722, 3817, 3842, 3963, 
4057 (to /ac« 4297), 4307 
for details, see title Home 

Caracul Coat or Jacket, 4088 
Combinations of Furs, 4089 
Cutting and Sewing, 4087 
Muffs, 4087. 4322 
Old Furs, Uses for, 4087 
Trimmings for Dresses, 3711, 4318 

Gambetta, Leon and Leonie Leon- 
Love Story, 4349 
Games and Parties for Children, 3772, 

3975, 4145, 4227 
for details, see title Children 
Gardens and Gardening, 3809, 3929, 

4044, 4162, 4284, 4409 
Bulb-growing on Sponges, 4284 
Conservatory, Small, 4162 

Beds, Plants in, 4162 

Feeding and Syringing, 4164 

Hardy Plants, 4163 

Insect Pests, 4164 

Plants to Make a Good Show, 4162 

Show-house, Conservatory as, 4162 

Shrubby Subjects, 4163 

Training, Methods of, 4164 
Creepers and Climbers, 3811 
Cuttings, Trees and Shrubs from, 3929 
Ferns, 4409 

Methods of Cultivation, 4409 

Offsets and Bulbils, 4409 

Rhizomatous Ferns, 4410 

Water and Ventilation, 4411 
French Gardening for Women, 4411 

Capital Requned, 4412 

Site and Soil, 4412 
Fruit Culture for Profit, 3809, 3931, 
4047, 4165, 4287 

Canker, 4047 

Cuttings, 3931 

" Don'ts," 3809 

Felling, 3809 

Fruit it Pays to Grow, 3810, 4287 

Grafting, 3932 

Hay Bands, Use of, 4048 

Layering Strawberries, 3932 

Overcrowding, 3809 

Paraffin and Petroleum, Use of, 

Pears, 4165 

Plums, 4165 


Gardens and Gardening — Continued 
Fruit Culture for Profit — Continued 

Raspberry, 4287 

Stock in tlie Orchard, 4048 

Strawberry, 4287 
Greenhouse, Small Greenhouse, 4044 

Construction, 4044 

Heating, 4045 

Nursery for Young Plants, 4046 

Repotting, 4046 

Spring Start, 4045 

Wat«r Supply, 4045 
Garland Design, 4309 
Garnett, Mrs. Charles, Work among 

Navvies, 3917, 4159 
Gas Fires, 3889. 4207 
Gas Stoves, 4206 

Management, 4306 
Gaskell, Mrs.. 4126 
Gaunt, Mrs. Mary, 3895 
Gavotte, 3854 
George III. and Hannah Lightfoot— 

Love Story, 3992, 4067 
Gibson, Mrs. Margaret Duhlop, 4260 
Girls, Etiquette for, 3744, 3987, 4225 
Manner, 3744 
Out-of-door Girls, 4225 
Parisian Etiquette, 3987 
Glands, Enlarged — Cause and Treat- 
ment, 4251 
Goat Farming for Women, 4358 
Gold and Silver Crochet, 3700 
Goldfish, Japanese, 3935, 4056 
Governesses and Teachers, Agency for — 

Work for Women, 3999 
Goyau, Mrae., 4018 
Granny Bag, 4177 
Green, Mrs. J. R., 4127 
Gregory, Lady, 4257 
Griffon, 4414 


Haemorrhoids — Cause and Treatment, 

Hair, Care of, Hahdressing, etc., 3721, 

3839, 3954 (to face 4057), 4097 
Hairdressing as Profession for Women, 

Hall, Furnishing, etc., 3722 
Hall, Miss Marie, 4378 
Hall, Miss Mary, 3899 
Halle, Lady, 4378 
Hamilton, Miss Cicely, 4257 
Handel—" The Child Handel," 4170 
Handley, Dr. Eva, 4380 
Hands, Care of, 3720 
Handsome Man as Husband, 4240 
Hangers for Wardrobes, 3952 
Harbord, Mrs., 4021 
Harrison, Miss Jane Ellen, 4260 
Harrison, Mrs. Mary St. Leger, 4018 

Old Hats, Uses for, 4083 
see also title Millinery 
Hatzfeldt, Princess, 4256 
Headache — Nursing, 4013 
Heart Cases — Nursing, 3890 
Heating, Methods of, 3726, 3966, 4205, 
for details, see title Home 
Heraldry, Strange Creatures of, 3988 
Herford, Miss, 4125 
Hernia — Cause and Treatment, 4254 
Heroines of History, 3780, 3781, 4122, 
4262, 4382 
Derby, Countess of, 4122 
Fry, Elizabeth, 4262 
Joan of Arc, 3780, 3781 
Maid of Saragossa, 4381, 4382 
Hewlett, Mrs. Maurice, 4020 
Himalayan Rabbit, 3815 
Home, 3722, 3842, 3963, 4057, 4202 
Beds and Bedding, 3847, 4061 
China, Old China, 3968, 4063, 4301 
Corks and Stoppers, Removing, 3853 

Corridor Problem, 4297 
Dining Room (to face 4297), 4307 
Fireplace, 4308 
Fittings, 4308 

New Furniture or Old, 4308 
Ornaments, 4308 
Fireplace Recess, Treatment of, 

Flats (to face 3817), 3842 
Hall, 3722 
Screens, 4057 
Small Rooms. 4300 

Home — Continued 

Furnishing — Continued 
Tables, Occasional, 3963 
Bedroom Tables, 3965 
Card Tables, 3963, 3964 
Nest Tables, 3963 
Tea and Coffee Tables, 3964 
Writing Tables to Match Chairs 
—Suggestion, 3965 
Windows, 4299 
Heating, 3726, 3966, 4205, 4304 
Closed Stoves, 3727, 3966, 4207 
' Gas Stoves, 4206 
Hot Air Stoves, 3968 
Oil Heating Stoves, 4207 
Types and Designs, 3966-7 
Economy in, 3849 
Electric Heating, 4208 
Gas Fires, 3889, 4207 
Hot Water Systems, 3727 
High Pressure System, 4205 
Low Pressure System, 4205 
Management of Heating Ap- 
paratus, 4304 
Closed Stoves, 4305 
Electrical Heaters, 4306 
Gas Stoves, 4306 
Hot Water Apparatus, 4305 
Keeping Up a Fire, 4304 
Lighting a Fire, 4304 
Oil Stoves, 4306 
Open Grates, 3722, 3726, 3849 
Winter, Heating in, 3888, 3889 
Hall, 3724 

Shades for Electric Light, 3731 
Linen, Choice and Care of, 4061, 
Airing, 4211 
Bed Linen. 4061 
Kitchen Towels, 4062 
Linen Cupboard, 4211 
Pillow Cases and Shams, 4062 
Sorting for Laundry, 4211 
Table Linen, 4210 
Towels, 4062 
Newspapers, Uses for Old, 4209 
Table Napkins, Folding, 3728 
Window Seat, Charm of, 4202 
Homes for English Girls Abroad, 3782 
Hoop Bowhng, 3773 
Horniman, Miss, 4255, 4257 
Hot Water Systems, 3727, 4205 

Management, 4305 
Housewife's Good Looks, 3720 
Hubbard, Mrs. Leonidas, 3900 
Huggins, Lady, 4022 
Hugo, Victor — Love Story, 4213 
Humour, Saving Sense of, 3881 

" In Love," 3990 

" In the Beautiful Month of May," 

Income Tax— Law, 3793, 3913, 
for details, see title Law 

Indian Clubs, Exercises with, 4099, 
4198, 4331 

Infectious Disease in Furnished Lodg- 
ings, Law as to, 4273 

Invalid Meatless Cookery, see Kitchen 
and Cookery — Meatless Cookery 

Italian Greyhound, 4414 


James, Mrs. Willie, 4017 
Janotha, Mile. Natahe, 4378 
Japan, Children of, 3972, 3973 
Japanese Goldfish. 3935, 4056 
Japanese Screens, 4057 
Jersey, Lady, 4094 
Joan of Arc, 3780, 3781 
Johnson, Mrs. Samuel, 4242 
Jopling-Rowe, Mrs. Louise, 3896 
Juliet Caps, Home-made, 4321 


Kapurthala, Maharani of, 3775 
Kchessinsl<a, Mme. Mathilde, 4376 
Kennedy, Miss Clark, 4124 
Kenny, Miss Annie, 3776 
Kensington Palace, 3863 
Kindergarten, Home, 4149, 4231, 4339 
King George III. and Hannah Lightfoot 

—Love Story, 3992, 4067 
Kingsley, Miss Mary, 3897, 4022 
Kinnoull, Countess of. 4278 

Kitchen and Cookery, 3784, 3903, 
4024, 4128, 4264, 4383 

Cold Weather, Recipes for 
Beef Tea and Egg, 4028 
Brandy and Egg, 4028 
Egg Cordial, 4028 
Egg Flip, 4028 
Egg Nog, 4028 
Linseed Tea, 4028 
Negus, 4028 
Spiced Ale, 4028 

see also subheading Meatless 

Fancy Bread, Recipes 

Baking-powder Bread, 3908 
Vienna, 3907 
Brioches, 3908 

Horseshoes or Crescents, 3907 
Twist or Plait, 3907 
Standard Bread, 3907 
Breakfast Problem, 4264 

Recipes for Breakfast Dishes 
Cod's Roe Cutlets, 4265 
Dried Haddock and Tomatoes, 

Eggs au Gratin, 4266 
Danish Eggs, 4265 
Oeufs au Beurre Noir, 4266 
Poached Eggs with Green Sauce, , 
4266 ^ 

Savoury Breakfast Patties, 4265 
Scallops, Baked, 4266 
Veal Cake, 4266 
Cakes — Recipes 
Icing, 4384 

Rich Cake for Silver Wedding, 4383 
Sultana Cake, 4384 
see also subheading Sicilian Deli- 
Cheese — Recipes 
Aigrettes, 4133 
Cheese D'Artois, 4134 
Cheese Fondu, 4133 
College Creams, Cold, 4134 
Golden Buck, 4133 
Gruyere Patties, 4133 
Welsh Rarebit, 4133 
Cooking Pans, see subheading Well- 
equipped Kitchen 
Egg Cookery — Recipes, 4270 
Egg Balls, 4271 
Egg Forcemeat Rissoles, 4270 
Eggs in Aspic, 4270 
Eggs sur le Plat, 4270 
Eggs with Italian Sauce, 4271 
Fricasseed Eggs, 4271 
Mayonnaise of Eggs, 4270 
Mumbled Eggs, 4271 
Savoury Eggs, 4270 
Foods in Season in 
December, 3792 
January, 3906 
February, 4134 
March, 4389 
Game Recipes 

Partridge Salad k la Russe, 3912 
Partridges, Stuffed, 4026 
Partridges with Cabbage, 4026 
Snipe Pudding, 3912 
Woodcock, Roast, with Oyster 
Stuflfing, 3912 
Housekeeping Hints — The Best Way 
Beating Mixtures, 4132 
Chopping Candied Peel, 4132 
Lining a Cake Tin with Greased 

Paper, 4132 
Meringue Board, Preparing, 4132 
Rubbing through Sieves, 4132 
Stirring Mixtures, 4132 
Stoning Raisins, 4132 
Tomatoes, Peeling, 4132 
Invalid Cookery, see subheading 

Meatless Cookery 
Lenten Fare — Recipes 
Brill i la Marietta, 4386 
Cod Steak Steamed, 4385 
Lobster Cake, 4385 
Potatoes k la Maitre d'H6tel, 4386 
Salad of Fish, 4385 
Savoury Eggs with Salad, 4385 
Tomato Pie, 4386 
Marmalade — Recipes 

Economical Marmalade, 4129 
Lemon Marmalade, 4129 
Marmalade Jelly, 4129 
Marmalade without Sugar, 4129 
Seville Marmalade. 4128 


Kitchen and cookery— Continued 
Meat — Recipes 
Beef— Fillets k la St. James, 4020 
Beef— Fillets with Mushrooms,3911 
Brazilian Stew, 4130 
Calf's Head, Bailed, 4030 
Exeter Stew, 4391 
Fritters .\ la Villeroy, 3910 
Ham, to Bail, 3911 
Ham and Brain Cakes, 4131 
Hot Pot, 3911 
Lamb Chops, Grilled, 4131 
Liver, Kromeskies of, 4131 
Mutton— Haricot, 3910 
Mutton — Shoulder, Braised and 

stuffed, 3909 
Mutton Cake, 4130 
Mutton Fritters h. la Diable, 3909 
Ox Tail en Casserole, 4390 
Ox Tails Stewed, 3909 
Ox Tongue, to Bjil, 4390 
Rissoles, 4390 
Sauer Braten, 4029 
Scotch Haggis, 4391 
Sheep's Head Pie, 4391 
Steak and Mushroom Pie, 3910 
Steak and Oyster Pudding, 4392 
Sweetbreads in Cases, 4029 
Toad-in-a-hole, 4130 
Tomato and Ham Pie, 3908 
Tripe, Stewed, 4131 
Veal, Grenadines of, 3911 
Veal Cutlets k la Proven^ale, 4391 
Veal Cutlets h. la Talleyrand, 4030 
Veal Pudding, 4392 
Veal and Ham Pie, 4030 
Wiener Schnitzel, 4030 
Meatless Cookery for Invalids — 

Blancmange, 4027 
Bran Cream, 4027 
Cheese Gnocchis, 4027 
Cheese and Bread and Butter 

Pudding, 4027 
Cleansing Drinks 

Barley Water. 3792 

Fresh Fruit Pressed in a Fruit 
Press, 3791 

Over-acidity, Remedy for, 3792 

Rice Drink, 3792 

Stewed Fruit Juices, 3791 
Poached Eggs on Spinach, 4027 
Potato Cream, 4027 
Simple Omelet, 4027 

Vegetable Juice, 3791 

Vermicelh, 3791 
Potatoes — Recipes 

Mashed Potatoes a rindienne, 4269 
Potatoes k la Hamburg, 4268 
Potatoes k la Lyonnaise, 4269 
Potatoes k la Parisienne, 4269 
Potatoes a la Princesse, 4268 
Souffle, 4268 
Poultry — Ways of Serving Cold 

Blanquette, 3787 
Croquettes, 3787 
Devilled Legs, 3787 
Fricassee, 3786 
Soup, 3786 

Turkey a la Marlborough, 3787 
Puddings, see subheading Sweets 

and Puddings 
Savouries — Recipes 

Bananas, Croutes of, 3789 
Livers, Devilled, 3788 
Lobster Fingers, 3788 
Oyster Aigrettes, 3790 
Oyster Croquettes, 3789 
Prawns in Aspic, 3788 
Sardine Bouchees, 3790 
Sardines, Devilled, 3789 

see also subheadings Cheese and 
Sicilian Delicacies — Recipes 
Abbondanze, 4267 
Ammiragli, 4268 
Melting Moments, 4267 
Pasta Reale, 4267 
Silver Wedding Cakes— Recipes, 4383 

Soup— Recipe for Turkey Soup, 3786 
see also subheading Meatless 
Sweets and Puddings — Recipes 
Apple Hedgehog, 4136 
Banana Trifle, 4136 
Cornets k la Parma, 4135 

Kitchen and Cookery — Continued 

Fruit Salad, 4031 

Gateau d'Ananas, 4135 

Pancakes, 4269 

Praline Souffl*:', 4135 

Rum Omelet. 4136 

Savarin k la Jargonelle, 4031 

Thrifty Pudding, 4136 
Teacakes and Scones — Recipes 

Brown Scones, 4025 

Edinburgh Scones, 4024 

London Scones, 4026 

Oatmeal Scones, 4026 

Pancake Scones, 4024 

Yorkshire Teacakes and Sally 
Lunns, 4025 
Vegetables, Winter Vegetables — 
Recipes, 4:f87 

Carrot Souffles, 4389 

Cassolette of Mixed Vegetables, 

Jersey Fritters, 4387 

Salsify Fritters, 4388 

Seakale with White Sauce, 4387 

Spinach, 4387 
Vegetarian Recipes, see subheadings 
Lenten Fare and Meatless 
Well-equipped Kitchen, 3903 

Cherry-stoner, 3903 

Choppers and Knives, 3903 

Cooking Pans, 3784 

Egg Whisks, 3904 

Fireproof China and Earthenware, 

Fritter Moulds, 3905 

Griller, 3905 

Pastry-making Requisites, 3904 

Pestle and Mortar, 3904 

Weights and Scales, 3904 
Kitchen Towels, 4062 

Labour Exchanges, Opening for Women 

Workers, 4118 
Lady of Quality, 3741, 3863, 3983, 4103. 
4221, 4343 
Chivalry, Orders of, Founded by 

Women, 4346 

Manner, 3744 
Out-of-door Girl, 4225 
Parisian Etiquette, 3987 
Parisian, 3987 

Balls and Dances, 3987 
Dinners, 3987 
Salutations, 3987 
Table Manners, 3987 
Heraldry, Strange Creatures of, 3988 
Leopards as Lions, 3989 
Lions, 3989 
Presentation at Court, Rehearsing 
for, 3982, 3983 
Curtsey, 3985 
Origin of the Levee, 3984 
Train, Management of, 3986 
Romances of Royal Palaces 
Balmoral Castle, 4103 — " Bringing 

the Stag Home," 4102 
Buckingham Palace, 4221 — Blue 

Drawing-room, 4220 
Kensington Palace, 3863 — " Vic- 
toria Regina," 3862 
Royal Princesses — Maud of Fife, 

4342, 4343 
Surnames and their Story, 4345 
Women in Great Social Positions 
—Wife of Fu-st Lord of 
Admiralty, 3741 
Lagerlof, Selma, 4127 
Lamballe, Princesse de, 4196 
Landlord and Tenant— Law, 4032, 
4137, 4272 
for details, see title Law 
Language of Flowers, 3752, 3873, 4219, 

Laughter, Medicine of, 4010 
Law, 3793, 3913, 4032, 4137, 4272, 
Fm'nished Houses — Owners' Liability 
Infectious Disease in Furnished 
Lodgings, 4273 
Workmen's Dwellings, 4272 
Income Tax, 3793, 3913 
Alimony, 3793 
Annuity, 3794 
Children, 3794 

Law— Continued 
Income Tax— Continued 
Curate, Grant to, 3913 
Foreign Life Insurance Co., 3913 
House Duty, 3913 
House, Free Occupation, 3794 
Husband and Wife, 3794 
Incidental Expenses, 3914 
Life Insurance, 3793 
Police-station, Occupation of, 3794 
Profits, How to Reckon, 3913 
Property Exempted, 3914 
Rent, Deduction from, 3914 
Returns Required from Employers, 

Servant, Allowance for, 3794 
Strike, Insurance Against, 3973 
Voluntary Gifts, 3914 
Landlord and Tenant, 4032, 4137.4272 
Abstract of Title, 4138 
Drawing up Lease, 4273 

Solicitor's Charges, 4273 
Investigation of Title, 4138 
Option of Purchase, 4138 
Owner's Liability, 4272 
Quiet Enjoyment, 4138 
Re-entry, Proviso for, 4138 
Registered Land, 4138 
Registration, 4273 
Form, 4138 
Value, 4138 
Renewal, Covenant for, 4138 
Repairing Covenant?, 4033 
Landlord's Remedy, 4033 
Liability for Injury through Pre- 
mises being out of Repair, 
Restrictive Covenants, 4137 

Assessed Taxes, 4033 
Landlords' Taxes, 4032 
Tenants' Taxes, 4032 
W^aste, 4137 
Wills, 4393 
Age and Sex, 4394 
Fictitious Widow, 4394 
Manner of Making, 4394 

Nuncupative Will, 4393 
Power of Disposal, 4393 
Signatures, 4394 
Soldiers and Sailors, 4393 
Wife with Two Husbands, 4394 
Witnesses, 4394 
Woman Barrister — Mile. Miropowl- 
ski, 4261, 4376 
Le Blond, Mrs. Aubrey, 3901 
Leeds Pottery, 4301 
Lshmann, Mme. Liza, 4378 
Lenten Fare, see title Kitchen and 

Leon, L^onie, and Leon Gambetta — 

Love Story, 4349 
Levinge, Lady, to face 3937 
Lewis, Mrs. Agnes Smith, 4260 
Library, Circulating, Management cf- 

Work for Women, 4116 
Life-saving Exercises, 3774 
Lightfoot, Hannah, and George III.— 

Love Story, 3992 
Lighting, 3724, 3731 
Linen, Household Linen, 4061, 4210 
Famous Books by Women — " Wuth- 

ering Heights," 3922 
Famous Women Writers 
Novelists, 4126 
Robins, Miss Elizabeth, 4401 
Love Passages from Books — " Tris- 
tram Shandy," 4071 
Poets, Women Poets, 4277 
Living Statuary, New Idea for Chil 

dren's Party, 4145 
Londesborough, Lady, 4017 
London College of Music, 4403 
Louise, Princess, 4256 
Love, 3747, 3869, 3991, 4067, 4213, 4349 
Bov and Girl Love, 4354 
Creighton's, Mrs., Views, 4037 
Language of Flowers, 3752, 3873, 

4219, 4353 
Literature, Famous Love Passages 
from—" Tristram Shandy," 4071 
Love-lettei-s, 3991 
Man of Forty. Fascination of, 3753 
Parental Authority, Plea for Kind- 
ness, 4218 
Pictures. Love Scenes in. 3746, 3868. 
3990, 4066, 4212, 4348 
" Country Neighbours," 4238 


Love — Continueu 
Pictures — Continued 

" In Love," 3990 ,, 

" In the Beautiful Month of May, 

" ' Nobody asked you, sir,' she 

said," 4212 
" Off for the Honeymoon," 4066 
" To Bring the Roses Back," 3746 
Proverbs of Many Lands— English, 

True Love Stories of Famous People, 
3747, 3869, 3992, 4067, 4213, 
4349 , ^ 

Emmet, Robert, and Sarah Curran, 

Gambetta, Leon and Leonie L6on, 
Hugo, Victor, 4213 [4349 

King George III. and Hannah 

Lightfoot, 3992, 4067 
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 3869 
Unrequited Love, 3997 
Woman of Forty, Fascination or, 43bl 
Lucas, Mrs. Seymour, 3776 
Lucard, Lady, 4375 
Lyne, Miss Felicia, 4376 


Macgregor, Miss Jessie, 4125 

McLeod, Miss Ohve, 3899 

Maid of Saragossa, 4381, 4382 

Malet, Lucas, 4018, 4126 

Man of Forty, Fascination of, 37o3 

Manicurist, How to Become, 3754 

Mansfield, Miss Charlotte, 3898 

Mansfield Porcelain, 3971 

Manx Cats, 4166 . , 

Marmalade Recipes, see title Kitchen 

and Cookery 
Marquetry, 4406— French Polishing, 

Marriage, 3760, 3881, 4005, 4108, 4240, 
" After the Honeymoon," 4108 
Attractive Plain Girl, 4365 
Beauty, Influence of, 4364 
Continental System, 3761 
Creighton's, Mrs., Views, 4037 
Customs in Many Lands — Africa, 

Domesticating a Husband, 3762 
Handsome Man as Husband, 4240 
Humour. Saving Sense of, 3881 
Husband and Children, Rival Claims, 

Ideals of Marriage, 4005 
Love in a Flat, 4112 
Matchmaking Mothers, 3760 
May and December, 3765 
Money-earning Wife, 4110 
Nets and Cages, 4366 
Partnership in Marriage, 4245 
Relations-in-law. 4243 
Tiresome Wife, 4009 
Shoes. 4092 
Veils, 3883 
Wives of Famous Men, 3763, 4242, 
Johnson, Mrs. Samuel, 4242 
Milton, Mary, Katherine, and 

Elizabeth, 4363 
Pepys, Mrs. Samuel, 3763 
Massage — Methods and Effects, 3769 
Matchmaking Mothers, 3760 
Maud, Princess of Fife, 4342, 4343 
May and December Marriages, 3765 
Meat Recipes, S2e title Kitchen and 

Medicine, 3767, 3888, 4010,. 4151, 4247, 
Ciiildren, see subheading Nursery 
Common Ailments and their Treat- 
ment, 3892, 4014, 4156, 4252 
Consumption, Prevention of, 3767 

Baby's Second Year, 4372 
Cheese, 4369 
Eggs, 4369 
Elderly People, 4374 
Facts for the Economical House- 
wife, 4369 
Fat Foods, 4368 
Jam and Butter, 4369 
Necessity of Food, 4247 
Perfect Food, 4368 
Price, Relation to Value, 4248 
Teething, Importance in, 3771 
Value of Different Foods, 4247, 4248 

Mkdicine — Continued 
Diet— Continued 

Vegetarian's Mistake, 4248 
Winter, 3889 
Laughter, Medicine of, 4010 
Nursery, Health and Hygiene in, 
3771 3772, 3894, 4016, 4155, 
4251, 4370, 4372 
Baby's First Year, 3771, 3894, 4016 
Baby's Second Year, 4252, 4372 
Chilblains, Prevention and Cure, 
Games for Girls, 3772 [4370 

Glands, Enlarged, 4251 
Naughty Children, 4155 
Diet, 4155 

Eyesight and Nerves, 4155 
Punishment, Question of Aboli- 
tion, 4155 
School, Punishment at, 4156 
Toothache, Prevention and Cure, 
Nursing, Home Nursing, 3769, 3890, 

4012, 4153, 4250, 4373 
Singing as Means of Health, 4174 

for details, see title Nm-sing 
Tiredness — Causes, 4151 
Winter, Healthy Home in, 3888 
Women Doctors, 4378 
Melba, Mme., 4018 
Mending, Bag for, 4178 
Mexican Hairless Dog, 4415 
Meyer, Baroness de, 3895 
Michaelis, Mme. Karin, 3776 
Middle-age, Fascination of 
Man of Forty, 3753 
Woman of Forty, 4361 
Milk, Tubercular Milk, 3768 
Millinery, 3712, 3832, 4188, 4316 
Florestore Flowers for, 4316 
Quaker Influence, 4188 
Toques, 3712 

Winter, Hat Trimmings for, 3832 
Milton, Mary, Katherine, and Elizabeth, 

Miropowlski, Mile., 4261, 4376 
Money-earning Wife, 4110 
Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, 4328 
Motherhood and Religion— Sayings by 
Dr. Cosmo Gordon Lang and Dr. 
Handley Glynn Moule, 4161 
Mothers' Union, 4035 
Motoring for Women, 4404 
Mountaineering— Triumph of Woman, 

3901, 4021 
Muff Dogs, 3933 
Muffs, 4322 
Musgrave, Mrs., 4257 
Music, 3794, 4039, 4171, 4279, 4399 
'Cello Playing, 4398, 4399 
Concert Lovers, Culture for. 4175 
Cantata and Oratorio— Difference, 

Chamber Music, 4176 
Concerto, Characteristics, 4175 
Recital Programme, 4176 
Solo, Development of, 4176 
Symphony, History of, 4176 
Handel—" The Child Handel," 4170 
Opera, How to Succeed in, 3794 
Pianoforte Teaching, 4039 
Reading at Sight, 4174 

Breathing Problem, 4172 
Dancing, Value of, 4173 
Health, Means of, 4174 
Opening Mouth, 4172 
Short Practices Essential, 4172 
Songs, Choice of, 4174 
Teaching of, 4205 
Triumph of Woman, 4378 
Stories of Famous Compositions — 

" Faust," 4279 
V'\m-e to Study— London College of 
Music, 4403 


Christian Names for Girls, 3740, 3860, 

398lt, 4233, 4341 
Surnames, 4345 
Nattelina Coiffure, 3954 
Nauheim and A'apour Baths, 4250 
Navvies, Work Among — Navvy Mission 
and Christian Excavators' l^nion, 
3917, 4159 
Needham, Mme. Ahcia Adelaide, 4378 
Needlework. 3697, 3817, 3937, 4074, 
4177, 4309 
Apples in Design, 3824 

Needlework — Continued 
Bead Embroidery, 3703 
Braid in Needlework, 4078 _ 
Ciiildren— Right and Wrong ways 

to Sew, 3981 
Coins, Making Patterns with, 4076 
Cretonne and Net Cushion Cover, 


Gold and Silver Crochet, 3700 
Tea-cloth, Pattern for, 4182 
Durbar Embroidery, 3817 
Embroidery Stitches, 3822, 3942, 
4080, 4181 
Canvas-work, 3822 
Coral Stitch, Snail Trail or German 

Knot, 4181 
Couching and Laid Work, 4080 
Double Braid Stitch, 4181 
Interlaced, 3942 
Rope Stitch, 4181 
Surface Stitches, 3942 
Trellis Stitch, 3942 
Flowers in Florestore for Millinery. 

Garland Design, 4309 
Nature, Embroidering from, 3697 
Patchwork and its Uses, 4179 

Cushion Covers, 4180 
Peter Pan Needle Pictures, 4074 
Portable Workbasket and Stand 
4082 ^ 

Shadow Embroidery, 3937 
Things Most People Throw Away, 

Uses for— Old Hats, 4083 
Waistcoats, Fancy, 4313 

Bijou Bag, 4179 
Granny Bag, 4177 
Mending, Bag for, 4178 
Newspapers, Uses for Old. 4209 
" ' Nobody asked you, sir,' she said," 

Novelists, Women Novelists, 4126, 4401 

Home Nursing, 3769, 3894, 4012, 4250, 
4370, 4372 
Bandaging, 3772, 4014, 4154, 4249 
Breast. 4014 
Foot, 3772 
Head, 4154 
Thigh, 4249 

Bran Baths, Mustard Baths, etc.. 

Hot and Cold Packs, 4250 
Nauheim and Vapour Baths, 

Sea-water Bathing, 4251 
Dogs, 4053 
Elderly People, 4373 
Diet, 4374 
Eczema, 4374 
Electric Appliances, 4374 
Joint and Rheumatic Affections, 

Respiratory Affections, 4373 
Heart Cases, 3890 
Infants, 4153 
Bed, 4153 
Convulsions, 4153 
First Signs of Illness, 4153 
Intestinal Conditions, 4153 
Massage — Methods and Effects 

Minor Aches and Pains, 4012 
Backache, 4012 
Colic, 4013 
Earache, 4013 
Headache, 4013 
Toot hn Che, 4013 
Triumph of Woman, 4380 
Nursing Homes — Occupation for 
Women, 3875 

Occasional Tables, 3963 
•' Off for the Honeymoon," 4060 
O'Hagan, Lady, 4021 
Oil Heatuig Stoves, 4207 

Management. 4306 
Old China, see China 
Old Men as Husbands, 3765 
One-step Dance, 4336 
Opera, How to Succeed in, 3795 
Orczy, Baroness, 4121 
Out-of-door Girl, 4225 
Owners' Liability, see Law — Landlord 
and Tenant. 


Painting, see Drawing and Painting 
Palaces, Royal, Romances of, 3863, 

4103, 4221 
Papillon or Butterfly Dog, 4415 
Paradise Fish, Chinese, 4169 
Pasture, Mrs. H. de la, 4257 
Patch, Story of, 3718 
Patchwork and its Uses, 4179 
Patterson, Miss Annie W., 4378 
Patti, Mme., 3776 
Paying Guests, Hostess of — Occupation 

for Women, 3758 
Peary, Mrs., 3901 
Peck, Miss Annie, 4120 
Pepys, Mrs. Samuel, 3763 
Peter Pan Needle Pictures, 4074 
Pets, 3813, 3933, 4053, 4166, 4288, 4431 
Cats— Manx Cats, 4166 
Chinese Paradise Fish, 4160 
Civet Cats, 4168 
Dogs, 3813, 4053, 4413 

Ailing Dogs, Care of, 4053 

Boston Terrier, 4413 

Chihuahua, 4415 

Dingo, 4416 

Education of a Companion Dop. 

French Bulldog, 3813 

Griffon. 4414 

Italian Greyhound, 4414 

Mexican Hairless Dog, 4415 

Papillon or Butterfly Dog, 4415 

Toy Dogs and Muff Dogs, 3933 
Japanese Goldfish, 3935, 4056 
Pigeons, Fancy — Turbit Pigeon, 4288 
Rabbits, Fancy Rabbits, 3815 

Flemish Giant, 3816 

Himalayan, 3815 
Squirrels, Foreign, 4055 
Petzold, Rev. Gertrude von, 4378 
Phlebitis— Cause and Treatment, 3892 

Career for Women, 4234 
Retouching and Finishing Photo- 
graphs, 4001 
Phthisis — Cause and Treatment, 3892 
Pianists — Triumph of Woman, 4378 
Pianoforte Teaching, 4039 
Famous Pictvu-es by Women, 4038, 

" First Audience, The," 4038 

" Riders, The," 4274 
Love Scenes, 3746, 3868, 3990, 4066, 
4212, 4348 

" Country Neighbours," 4348 

" In Love," 3990 

" ' Nobody asked you, sir,' she 
said," 4212 

" Off for the Honeymoon," 4066 

" To Bring the Roses Back," 3746 
Religious Pictures by Women, 4034, 
4158, 4280 

" Annunciation, The," 4280 

" Door of the Fold, The," 4158- 

" Salvator Mundi," 4034 
Pigeon Breast — Cause and Treatment, 

Pigeons as Pets, 4288 
Piles — Cause and Treatment, 3893 
Pillow-cases and Shams, 4062 
Pinxton Porcelains, 3968 
Playwrights, Women as, 4257 
Pleasure as Medicine, 4010 
Pleurisy — Cause and Treatment, 4014 
Pneumonia — Cause and Treatment, 

Pocket Money for Children, 4230 
Poets, Women Poets, 4277 
Poisoning, Cause and Treatment, 4015 
Pole-Carew, Lady Beatrice, to lace 

Portable Workbasket and Stand, 4082 
Poultry Cooking — Recipes, see title 

Kitchen and Cookery 
Poultry Farming for Women, 3759, 

Preachers, Women as, 4378 
Presentation at Court, 3982, 3983 
Princess Louise, H.R.H., Duchess of 

Argyll, 4256 
Princess Maud of Fife, 4342, 4343 . 
Proverbs — English Love Proverbs, 3874 
Prussia, Princess Victoria Louise of, 

Public Speaking — Triumph of Woiran, 

4261, 4377 
Pyaemia — Cause and Treatment. 4156 

Quaker Influence in Dress, 4185 
Queen Mary — Work for the Destitute, 

3801, 3915 
Queens of the World — Queen Eleonore 

of Bulgaria, 3777 

Rabbits as Pets, 3815 

Raffia Baskets, Making, 4049 

Railway Accident, Effects — Treatment, 

Raimond, C. E., 4401 
Rashes — Cause and Treatment, 4156 
Reading — Right and Wrong Ways, 

Recipes, «ee title Kitchen and Cookery 
Recreations, 3804, 3924, 4049, 4139, 
4292, 4404 . 
Book-carriers, How to Make, 4143 
Calendars, How to Make, 3927 
Marquetry, 4406 — French Polishing, 

Motoring, 4404 

Choice of Car, 4405 
Cost, 4405 
Raffia Baskets, Making, 4049 
Roller Skating — Figures, ttc, 4139, 
Both Feet, Importance of Equal 

Use, 4296 
Bracket Turns, 4295 
Counter, 4296 
Drop Three Waltz, 4292 
English and International Skating, 

Forward Outside Edge, 4141 
Inside Edge, 4142 
Inside Mohawk, 4298 
One Foot Eight, 4294 
Outside Back Edge, 4142 
Rocker, 4295 
Stopping, 4294 
Style, Importance of, 4139 
Two-step Waltz, 4293 
Skating on Ice, 3804, 3924, 4051 
Figures, 3806, 3808, 3924, 4051 
Free Skating, 4051 
Pair Skating, 4052 
Styles, 3806 
Refraction, Errors of — Cause and Treat- 
ment, 4157 
Re jane, Mme., 3896 
Relations-in-law, 4243 
Religion — Practical Christianity, etc., 
3801, 3915, 4035, 4159, 4281, 4395 
Creighton, Mrs., and Britain's Homes, 

Motherhood and Religion — Sayings 
by Dr. Cosmo Gordon Lang and Dr. 
Handley Glynn Moule, 4161 
Mothers' Union, 4035 
Navvies, Work Among, 3917, 4159 
Queen Mary and Her Work for the 

Destitute, 3801, 3915 
Religious Pictures by Women 
" Annunciation, The," 4280 
" Door of the Fold, The," 4158 
" Salvator Mundi," 4034 
St. Helier's, Lady, Work for Poor of 

London, 4281 
Women's University Settlement, 4395 

Chronic — Cause and Treatment, 4252 
Muscular — Cause and Treatment, 

Rheumatic Fever or Acute Rheu- 
matism, 4157 
Rheumatoid Arthritis — Cause and 

Treatment, 4253 
Rickets — Cause and Treatment, 4253 
Ridding, Lady Laura, 4121 
" Riders, The," 4274 
Ringworm — Cause and Treatment, 4252 
Robilliard, Miss Marianne H. W., 4125 
Robins, Miss Elizabeth, 4401 
Roby, Mrs. Marguerite, 3898 
Rodent Ulcer — Cause and Treatment, 

Roller Skating, 4139, 4292 
Romances of Royal Palaces, 3863, 

4103, 4221 
Rossetti, Christina, 4127 
Round Worms — Cause and Treatment, 

Royal Academy Schools of Fine Art, 

Rupture or Hernia— €au6^ and Treat- 
ment, 4254 
Ryley, Mrs., 4257 

SackviUe, Lady Margaret, 4278 

St. Helier, Lady— W ork Among Poor <. ( 

London, 4281 
Salutations— Parisian Etiquette, 3987, Maid of, 4381, 4382 
Scar— Cause and Treatment, 4254 
Scharlieb, Dr. Mary, 4255 
Schumann, Mme. Clara, 4378 
Scientists— Triumph of Woman, 4(122 
Screens, Renovation of Old, 4(1.07 
Sea-water Bathing, 4251 
Sears, Miss Eleanor, 4121 
Second Marriages, 3766 
Sembrich, Mme. Marcella, 4120 
Sewing— Right and Wrong Ways, 3981 
Shades for Electric Light, 3731 
Shadow Embroidery, 3937 
Shaw, Dr. Anna, 4378 
Sheldon, Mrs. French, 3898 
Shoes, see Dress 

Shorter, Mrs. Dora Sigerson, 4278 
Singing, «ee Music 

Ice, Skating on, 3804, 3924, 4051 

Roller Skating, 4139, 4292 
Skipping, 3773 

Fancy Skipping for Children, 397? 
Smyth, Dr. Ethel, 4378 
Societies which Help Women and Chil- 
dren, 3782, 3902 
Somerset, Lady Henry, 4377 
Spode Pottery and Porcelain, 4063 
Sponges, Bulb-growing on, 4284 
Scjuirrels, Foreign, as Pets, 4055 
Stage — Triumph of Woman, 4257 
Standard Bread Crusade, 3768 
Stanhope, Lady Hester, 3836, 4022 
Starr, Louisa, 4125 
Stevenson, Robert Louis — Love Story. 

Stoppers, Removing, 3853 
Stoves for Heating, 3727, 3966 

Gas Stoves and Electrical Heaters^ 
see those titles 

Management, 4305 

Open Grates, see Fire Grates 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 4126 
Surnames and their Story, 4325 
Suttner, Baroness von, 3896 
Sweets — Recipes, see title Kitchen and 

Swimming for Children, 3773 

Table Linen, 4210 

Table Manners — Parisian Etiquette, 

Table Napkins, Folding, 3728 
Tables, Occasional Tables, 39C3 
Taxes — Law as to Landlord's and 

Tenant's Taxes, 4032 
Tea-gowns, 3826 
Teeth, Care of, 3721 
Teething, 3771 

Theatre — Triumph of Woman, 4257 
Things Most People Tlirow Away, 

Uses for— Old Hats, 4083 
Thompson, Elizabeth (Lady Butler), 

Tiredness, Causes of, 4151 
Tiresome Wife, 4009 
•* To Bring the Roses Back," 3746 
Nursing, 4013 
Prevention and Cure, 4371 
Toques, 3712 
Torby, Countess Zia, 4235 
Torksey Porcelains, 3971 
Towels, 4062 
Toy Dogs, 3933 
•' Tristram Shandy," Love Passage 

from, 4071 
Triumph of Woman, 3897, 4019, 4124, 

4257, 4377 
loT details, see title World of Women 
Turbit Pigeon, 4288 
Tynan, Katherine, 4277 


University Education lor Women, 4258 
Unrequited Love, 3997 


Vegetarian Cookery, see Kitchen and 
Cooliery — Lenten Fare and Meat- 
less Cookery 

Vegetarian's Mistake, 4248 

Velvet Neckband, 4324 

Vernon, Dorothy, of Haddon Hall, 3715 

" Victoria Regina," 3862 

Vocalists— Triumph of Woman, 4378 

Vogt, Frau, 4379 

Waistcoats, Fancy, 4313 

*• Wait a Minute," 4226 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry, 4127 

" We Are But Little Children Weak," 

Weddings, see title Marriage 
Wentworth, Baroness, 4278 
Who's Who, 3775, 3895, 4017, 4120, 

4255, 4375 
Williams, Miss Margaret Lindsay, 4124, 

Wills, Law as to, 4393 
Wimborne, Lady, 3896 

Clothes for, 3829, 3944 
Diet, 3889 

Healthy Home in, 3888 
Wives of Famous Men, see Marriage 
Woman of Forty, Fascination of, 4361 
Women in Great Social Positions — Wife 

of First Lord of the Admiralty. 

Women's University Settlement, 4395 
Wood, Mrs: Henry, 4127 
Work — Occupations for Women, 3754, 

3875, 3999, 4114, 4239, 4355 
Agency for Governesses and Teachers, 

Work— Continued 
"Antique "Shop, How to Rm an, 
Baby-linen Outfitters, 3756 [4359 
Boarding-house Keeper, 3877 
Children's Care Committees, 

Organisers of, 4355 
Circulating Library, Management of, 

Companion — Paid Companion, 4114 
Convalescents, Homes for, 4003 
French Gardening, see title Gardens 

and Gardening 
Fruit Culture, see title Gardens and 

Goat Farming, 4358 
Hairdressing, 4239 
Labour Exchanges, Opening for 

Women Workers, 4118 
Manicurist, How to Become, 3754 
Nursing Homes, 3875 
Paying Guests, Hostess of, 3758 
Career for Women, 4234 
Retouching and Finishing, 4001 
Poultry Farming, 3759, 3880 
Cleanliness, 3759 
Economise, 3880 
Hot Weather Precautions, 3880 
Method Needed, 3880 
Overcrowding, 3759 
Ventilation, 3759 
Workbags, 4177 
Workbasket and Stand, 4082 
Workmen's Dwellings, Law as to 

Owner's Liability, 4272 
Workman, Mrs. Bullock, 3901, 4021 
World of Women, 3775, 3895, 4017, 
4120, 4255, 4375 
Explorers, Famous Lady Explorers, 

Heroines of History 
Derby, Countess of, 4122 

World of Women — Continued 
Heroines of History — Continued 
Fry, Elizabeth, 4262 
Joan of Arc, 3780, 3781 
Maid of Saragossa, 4381, 4382 
Queens of the World — Queen Eleonore 

of Bulgaria, 3777 
Societies which Help Women and Chil- 
dren, 3782, 3902 
" Forget-me-not Club," 3902 
Y.W.C.A. Foreign Department,3782 
Triumph of Woman, 3897, 4019, 4124, 
4257, 4377 
Acting, 4257 
Aviation, 4020 
Chemistry, 4380 
Dentistry, 4380 
Headmistresses, 4260 
Higher Education of Women, 

Pioneers of, 4258, 4260 
Law — Woman Barrister, 4261 
Literature, 4126 
Medicine, 4378 
Mountaineering, 4021 
Music, 4378 
Nursing, 4380 
Painting, 4124 
Pianists, 4378 
Playwrights, 4257 
Preaching, 4378 
Public Speaking, 4261, 4377 
Science, 4022 

University Education, 4258 
Vocalists, 4378 
Who's Who, 3775, 3895, 4017, 4120, 
4255, 4375 
Writing— Right and Wrong Ways, 3981 
" Wuthering Heights," 3922 

Young Women's Christian Association — 
Foreign Department, 3782 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclop/edia forms a practical and lucid guide to the many 

branches of needlework. It is fully illustrated by diagrams and photographs, and, as in other 

sections of this book, the directions given are put to a practical test before they are printed. Among 

the subjects dealt with are : 


Knit ling 

Darning with a Sewing 

Embroidered Collars and 





What can be done with 

Lace Work 

Art Patchwork 


Dj-azun Thread Work 

Plain Needlework 

Gertnan Appliqui Work 



Motiogram Designs^ 


Sewing Machines 

etc., etc. 


Needle Pictures — Wealth of Designs in Field and Hedgerow — The Colours of Nature's Palette — 
The Single Blossoms — Garlands and Wreaths — Iris and Apple Blossom 

'There are few 
women who do 
not enjoy embellishing 
their linen and other 
household equipment, 
giving it an individual- 
ity by means of cun- 
ning stitchery. 

Sometimes artistic 
training . enables the 
embroideress to design 
her own patterns, in 
which case she is 
happ5^ in securing 
originality as well as 
beauty for her work. 

It is not everyone, 
however, who has the 
gift and the brains to 
bend to her use the 
forms of flower, leaf, 
or seed pod, and, while 
observing certain con- 
ventions, obtain a 
result which is suitable 
for embroidery. 

This highest form of 
pattern-making re- 
quires considerable 
skill, and it is for 
those who are not 
gifted in this way 
that this article is 

Most people can 

D 26 

The beautfiul pale blue flowers of love'in-a-mist, with their filmy, 

grey'grecn leaves, offer a difficult but unusual and charming 

opportunity for the needlewoman 

copy with pencil and 
pen simple forms im- 
mediately before 
them, so that for the 
woman who wishes to 
embroider from Nature 
the work is not 
difficult, and there will 
be a certain freshness 
of colouring and 
veracity in line that 
gives to Nature em- 
broidery an undeniable 

The Brilliant Colour of 
Freshly Gathered Flowers 

The handful of 
sweet-peas that is 
gathered from the 
garden may be laid 
on the table and 
sketched on to a piece 
of linen. Then, while 
the colours are fresh 
and bright, the bag of 
silks should be 
brought out, and the 
man}? shades carefully 
matched. If some 
harmonies are want- 
ing, it is easy to take 
the flower to a shop 
and get a colour as 
near to Nature's 
painting as possible. 


A fine example of skilled needlecraft. The application of love-iri'a-rlnist as a 
design for embroidering a tablecloth 

Flat colouring with few tones and 
distinct outline is effective, but in 
natural embroidery many shaded 
effects are permissible rather than 
the conventional outline and fiat 

The Easy Singfle Blossom Patterns 

The worker who has not had much 
experience might begin with a single 
blossom, such as a pansy. This can 
be repeated at regular intervals, so 
that a surface powdered with the 
flowers will be obtained. The effect 
is excellent, with comparatively little 
effort in drawing. 

With such a pattern the colour of 

A group of iris and foi 

How the iris can be adapted successfully for a 

decorative piece of needlework. This design shows the 

value of careful selection on the part of the worker 

the flower might be varied, and 
purple, mauve, yellow, orange, and 
tawny brown introduced with good 

The tender message of the 
" pensee " always makes it a suitable 
embellishment ior a gift, while tiny 
editions of the flower give us the 
wild pansy and old-fashioned viola 
to perfection. 

Wild flowers, such as the blue 
cornflower, wild rose, or blazing 
poppy, are good subjects for copying 
with the needle, and serve as 
permanent reminders of a pleasant 
ramble in a country field or lane. 


spray of apple blossom 

subject which 


garland form. The richly tinted 
Virginia creeper, with its green, 
orange-rose, and deep reds, would 
be handsome, while blackberry, 
wild rose, or briony can be worked 
with good effect. 

It. is better to have an iris 
blossom only one inch in size, 
and with a fcur-inch stalk, and 
leaves, than a full-sized flower and 
only a small, short stalk. The 
example illustrated shows this clearly 
worked on a piece of linen, nine 
inches long and three and a half 
in width. 

Love-in-a-mist is a very pretty, 
old-fashioned flower. Its grey-green 
foliage and pale blue petalled centre 
make a very pretty and unusual 
colouring for the elaborate tablecloth 
in the illustration. 

Apple blossom is so beautiful that 
it is welcome with its pink and white 
suggestion of spring freshness, and 
loveUest when embroidered -in its 
natural colours on a blue Roman 
satin background, which suggests 
the sky against which we see it 

In such choice of details lies the 
success of Nature embroidery, and 
it helps to make this work a very 
pleasant hobb3^ 

The Difficult Buncli Effect 

Only a skilled embroideress should 
attempt a bunch of flowers in 
needlework, for very careful drawing 
is necessary to obtain the grouped 
yet not too crowded effect. 

A large mass of colours and 
stitches is very apt to look muddled, 
and the art of not seeing too much is 
one to be acquired with practice. 

To know how to omit unessential 
details, and the lines and shades 
which are there, but which are un- 
necessary for the success of the 
pattern, can only be learnt by con- 
siderable practice, and it is certainly 
better for the beginner to confine 
herself at first to single-blossom 

Wreaths and Garlands 

This advice applies also to em- 
broidering garlands or wreaths. 
It is a somewhat difficult matter 
from Nature, and should not be 
attempted without previous know- 
ledge of drawing. If a garland design 
is required, single blossoms, such as 
forget-me-nots, or single leaves, such 
as the pointed bay or rounded 
laurel, can be worked, each leaf 
overlapping the former one slightly, 
so that a formal garland effect is 

Sprays treated in the natural 
manner can be embroidered in 

A study of apple blossorii 

n:.U'e, embroidered in colour upon a blue 



The Possibilities of a Metal Thread— Combination of Gold with Copper — A Dainty Lace in Silver 
Thread— Suggestions for Trimming a Blouse — A Medallion in Gold 

'The artistic 

^ possibilities 
of metallic 
laces and in- 
sertions must 
be seen to be 
fully appreci- 
ated. The 
b 1 a c k - a ri d - 
white . repro- 
duction fails to 
give due effect 
to the gold, 
silver, and 
copper threads 
of which they 
are composed. 
M e t alii c 
threads may 
be used in 
many ways, 
and always 
with the hap- 
piest results. 
loosely with a 
bone hook, the 
work is quick- 
ly done ; or a 
fine hook may 
be used, pro- 
d u c i n g a 
durable trim- 

Gold and ^'S- '• Copper and old gold threads used 

"ilver embroi '" ^°'^bination for a trimming and wheels 

dcries are somewhat costly to buy, but 
the thread itself can be obtained quite 
cheaply — from 6d. to gd. the ounce — and in 
clever fingers may be worked up into hand- 
some effects. 

Quite simple crochet patterns can be taken, 
and, indeed, give the best results, for the 
thread must not be drawn tightly, as when 
using cotton. 

Old gold and copper used in combination 
arc shown in Fig. i, the trimming thus 
obtained being indicated on the blouse 

The method of working is as follows : 

With copper-coloured thread, and a 
medium-sized bone crochet-hook, work 9 
ch. In the 6th ch. from hook, crochet 2 tr., 
2 ch., 2 tr. Miss 2 ch., and work 2 ch., then 
2 tr. in next ch.. Turn with * 3 ch. In the 
ist hole formed by 2 ch., work 2 tr. Crochet 
2 ch., and in the 2nd hole work 2 tr., 2 ch., 
and 2 tr. Turn with 3 ch. In the ist hole, 
work 2 tr., 2 ch., and 2 tr. ; 2 ch., then 2 tr. 
in the next hole. Repeat from *. 

When a sufficient length has been com- 
pleted, an edging of old gold thread is added 
by working in the space of the ist scallop 
* 2 d.c, 2 ch., 2 d.c, 2 ch., 2 d.c, 2 ch., 
2 d.c. Crochet 3 ch., and join next space 

with a d.c. stitch ; 3 ch., and continue from *. 

To enhance the colour scheme, a length of 
chain, worked in old gold thread, is after- 
wards threaded in and out of the pattern 
but this can be omitted, if desired. 

The wheels or discs are carried out in the 
same threads, the working of the colours 
only being reversed. 

Take the old gold thread, and wind it 
14 times round the bone hook ; carefully 
remove same with finger and thumb, then 
with a steel hook, size 4^, work d.c. stitches 
in and out of the hole until the ring is 

2nd row : Work 4 ch., then crochet i tr. 
into the ist ch., i ch. ; i tr. into next ch. 
Continue all round. To fasten off, do a d.c. 
into the end of 4 ch. 

^rd row : With copper-coloured thread^ 
work d.c. stitches all round. 

As will be seen from the illustration, the 
trimming is laid on the material to the 
edge, and the discs may be placed on the 

Blouse or dress bodice trimmed with gold and copper lace. The 
under sleeves and vest may also be made in this pretty work 



sleeves, and at the 
waist, and used in 
place of buttons. 

Fig. 2 is an ex- 
ceedingly hand- 
some design. It is 
worked in steel 
thread, while the de- 
sign adjoining is of 
the same pattern, 
only of wider width, 
and is done in silver 
thread ; and a me- 
d i u ra-s i z e d bone 
hook is used instead 
of a steel one. 

The silver thread 
is the most effective 
on white, and is very 
suitable for smart 

Crochet 14 ch. In 
the 7th ch. from 
hook work a d.c, 
then 3 ch., i d.c, 3 
ch., I d.c, 3 ch., I 
d.c. Work 6 ch., 
and join in last 
chain-stitch with 1 
d.c, and in the same 
loop work 3 ch., i 
d.c. 3 ch., I d.c, 3 

A handsome design worked in steel thread. The lower example is the same design in silver 
thread and wider, a bone hook having been used 

ch., I d.c Turn with * 6 ch. In the centre 
hole of the ist group of 3 of previous row, 
work I d.c, 3 ch., i d.c, 3 ch., i d.c, 3 ch., i 
d.c, 6 ch. ; i d.c. in the middle of next 
group, 3 ch., I d.c, 3 ch., i d.c, 3 ch., i 
d.c. Repeat from *. 

Fig. 3. This insertion is done in old 
gold thread, and is worked with a steel 
hook,, size 4I. 

Commence with 22 ch. In the gth ch. 
from hook, work a d.c. Miss 3 ch., and in 
the 4th stitch work 7 long tr. Miss 4 ch., 
and in the 5th ch. work 7 long tr. Miss 
3 ch., and in the 4th work a d.c, 3 ch., 
I tr. Turn with 9 ch., * i d.c. into the space 

Fig. 3. An insertion in old gold thread worked on a steel hook 

formed by the 3 ch., 7 long tr., in the 4th 
stitch of 7 long tr. of previous row ; 7 long 
tr. in centre of next group ; i d.c in the 
last space, with 3 ch. and i tr., 9 ch. Turn, 
and repeat from *. 

Fig. 4. This pattern looks best worked 
in old gold thread, with the edges in a copper 
shade, using a steel hook, size 4^. 

Work 20 ch., I tr. in the^ 7th stitch 
from hook, i tr. in each of the next 2 
stitches, 2 ch. Miss 2 loops, and work i tr. 
in each of the next 3 — 2 ch. — miss 2 stitches, 
I tr. in each of the next 3 stitches, 3 ch., and 
again i tr. in the last stitch. Turn with 6 ch. 
* I tr. in the ist space just made, also 3 ch. 
and 3 tr. ; 2 ch., then 3 tr. in 
the next space ; 2 ch., and 3 tr. 
in the next space. Turn \\ ith 
6 ch. 3 tr. in the ist space, 
2 ch., 3 tr. in the next ; 2 
ch., 3 tr. in the next, then 3 
ch. and i tr. in the same 
space. Turn with 6 ch., and 
repeat from *. 

For the edges, work * 4 d.c 
into each hole, with 3 ch. 
between ; then 5 ch., which 
join into space between 
holes — 5 ch. — then continue 
from *. 

Fig. 5. This is the 
simplest design of all to 
work, and, besides its use as a 
trimming, it is particularly 
suitable for large fillings, 
such as yokes, sleeves, etc 
Use a rnedium-sized bone 



Fig- 4. Worked in old gold, with the edges in 
copper thread, a pretty effect is produced 

Make a chain according to the necessary 
width, and then work i tr. into the 4th 
ch. stitch from hook, i tr. into next ch. 
Crochet 2 ch., miss 2 ch.^ and again work 
2 tr. Con- 
tinue to end 
of row. Turn 
with 3 or 4 
ch. Work 

treble stitches 
of proceeding 
rows into 
each space. 

The edging 
consists of 5 
tr. and i d.c. 
in each space. 

If it is de- 
sired to work 
a yoke in a 
closer design 
than that 
described , 
this can be 
done by cro- 
cheting it to 
shape in 
double cro- 
chet stitches 
over a brown 
paper pat- 

Fig. 6 is a 
m edallion 
worked in 
gold thread. 
Use a steel 

hook, size 4^. pig. 5. A very simple but effective design 

Medallion in gold thread. An exceedingly pretty form of dress 

Wind the thread 35 or 40 times round a 
lead pencil, and work d.c. stitches all round, 
as instructed in Fig. i. 

2nd row : 6 ch., i d.c. into third chain 
from hook ; 6 ch. i d.c. into 3rd ch. ; 
3 ch. Miss 2 of the foundation chain, and 
work a d.c. into the 3rd stitch. Work 
8 of these spaces round the ring. 

Srd roiv : 
This is the 
same as the 
2nd row, 
with the 
e X c e p tion 
that the 

spaces are 
worked a 

little larger. 

4th row : 6 
ch., I d.c. 
into 3rd ch. 
6 ch., I d.c 
into 3rd ch. 
6 ch., 1 d.c 
into 3rd ch. 
3ch., and join 
into next 

These me- 
dallions can 
be used for 
many forms 
of trimming, 
and can 
also be 
worked in 
any colour to 
with the 
articles they 
are intended 

for an alUover lace for yokes or sleeves ^^ aaom. 





Bead ' embroidered .Chamois Leather Slippers — Bead Collar — Bead - embroidered Muffs — The 
Clematis Design— Black Satin Muff with Blue Lining— A Delightful Fancy for Evening Wear— As 

Worn in Paris 

P ASTERN embroideries make a great appeal 
^ to those who are blessed with imagina- 
tion and a love of the Oriental. There is 
something curiously fascinating about such 
work. The wealth and luxuriant beauty of 
gold and silver, crystal and turquoise, sends 
one back to the vivid splendours and glories 
reminiscent of the "• Arabian Nights." 

Women with appreciation for colour con- 
stantly find the collecting of Oriental em- 
broideries an absorbing and fascinating 
hobby. Later it becomes still more fascinat- 
ing, when ideas for the modern require- 
ments of their own frivolous chiffons can be 
from the 
East. But 
elaborate de- 
signs on silk 
for gowns are 
not the only 
used by the 
woman of 
this century. 

A dainty 
slipper made 
of chamois 
leather, and 
with minute 
Indian beads, 
could quite 
well be copied 
and worn in 
the boudoir 
or bedroom. 
These pretty 
would be 
a quaint 
novelty to 
wear with an 
artistic rest 
gown, and 

they would be delightfully soft and supple 
for tired feet. 

Two chamois leather skins will make one 
pair of slippers. First of all, cut out the 
shape of the foot in paper, leaving enough 
to be brought over the instep and front of 
the foot ; then place the paper shape on the 
chamois leather, and cut it to the exact size. 
As a matter of fact, these novel slippers are 
like little bags, gathered neatly into a piece 
of silk ribbon around the ankle. A flap of 
chamois leather bound with ribbon is then 
sewn neatly at the top, and the flap forms 
the decorative portion of the slipper as it 
rests on the instep. 

Fantastic applique shapes of cerise silk 
look well on the chamois leather, and a con- 

Black sati 

ventional design of minute Indian beads 
further embellishes these bewitching Oriental 
shoes. The applique of silk can be dispensed 
with altogether if desired. 

A bead design worked in vivid turquoise 
beads with soft shades of green silk would 
look charming, when the ribbon which is 
used for binding the chamois leather should 
be of the same shade as the predominating 
colour scheme of the beads. 

A very elaborate pair of slippers could be 
made by using lustrous crystal, gold, and 
rose beads, with emerald green beads. A 
conventional design embroidered thickly 
over the en- 
tire chamois 
leather s 1 i p- 
pers is deci- 
dedly chic; 
or a design of 
flowers would 
be equally 

A t u rn- 
down collar 
composed of 
crystal and 
chalk beads, 
made over a 
years ago, is 
another old- 
wcnrld relic 
which might 
adorn the 
white throat 
of the modem 
woman with 
great success. 
It is very 
much after 
the shape of 
the popular 
Peter Pan 
collar, and 
when worn on a blouse of soft silk or 
mousseline-de-soie is both dainty and novel. 
The quickest way of making such a collar 
would be to thread on a strong crochet silk 
or cotton about fiv^ crystal beads, then two 
chalk beads, and five crystal beads, and two 
chalk beads, until sufficient have been 
threaded to form the collar, or as nearly so 
as possible. After threading the beads on the 
silk or the cotton, the silk can be wound up 
again to prevent its becoming tangled. 

Measure a portion of the bead-threaded 
cotton around the neck. This will form the 
top portion of the collar, and should be the 
size of the collar usuall}' worn. Pass five 
crystal beads along the cotton, and crochet 
the two chalk beads between the next chalk 

muff embroidered in clematis design. A dainty finish to the embroidery is given 
by sewing on scintillating beads in rose, white, and gold 



Clematis design for a muff, to be embroidered in silk and beads. To use this pattern, lay carbon paf>er on the fabric, place design upon 

it, and trace over with the point of a knitting needle 



beads ; repeat this until the first row of 
festoons is made. Turn, and again crochet 
the chalk beads between the chalk beads, and 
passing five beads along to form another 
festoon of beads. This is repeated until the 
collar is deep enough to suit the requirements 
of the wearer. Cuffs could be made in the 
same manner. 

A collar worked out in beads in shades of 
gold and turquoise would be charming and 
effective, and would form a very beautiful 
addition to a chiffon blouse. The softness of 
the chiffon seems to provide a pleasing 
surface for the glittering beads. 

Muffs are delightful when made of soft 
satin with a touch of fur and embellished 
with embroidery in 
silk and beads, or 
beads alone if de- 
sired. One yard of 
satin makes a good- 
sized muff. A black 
satin muff embroi- 
dered in silk and 
scintillating beads 
is a novel and 
useful possession. 
Satin or velvet 
bead - embroidered 
muffs are particu- 
larly suitable for 
use with a black 
satin or velvet 
coat, or a well-cut 
gown of either 
fabric. A scarf of 
black satin embroi- 
dered in beads and 
silk, described on 
page 2792, Vol. 4, 
made to match the 
muff, and edged 
with fur, would 
make a beautiful 

A clematis design 
such as is given 
here, worked in pastel shades of blue, looks at- 
tractive on black satin. Stamp or trace the 
design on to the satin, and commence the 
embroidery. The flowers are worked in satin- 
stitch in two shades of pale blue, the edges 
of the leaves are outlined in dull shades of 
green, almost a bronze green, which is 
capable of giving the effect of golden light 
playing upon the foliage. The tendrils and 
stems are worked in chain and stem-stitch. 

The work of embroidery having been 
completed, it should be well pressed with a 
warm iron on the wrong side. 

The fascinating part of embellishing the 
embroidery with beads may now be com- 
menced. The flowers are sprinkled all over 
with minute scintillating rose satin beads, 
to give just the desired warmth to the pale 
blue flowers. The beads are threaded on to 
the cotton one at a time, and sewn into posi- 
tion. When there are a sufficient number of 
beads on the surface of the flowers, draw the 
needle through the centre of the flower. 


k \ 





■# 4^ ^ .... ^. Av*' 

--'W «>- 


Chamois leather slipper worked with minute Indian beads. Turn-down 
collar formed entirely of crystal and chalk white beads 

Thread seven white satin beads, and fasten 
them down securely ; repeat this eight 
times, and it will form a pretty starlike 
design. Finish off the centre with a dull 
gold or pearl bead. 

The centres of the leaves are filled in 
solidly with dull gold or soft green beads ; 
touches of gold may also embellish the stems 
and tendrils. 

The satin can now be made up into the 
muff. It must be well padded with cotton- 
wool, and lined with black or coloured satin 
as preferred. When a black satin muff is 
lined with a soft blue silk which matches the 
flowers, a bead-embroidered muff becomes a 
thing of Oriental beauty. A border of pale 
blue is formed by 
carrying the pale 
blue lining over 
each side of the 
muff. The black 
satin is gathered 
slightly along the 
top of the muff and 
along the bottom, 
which almost gives 
the appearance of 
a wide frill. Each 
side of the muff is 
slightly gathered 
the inner side of 
the blue border. 
This gathering is 
covered by a nar- 
row strip of fur, 
and finished off at 
the bottom with 
two black tassels. 
Exquisite muffs 
are carried by 
Parisian ladies at 
the theatre or res- 
taurant, and are 
often of immense 
proportions. They 
can be made of 
the softest shades 
of pink, apricot, or turquoise satin or velvet, 
to match the evening gown with which they 
are intended to be worn, A floral or con- 
ventional design is stamped on to the fabric, 
and simply outlined in satin-stitch in soft 
shades of filoselle. The flowers may be 
thickly sewn with pearl beads, and the 
centres of the leaves with bright cut gold 
or silver beads ; whilst the stems may be 
brightened with an occasional gold or pearl 
bead. If made up in the same manner as the 
black satin muff, a narrow strip of ermine 
would look charming each side, and the 
tassels could be of gold or silk of the same 
shade as the satin or the lining. 

A muff of this description looks charming 
when made up ^at, without any gatherings 
or frills. Each side of the muff is simply 
finished off with gold galon or braid. 

It is always well to have a wide pocket 
made inside the muff. In the daytime it is 
useful to hold a purse or handkerchief, and 
in the evening a fan or opera-glasses. 



In this important section of Every Woman's Encyclop/edia every aspect of dress is being dealt 

The history of dress from earliest times is told, and 

with by practical and experienced writers, 
practical and useful information given in : 

Home Dressmaking 

Hoiv to Ctit Patterns 
J\/ethods of Self-measure- 

Colour Contrasts 

Boots and Shoes 

How to Keep in Good Condition 
Hoiv to Soften Leather, etc. 

Home Tailoring 
Representative Fashions 
Fancy Dress 

Alteration of Clothes, etc. 
I Furs 


How to Presei've, etc. 
I How to Detect F7'auds 


Lessons in Hat Trimming 
Hoiv to Make a Shape 
How to Cnrl Feathers 
Floivers, Hatpins, Colours, etc. 

Cleaning, etc. 
Jewellery, etc. 


The Simple Making Up of Dressing Gowns and Jackets— A Winter Gown — How to Scallop the 

Edges of Collar and Sleeves — An Easily made Dressing'jacket — A Silk Handkerchief Collar — The 

Advantages of a Breakfast- jacket — A Wrap for an Invalid 

HTo the amateur, the making of a dressing- 
gown or dressing- jacket is a much 
easier affair than making a dress. There is 
no particular fit required, except on the 
shoulders, and the cut is not so important as 
that of a bodice or coat. 

A pretty design, neat work, and careful 
finish are the chief things required ; given 
these, a successful garment may be achieved 
with very little trouble. 

In these days of ready-made clothing, 
some people consider it waste of time to 
make a negligee ; but a home-made article 
has these advantages over a bought one — 
better material will be obtained, better work, 
and a more distinctive note in the design. 

Most women have their own particular 
fancies in these matters, as well as in the 
m.ore important items of their wardrobe. 
Then, too, so many of the negligees one buys 
are cut low in the neck, and this in cold 
weather, or when the negligee has to be worn 
by an invalid, is not an advantage. 

How the handkerchief should be folded if a collar is to be made 
from it 

A Winter Dressingf-j^own 

The accompanying design could be carried 
out in any material, but is most suitable for 
a warm winter gown of flannel, cashmere, or 
any other soft-falling fabric. 

A pretty scheme of colour would be a soft 
old rose cashmere, with frills of black silk or 
satin, finished off with black satin ribbons. 

Or an electric blue might be chosen, 
trimmed with silk frills of electric blue, 
spotted with white. In this case, the ribbons 
should be blue. 

Some women always prefer a light washing 
material for dressing-gowns, whatever the 
season is ; with such materials a bodice part 
of broderie anglaise would be pretty, with 
frills of lace. 

With thicker materials, the collar, sleeves, 
and bodice part should be embroidered with 
silk, the same colour as the frills, and should 
be worked before they are made up. 

For this purpose, transfer designs may be 
used, which can be ironed off on to the 

material. A 
simple floral 
spray should 
be chosen, 
not too 
and the de- 
sign worked 
in embroid- 
ery silk. The 

The dotted line on the diagram shows how edge of the 
a piece is to be cut from the folded handker- ,- #^ 1 1 o r n n H 
chief to form a neck opening C O 1 1 a r a n U 



sleeves can oe scalloped if desired ; this can 
be marked out in the following way : 

After the collar and sleeves are cut out, 
take a penny and place it on the material, so 
that the edge of the coin comes about a 
quarter of an inch inside the edge of the 
collar. Then, with a pencil, mark a semi- 
circle, move the penny a little higher, and 
describe another 
semicircle ; this 
will give a double 
scallop, which can 
be repeated all 
round the edge. 
These scallops can 
then be worked in 
silk with button- 
hole-stitch, the 
material being cut 
away close to the 
worked edge. 

If the material 
frays too easily to 
scallop well, the 
edge can be hem- 
stitched, or plainly 
hemmed and orna- 
mented with 
French knots. 

The shape of the 
gown shown is 
somewhat novel, 
but should present 
no great difficulty 
to the home 
worker. It has a 
Magyar top, which 
could be cut from 
a pattern of a 
Magyar blouse, 
allowing double the 
length of the sleeve 
if this is desired to 
be long. The pat- 
tern should be cut 
off below the bust, 
and shaped as illus- 
trated, taking all 
superfluous f u 1 - 
ness into the seam 
under the arm. 

The lower part, 
or skirt, is cut with 
a back and two 
front pieces. 

The bodice part 
should be lined, as 
it fits and wears 
better so, and the 
lower part can be 
put on either 
gathered or in 
pleats. The bodice 
part should be placed over the lower part, 
and may have 'a piping of silk or be 
plainly stitched, and French knots worked 
along the stitching. The frills can be carried 
down the front if desired, or it can be left 
plain, in which case the loops and ends of rib- 
bon fastening the collar should be fairly long. 

A charming dressing-gown in old rose cashmere, with frills of black silk or 
satin, finished with black satin ribbons. A simple floral design worked in 
embroidery silk would be effective on sleeves, bodice, and the dainty little cap 

A Simple Dressing-jacket 

The making of a dressing- jacket is a still 
more simple affair than the making of a 

As it is generally worn only for a short 

time while dressing the hair and finishing the 

toilette, it should be simple in construction 

and perfectly easy, allowing full play to the 

movement of the 


The kimono 
shape is exceed- 
ingly convenient, 
but it has become 
very common, and 
a change in design 
will doubtless be 

A rather novel 
effect may be se- 
cured by using for 
a collar a large silk 
handkerchief, in a 
Paisley design, 
carried out in a 
variety of pretty 

The handker- 
chief should be 
purchased first, 
then a material 
chosen for the 
jacket which will 
tone in with its 

The handker- 
chief collar could 
also be applied to 
a dressing- jacket 
which has lost its 
first freshness, and 
requires renova- 

The collar should 
be cut in the fol- 
lowing manner : 

Fold the hand- 
kerchief corner- 
wise, so that it 
forms a triangle, 
then fold again, 
which will form a 
smaller triangle. 
Cut out a small 
piece from the top 
of the triangle, 
where it is folded ; 
open out the hand- 
kerchief, and you 
will have a square 
with a hole in the 
centre. This hole 
is for the neck, and should be cut a little 
smaller than the required size, to allow 
for turnings. Then cut up from one corner 
to this hole, and you have a collar which falls 
in points back and front and on the shoulders. 
The cut edges must be neatly hemmed, and 
the collar put on to the neckband on the 



inner side, so that it forms a roll over the safety-pins, it is apt to ride up at the 
neckband.' The pieces cut out from the neck back, and make the wearer look round- 
can be used to trim the cuffs, if desired, shouldered. All this takes time, and if the 

The sleeve of the invalid's 
wrap, shdwing how buttons 
and loops are employed to 
fasten the under^edges of the 
sleeve to each other 

inserted beneath stitched bands of the 

A pretty mixture of colours for a dressing- 
jacket of this kind would be a soft heliotrope 
nuns'-veiling for the jacket, with a handker- 
chief of heliotrope and primrose. A jacket 
of Dresden blue, with a handkerchief of blue 
and mauve, is 
a very delicate 
c o m b i n a - 
tion, if the 
right shades 
are chosen. 

A Breakfast- 

There is 
a garm e n t 
which is much 

in vogue in America, which strikes the 
happy medium between the blouse 
and the dressing-jacket. It has the 
quality of neatness so dear to the 
heart of the well-dressed woman. 
Its principal advantage is that it is 
very quickly and easily put on. 

Every knows that a blouse 
takes some time to adjust properly ; 
if not carefully fastened down with 

breakfast bell has sounded some ten minutes 
before the toilette is finished, such little 
matters are likely to go to the wall. 

In the breakfast-jacket these drawbacks 
are avoided. It is made something like a 
Norfolk jacket, with a belt attached, so that 
all is in readiness to slip on. The upper part 
of the jacket can be made after any design 
desired, but it is best made with a yoke from 
which pleats can be carried stitched down to 
the waist, and only then allowed to fall free. 

Three pleats should be put in the back, 
and the belt stitched on to the centre one. 

Any of the various makes of fancy blouse 
flannels would be suitable for a breakfast- 
jacket, in either dark or light colours,* 
according to the taste of the wearer. 

An Invalid's Wrap 

Unfortunately, few go through life without 
at some time being ill, and it is always well 
to be provided against these contingencies. 
Even if the malady is nothing worse than a 
bad cold, it is pleasant to have something 
that is easy to put on, and comfortable to 
wear when sitting up in bed. 

The sketch given here is a pattern of a 
wrap that is quite simple in construction. 
It can be put over the shoulders as easih^ as 
a shawl, but, unlike a shawl, it does not slip 

Diagram showing the pattern of the 
wrap. The back and fronts arc 
joined, only on the shoulders and are 
fastened together under the arms by 
buttons and loops 


off, and affords 
much better pro- 
tection for the 

It requires 
three yards of 
material, 36 
inches wide . 
Any soft, warm 
stuff, such as 
cashmere, or 
merino, is suit- 
able. Trimmed 
with lace or em- 
broidery, and of 
a soft, har- 
monious colour, 
such'a wrap may 
be quite a be- 
coming garment 
to its wearer. 

The back and 
two fronts 
should be joined 
only on the 
shoulders; the 
sleeves, which are 
in one piece, and 

A pretty and comfortable wrap for an invalid, simple of construction and as easily 
assumed as a shawl 


shaped like bell 
sleeves, are not 
joined up, but 
merely gathered 
on the shoulders, 
and sewn on to 
the bodice part 
for about 5 in. 
each side of the 
shoulder seam. 

Buttons and 
loops are em- 
ployed to fasten 
the fronts to the 
back, and the 
under-edges of 
the sleeve to 
each other, after 
it has been put 
on. It is a con- 
venient arrange- 
ment, which 
needs only to be 
known to be 
thoroughly ap- 
preciated both in 
wear and for 
laundering pur- 



How to Plan the Renovation of an Old Gown— The Use of an Apron Tunic — Colour Effects 
from Nature — A Scheme for a Grey Cashmere Gown — A ** Poppy'' Dress — The Use of Fur 

At various times and seasons of the year the 
"^ feminine mind is perturbed by the knotty 
problem of how to make a dress do duty for 
the season at hand. It is often folly for a 
woman to discard a gown which at the first 
glance looks passe, without studying it in a 
cold, matter-of-fact manner — that is to say, 
dissecting its faults, and finding out its short- 
comings. After this she should note the good 
points of the dress. 

First, the sleeves may be too big, too long, 
or too short to suit the exigencies of Madame 
la Mode's latest. decree. 

Secondly, the skirt may be too full or too 
narrow, and the bodice may show signs of 

Now for the other side of the question. 
How important it is that a dress should be 
cut well. It is far better to choose simplicity 
in preference to elaboration if one's means 
must be consulted^ It is wiser for money to 
be laid out on simple, well-cut lines than on 
more or less costly trimmings. A well-cut 
gown is a good friend until the end of its 
days ; an overtrimmed gown is practically 
useless below the apparent cunning of its 
frills or laces — if they only disguise faulty lines. 


We will, therefore, suppose that on looking 
through the wardrobe we discover a vieux 
rose evening gown of soft satin. It is plain 
and well cut, although out of date, the 
sleeves incorrect, the bodice worn, but the 

skirt in good condition. The hem may 
not look perfectly fresh ; very often this may 
be remedied and freshened by turning it up a 
trifle, and pressing it carefully on the wrong 

The apron tunic, as shown in the figure on 
the right in the drawing, will renovate a 
dress. The tunic may be made of net, 
chiffon, or mousselme de soie. Spangled net 
looks well, or chiffon on which circles are 
embroidered in crystal beads or filoselle to 
match the gown. 

A pale rose chiffon looks particularly well 
over vieux rose. 

A Useful Sujirgestion 

The drawing shows the apron tunic 
arranged with an old-world fichu. It has a 
wide sailor collar behind, and is edged either 
with a bead fringe or a silk fringe to match 
the gown. The waistbelt is made of drawn 
chiffon, finished off in front with two tassels. 
Tassels or a wider silk fringe finish off the 

Very often women have odd strips or 
pieces of fur lying idle. Touches of fur on an 
evening gown give it a distinct cachet. So 
these apparently useless strips, if cut into 
narrow pieces and joined neatly together, 
make a most effective border on the chiffon. 
Fur on chiffon is a delightful combination. 

The apron tunic may also be composed 
of a plain chiffon or any other suitable 
transparent fabric. The border may be 



made of a silk exactly like the gown, and on 
this groups of Virginian creeper leaves are 
embroidered in silks, in the brilliant tones of 
this fascinating creeper. The autumn colour- 
ing scheme may be carried out for the entire 
gown if its principal scheme of colouring can 
be described as golden. 

Exquisite gowns may be thought out by 
choosing some of the glorious colour effects 
of a favourite season in the year for its com- 
bination of tones. Nature in all her various 
moods may teach many women how to 
choose the colour scheme of their gowns. 

Having discussed the possibilities of 

renovating an evening-gown, we will turn to 
a house-gown. The dress may be rather a 
plain dress with a bodice of the Magyar 
persuasion. A pretty and dainty apron tunic 
will smarten such a gown most effectively. 
The apron tunic is the same back and front. 

We will suppose the gown is a grey cash- 
mere. The apron tunic can be made of a 
Paris shade of piece lace piped all arOund 
with pale blue taffetas silk. The belt is 
made of folds of the grey cashmere piped with 
blue silk. It is effective to have some of the 
flowers of the lace appliqued on to the edges 
of the sleeves, which should also be piped 

Two charming suggestions for apron tunics which will be found useful for re.modeihng evening dresses. In their construction occi 

lengths of fur or rr.aterial may be used with advantage 



with blue. The same decoration might be 
appHed to the neck of the bodice. A band of 
lace on the skirt put on with a piping of 
blue also looks well. 

The apron could be made of a soft silk, 
embroidered in scrolls and rings in soft 
shades of pink, or primrose, or powder blue. 
When this method is chosen it would be 
effective to embroider narrow bands of silk 
in the same manner to 
finish off the neck and 

A Poppy Idea 

We also illustrate 
a picturesque idea for 
the renovation of a 
smart gown for the 
house. It might aptly be 
called the " poppy " 
gown, and at the same 
time would suggest an 
appropriate name and 
scheme for a rest-gown. 
We will suppose that 
the dress is of biscuit or 
pale rose silk, of some 
soft material. 

The apron tunic 
could be made of silk, 
chiffon, or mousseline 
de sole. After the 
tunic has been cut 
to the required 
shape by the dress- 
maker, stamp on to the 
material a design of 
Shirley poppies. The 
more careless and 
natural the design, the 
more effective will be 
the result. 

Also stamp some 
single poppies around 
the neck and cuffs 
of the sleeves. The 
poppies may be 
worked in solidly or 
simply in outline, using 
satin stitch in the ex- 
quisite and delicate 
colourings of the Shirley 
poppy. Pink, soft yel- 
low, and the deeper 
rose, with soft green 
leaves, any one of 
the colours may be chosen, as preferred. 

For the Dark Woman 

For a brunette a beautiful gown could 
be carried out in dull flame colour Oriental 
satin. The apron tunic would be com- 
posed of black chiffon, and the poppy 
design could be worked in flame-coloured, 
silks, with touches of gold thread worked 
in French knots for the centres of the 
flowers. The leaves and stems could be 
worked in dull green silk. The ends of 
the apron are finished off with heavy tassels 
in gold or silk. 

How a house gown may be renovated and smartened by 

the addition of an apron tunic in piece lace, piped with 

silk and ornamented with buttons 

By having a V or a square cut away from 
the bodice of the apron tunic, it would form 
a delightful renovation for an evening gown 
of deep dull apricot satin. For this the tunic 
would be effective in black chiffon, with the 
poppies embroidered in apricot with a touch 
of gold and rose, the leaves worked in their 
natural colours. 

An alternative arrangement of the tunic 
would be to arrange it 
cut away in fronts thus 
allowing the front of 
the gown it covers to 
show in panel effect. 
Such a tunic would 
look well cut to a point 
at the c e n t r e-b a c k, 
sloping upwards to each 

The skirt portion of 
a tunic made of a very 
soft and easily draped 
fabric might be gathered 
at the waist line over 
the hips, the back 
being formed of a 
straight panel into 
which the draperies are 

The possibilities of 
black net as an over- 
dress or tunic are by no 
means to be despised by 
the woman whose choice 
is black wear or who 
is in mourning. Decor- 
ated with tiny jet beads, 
it will give a touch of 
light to an otherwise 
sombre garment. 

Worn over an eau de 
Mil or white satin slip, 
a light black net bor- 
dered with black silk 
fringe would be smart, 
and at the same time 
more serviceable than 
the cream lace tunic. 

One of the good quali- 
ties of the tunic is that 
it affords the ingenious 
and the economical alike 
adequate exercise for 
their special talent, and 
proving that their hoard- 
ing of scraps and odd- 
ments, nay, even of sale bargains, is, or may 
be, justified. 

Dame fashion is not so hard a mistress as 
the masculine mind often imagines, and 
permits infinite variety in fulfilling her be- 
hests. She has smiled upon the apron tunic, 
and it is a mode that permits of using 
all sorts of pretty bits of fur, embroidery, 
fabric, or lace. 

It will thus be seen that the ch9,rm of 
the apron tunic is unquestionable. It will 
add length of days to an old gown, or it may 
be used to glorify the latest creation of the 





Materials Required — Preparing the Shape — Measurements — Draping with Lace and Net — The 

Finished Toque 

ENGLISHWOMEN are becoming more Con- 
tinental and cosmopolitan in their 
habits, and it is now quite de ns[ueur to wear 
a hat or toque in conjunction with the demi- 
toilette when dining at hotels or restaurants. 

What is known 
to the Parisian 

modiste as the _ 

" casino " toque 
is best made of 
such fabrics as 
tulle, chiffon, or 
marquisette, ar- 
ranged in cloud- 
like fashion on 
to the lightest 
possible wire 
frame ; the only 
other trimming re- 
quired being an 
aigrette or plume. 

Beautiful colour 
schemes can be 
evolved out of the 
various coloured 
tulles. For the 
more substantial 
toque elaborate 
embroideries , 
entirely covered 
with many 
coloured beads or 
jet, are greatly in 
vogue ; Oriental 
colourings being 
specially favoured. 

A charming 
creation worthy 
of note that 
emanated from 
Paris was com- 
posed of old gold Chantilly, veiled with 
black Brussels net, and bound round the 
edge with a strip of black velvet about i^ in. 
deep in the front and about 3 in. at 
the back. This gave the suggestion of a 
jockey cap, and was finished 
off with an immense cerise 

according to one's own discretion, or with two 
layers of chiffon. The wire at the edge re- 
quires an additional bhid of tulle or silk (this 
is to prevent the wires from cutting through). 
Our pattern shape is in black wire, made 
to measurements 
given below, and 
covered with net 
or sarcenet ; i \ 
yards of gold 
lace at about 6s. 
iijd. will be re- 
quired, also the 
same amount of 
Brussels net, the 
usual price being 
IS. iifd.peryard; 
and a quarter of 
a yard of black 
velvet on the cross 
for the bind. 

This shape could 
also be covered 
with straw or with 
silk, brocade, or 

Measurements of 
Toque Shape : 

Velvet toque draped with lace and net. An aigrette or plume held in place by 
an ornament or buckle gives a smart finish 


Head wire, 22^ 

Underbrim : 
Front, 2^ in.; side 
front, 2^ in. ; side, 
2 A in.; side back, 
2f in. ; back, 
2^ in. 

edge, 35 in. 

Turn-up coro- 
net: Front, 4|^in. ; 
side front, 4 J in. ; 
4I in.; side back, 4^ in.; back, 4^ in. 

Edge of coronet, 25^ in. 

Shapes made of wire are 
used, and can be made ac- 
cording to dimensions, or, 
if a sketch be given to a 
milliner, one can be made 
specially for the sum of is. 
or IS. 6d. For a tulle or 
chiffon toque, wire to match 
colour of material selected 
should be chosen. 

The shape is covered either 
with several layers of tulle, 

Crown nipped on to edge wire of coronet. 

Height of crown, i^ in. all round. 

Across top : Back to front, 6| in. ; side 
to side, 6f in. ; side back to 
side front, 6f in. 

Before commencing to 
drape the toque with the gold 
lace and net, cover and neaten 
the inside brim. For this, turn 
the shape upside down and 
place a corner of the lace 
to the front of toque as 

Sink the lace well into the 
headpiece and fit carefully 
all round, graduating the 

Uncovered wire shape over which the lace gatherings tO the back aS 
and net are draped illustrated in StagC I. 






Cut off superfluous fulness, and neaten 
as in stage 2. 

Sew the lace on to the top brim, about 
an inch up (see stage 3)- Cut the lace 
out of the head, i in. from the head 
wire, then snip up as illustrated in stage 
4, and sew on to the inside coronet as 
illustrated in stage 5. 

Veil the inside brim with the black 
net in exactly the same way. The brim 
will then appear as in stage 6. 

Take the remaining piece of gold lace 
and veil it quite evenly with the black net, 
pinning well all round, so as to keep the net 
in position. 

Pleat and pin artistically about i in. 
from the edge wire, allowing more fulness 
at the back as seen in stage 7. 

An occasional tack here and there, as 
fancy dictates, will be found necessary at 
this period, but great care must be taken to 
stitch very lightly, so as to prevent the net 
from losing its freshness. 

The next important question to be con- 
sidered is the velvet bind round the edge of 

Stage 9 

the toque. Take the black velvet, which being 
one quarter of a yard on the cross will be 
found to measure 9 in. long at the selvedge 
end, and 7 in. through the centre. 

Cut in half, and this will give two 
lengths 3^ in. wide (stage 8). 

Join the two lengths of velvet together, 
and pin on to the edge of the brim, the 
wrong side of the velvet facing the worker. 
This will afterwards be turned back, and will 
leave the edge quite neat. (See stage 9 for 
position of velvet.) The bind will be found 
more becoming if a small pleat "is made 
on either side of the brim ; this is to slightly 
widen the brim at sides, and gives a softer 

When the velvet has been carefully fitted 
round the brim, and the pleats put on either 
side of it, leave just sufficient velvet to join 
together on the cross, and cut away the re- 

Back-stitch the bind, then turn the velvet 
back on to the brim, the right side facing 
the worker. 

Take the centre-front of toque and place 
a pin i^ in. up the velvet in the front, 2 in. 

at the sides; and 3 in. at the backr then 
turn over. The bind is now i^ in. deep in 
the front, 2 in. on either side, and 3 in. 
at C€ntre-back. (Stages 10 and 11.) 

Slipstitch the bind loosely and lightly 
on to the lace, or a fine stitch in the front 
will answer the same purpose. 

The illustration of the completed toque 

2 ins. 

Stage 10 

shows the position of aigrette, which has 
been sewn on to an ear as was explained 
and illustrated in a previous article. (Vol. 2, 
page 1354.) 

The illustrations given show the toque 
made of light fabrics ; but the same methods 
can be successfully employed in the case of 
such materials as velvet, silk, or satin, with 
a brim turned back with fur or marabout. 

The large percentage of EngUshwomen who 
wear toques are rather apt to get the " all- 
round " shape, without sufficient curves to 
give individuality or style. 

Then, the last touch of trimming, whether 
it be flower or aigrette, must be placed at the 
exact angle to suit the wearer. Toques often 
look " squat " or " top-heavy," and the 
turban shapes are apt to envelop the wearer 

Trimming. One of the most successful and 
practical decorations for the trimming of the 

I J ins. 

Stage 1 1 

small hat or toque is the pompon, that 
delightful, old-world cluster of silk or even 
wool, in all sorts of quaint colourings. 
Neither wind nor weather affects the pompon. 
It is soft and becoming, and rarely fails to 
give a smart appearance to a toque. 



This section forms a complete guide to the art of preserving and 
its scope can be seen from the following summary of its contents : 

acquiring beauty. How wide is 

Beautiful Women in History 
Treatment of the Hair 
The Beauty of Motherhood and 
Old Age 

The Beatttiful Baby 
The Beautiful Child 
Health and Beauty 
Physical Cultwe 

Beauty Secrets Mothers ought to 

Teach their Daughters 
The Complexion 
The Teeth 

The Effect of Diet on Beazity 
Freckles, Sunburn 

How the Housewife may Preserve 
Her Good Looks 

The Eyes 

The Ideal of Beauty 

Beauty Baths 

Beauty Foods 

The Ideal Figure, 
etc., etc. 


F there is one thing more interest- 
ing to the majority of humanity 
than a wedding, it is an elope- 
ment ; and there have been 
couples in history who would 
never have been heard of but 
that they secured immortality 
for themselves by eloping. 

Among those immortals is Dorothy Vernon, 
of Haddon Hall, about whose elopement 
history is reticent, biit well established 
tradition is eloquent. Many versions of 
the story have been told, but in all the 
main facts are the same, and they are 
romantic enough to satisfy the most exigent 
of novel readers. 

Haddon Hall has not so much a pedigree 
as a Jacob's ladder of history stretching 
from the present day into the mists of an- 
tiquity. The first authentic trace we have of 
it is in the time of William the Conqueror, 
when it was already a sorry ruin. William 
bestowed the ruin and the estate on his son 
William Peverel, a transaction which has 
given us world-wide associations with 
Peverel of the Peak. Part of the dwelling 
then erected on the ruins of the Saxon 
building still remains. Haddon Hall, as we 
know it now, is a glorious Tudor building 
standing on a hill, and dominating the 
country for many miles, and of course it has a 
room in which Queen Elizabeth slept ; no 
self-respecting English country house is 
without one. The property was brought 
into the Vernon family by A vice de Avenell, 
in about the year 1150. 

The Vernons were a proud old family, 
and lived in almost regal state. Indeed, 
Dorothy's father. Sir George Vernon, we are 

told " gained the name of King of Peak 
among the vulgar." 

He married first Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Gilbert Taylebois, Knt., and by her he had 
two damghters — Margaret and Dorothy. Of 
Margaret we do not hear much, because she 
grew up and married well amid a cloud of 
lawyers and settlements, as any well brought 
up young lady should. 

An Enchantins: Heiress 

But of Dorothy plenty is to be heard. 
First of all, there was her hair. It was 
reddish, and fell in great masses to the ground 
itself. Her eyes, too, were very lovely. She 
was her father's favourite, and rode hawking 
with him, and by the time she was fifteen, 
which, in 1560, was quite a marriageable 
age, suitors were already thronging about 
her. The beautiful heiress of Sir George 
Vernon might have been supposed to have 
everything she wanted, but apparently the 
trouble was that she had rather more, for her 
father had married again, a daughter of Sir 
Ralph Longford, and by the effect on the 
daughters of the household one can only 
suppose that she was at any rate lacking in 
tact.* Margaret's wedding was hurried on, 
Dorothy's behaviour became odd and 
abstracted, and even Sir George did not 
leave off wearing a gold rosary in which 
Dorothy had twined some of her dead 
mother's hair. 

It is now time for the entrance of the hero, 
and in all respects he is satisfactory. He 
was good-looking, of an extremely ancient 
family, with Royal blood in his veins ; be was 
a younger son, a Protestant, whereas the 
Vernons were Catholics, poor, and in every 

BEAUTY 3716 

way charming and ineligible. The difference 
in religion was alone enough tojmake im- 
possible any thought of a marriage between 
a Manners and a Vernon. But what would 
you have, when a girl with red hair down 
to her heels goes hawking, and a younger 
son with beautiful manners meets her? Of 
course he fell in love. There was never an 
inaccessible girl yet with anything approach- 
ing good looks who was not fallen in love with 
by all the people who could not ever hope 
to marry her. 

But John Manners did not intend to give 
up without a trial. Still in strict accordance 
with the accepted rules of romantic fiction, 
he disguised himself as a woodman; and took 
service with Sir George Vernon's chief 
forester. In this way he frequently saw 
Dorothy, but we do not know how he first 
began to press his suit. 

The Lover in Disguise 

Sir George loved both hawking and hunt- 
ing. The woods round Haddon were rich 
in game, and Dorothy was probably fre- 
quently with her father before she met the 
young woodman. She was always with him 
afterwards. But even this device can hardly 
account for the rapidity with which matters 
progressed. They must have had some sort 
of go-between to carry letters, and tradition 
murmurs of an aged nurse, who loved Dorothy 
and hated her stepmother. 

Meanwhile things at home were getting 
worse. Margaret's approaching marriage 
flung everybody into confusion. ' Even 
Haddon Hall is not large enough to hold an 
engaged couple without inconvenience to 
the other inhabitants ; and when the daughter 
of the King of the Peak married, it was an 
event for the whole of the country-side. 

Lady Vernon, who very probably disliked 
Dorothy because she was her father's 
favourite, finding Margaret too important a 
person to be bullied, made her younger step- 
daughter's life more and more uncomfortable. 
Dorothy was an amiable girl, and very 
lovable, but she had plenty of spirit of her 
own, and, besides, she was in love. Another 
thing began to trouble her also. She was 
beset with suitors, many of whom were so 
unimpeachably eligible that it was enough 
to make any girl dislike them. Her father 
began to talk about marrying her, too, as 
soon as Margaret was. Lady Stanley. Lady 
Vernon pushed the project with all her power, 
for she was only anxious to have Haddon 
freed of both her stepdaughters. 

Unfortunately, tradition and history alike 
fail us ; we can only suppose that in so 
thoroughgoing a romantic story the chief 
suitor must have been bald, elderly, and 
almost disgustingly rich. Anybody but a 
rather heavy father would have known what 
was going to happen, although everything 
seemed fairly smooth on the surface. Sir 
George, doubtless, felt that when Margaret was 
married he would really have time to look after 
Dorothy's affairs, and try to find out why she 
gave such a definite " No " to all her suitors. 

At last Margaret's wedding-day came, and 
the whole country-side got up early and pre- 
pared to make as much noise as it could for as 
long a time as possible, for those were the 
days when tenants shouted themselves hoarse 
whenever anything happened in their land- 
lord's family. According to custom, the 
festivities of the day ended with a great ball. 

The whole county was there. Sir George 
was at the height of his good spirits, exercis- 
ing the proverbial hospitality which had 
made him King of the Peak. Dorothy was 
dancing, with rather pale cheeks, her white 
satin frock billowing about her as she rose 
and sank in the movements of the dance. 

Now, according to all the romantic stories 
that have ever been written, her lover should 
have been there, and he was. No longer 
dressed as a woodman, but in the guise of a 
minstrel, with a harp hung over his shoulder, 
we are told that he stood at the end of the 
hall biding his time. Growing bold, he even 
broke out into song, praising Dorothy's 
beauty, to the great delight of all the guests. 
If ever a man ought to have been on the 
look-out, it was Sir George, after that, for 
when an unknown minstrel appears in your 
hall singing praises of your daughter, it is 
quite time to look after her. But Sir George 
was busy among his guests. 

The Great Moment 

At last the moment approached when the 
health of the bride and bridegroom was to 
be drunk, and then indeed there was noise, 
and stamping of feet, and clinking of glasses. 
And meanwhile, scurrying up the stairs 
into the dark part of the house, ran Dorothy, 
with frightened eyes and hasty breath. Over 
the rich dress she flung a cloak ; the glorious 
hair was hidden beneath a hood, and in this 
guise she looked out of a window and saw 
her lover waiting for her below. 

The guests in the great hall were too busy 
dancing to take any note of a horse's hoof-beat 
dying away in the distance, but when Sir 
George called for Dorothy one can imagine 
the scene of confusion that took place ; how 
the old nurse, if she had any sense at all, was 
discovered fast asleep in bed ; how everyone 
searched high and low, and at last found the 
open window and a little silver-heeled shoe 
that had stuck in a grating when Dorothy 
made her leap into her lover's arms. Half 
the Midlands were scoured in search of the 
runaways, but by this time they were safe 
at Aylestone, in Leicestershire. Anywhere in 
Derbyshire the clergymen would have recog- 
nised Dorothy, but Aylestone was a Rutland 
manor, and under Rutland influence. 

So far as we can find out. Sir George, when 
he found that the pair were actually married, 
felt, like a sensible man, that nothing further 
could be done, and the two were told that 
they might return and have a proper wedding 
feast, which they doubtless did. And, after 
this, so far as one can tell, they settled 
down to a respectable and humdrum life. 
The elopement in itself, perhaps, was 
romance enough. 






By Mrs. A. P. BUSH 

Continued from page 3604, Part 30 

i^ATCHES were at first cut from 
black taffeta and gummed on 
— it was in this and similar 
materials that they reached 
their highest development. 
Later, in Georgian times they 
were frequently made from 
black velvet, and had a much more intense 
effect in consequence. 

Patch-boxes sometimes contained com- 
partments in which to keep the patches of 
different sizes and shapes, and in some cases 
were furnished with a tray to hold the 
moistening brush and tweezers, with which 
to manipulate the morsels of black material. 

In the language of the patch, patches on the forehead showed 
that the wearer was of an intellectual turn of mind 

These dainty trifles are to be found 
plentifully scattered through collections, 
and they take a great variety of forms. In 
an age greatly given to the dainty arts, the 
patch began to rival the snuff-box and 
comfit- box, and was to be found in jewelled 
gold and silver, enamels, ivory, horn, and 
wood, in a bewildering variety of shapes and 
of materials too numerous to mention. 

In " Wit Restored," which was published 
in 1658, the poet described the spots worn 
by a fashionable lady in the following terms : 

Her patches are of every cut 

For pimples or for scars, 
Here's all the wandering planets' signs 

And some of the fixed stars ; 
Already gummed to make them stick, 
They need no other sky. 

These lines indicate that the shape of the 
patches had now ceased being a uniform 

circle, and had assumed a variety of forms, 
depending probably on the will of the 

In " Hudibras " this fact is referred to in 
the lines quoted : 

She that with poetry is won 
Is but a desk to write upon ; 
Some with Arabian spices strive 
T' embalm her cruelly alive ; 
Or season her as French cooks use 
Their haut gouts, houillies, or ragouts. 
Others make posies of her cheeks, 
Where red and whitest colours mix ; 
In which the lily and the rose 
For India lake and ceruse goes. 
The sun and moon, by her bright eyes 
Eclipsed and darkened in the skies, 
Are but black patches that she wears 
Cut into suns and moons and stars. 

The coach and horses grew to be a very 
fashionable patch, and also the figure of the 
devil with horns, barbed tail, and pitchfork. 
In France, in Richelieu's day, patches took 
the shape of animals, and women wore 
representations of their pet cats and dogs 
on different parts of their faces. 

The Lover's Patch 

The author of " England's Vanity; or, 
God's Voice against Pride in Apparel," 
published in 1683, says that " black 
patches reminded him of plague spots, ' the 
very tokens of death,' and made him think 
that the mourning coach and horses all in 
black and plying on their foreheads, stand 
ready harnessed to whirl them to Acharon, 
though I pity poor Charon for the darkness 
of the night, since the moon on the cheek 
is all in eclipse, and the poor stars on the 
temples .are clouded in sables, and no comfort 
left him but the lozenges on the chin, which, 
if he pleases, he may pick off for his cold." 

In " Les Lois de la Gallanterie, " published 
in 1644, ^^^ ^^^d • 

" The best classes of gallants are now 
permitted to wear round and oblong mouohes 
or a long piece across the temple, which is 
entitled I'enseigne du mal de dents, but as 
the hair of some men hides the patches they 
are trying to wear them on the cheek, which 
has a very charming effect. If our critics 
reproach us with imitating women, we 
permit ourselves to say : * What better 
could we do than follow the example of those 
we admire and adore ? ' " 

Clapthorne, in " The Ladies' Privilege," 
which dates back four years earlier than 
" Les Lois," makes someone say to an actor, 
" Look you, signor, if it be a lover's part 
you are to act, take a black spot or two. I 
can furnish you. 'Twill make your face 



more amorous, and appear more gracious 
in your lady's eye." 

Nearly all the characters in " The Rivals " 
and " The School for Scandal " are patched, 
the men as extravagantly as the women, 
and Sir Benjamin Backbite and the other 
dandies use extraordinary and fantastic 

The extreme to which the custom of cover- 
ing the face with patches was carried is 
shown in " The Platonic Lover," in which 
one of the characters says : " Hadn't I got 
too many beauty spots on ? In my mind, 
now, my face looks just like a plum cake for 
all the world." 

The fashion was carried to such a point 
that women lost all sense of proportion and 
beauty, and not only covered their faces 
with weird and fanciful black patches, but 
used an enormous amount of rouge. It is 
said that when Madame Henriette, the 
daughter of Louis XV., died, her body was 
removed, clothed in a bedgown with her 
hair dressed en neglige, and her face 
rouged and patched as well. 

The Decline of the Patch 

During the vogue of the patch there' 
does not seem to have been any time in a 
woman's life when it was considered 
improper to wear it, but in France 
women only wore patches when they were 
young and pretty, leaving them off when 
wrinkles and crowsfeet began to appear. 

Although many of the clergy greatly 
disapproved of the custom of wearing 
patches, and sermons were often preached 
against those people who carried the 
practice to extreme grotesqueness, it is 
supposed that in France the wearing of 
powder was brought in by the clergy, and 
they afterwards also took to patches. 

James Gillray, the famous and vitriolic 
caricaturist, who died in Waterloo year, 
and whose work had for forty years re- 
flected the politics, scandals, and fashions 
of his time, only draws patches upon those 
ladies whom he most desires to wound. 
When heaping obloquy upon Fox for 
visiting General Bonaparte, he represents 
Mrs. Fox, who accompanied her husband to 
Paris, as much be-patched, and Josephine 
and the ladies of her entourage are also 
represented with many patches. 

In one drawing a plump and high-born 
amateur Thespian is held up to ridicule in 
the act of placing patches upon her face. 
This form of comment was admired in the 
late eighteenth century, and, execrable as 
we must consider the taste which was 
amused by this mean and unmeasured 
ridicule, the historical value of the com- 
mentary is obvious, and shows the patch to 
be at its very lowest ebb in popular favour. 

There may or may not be an authentic 
language of the patch. The coquette has 
evolved a language of the fan, of the glove, 
and of flowers. It is quite reasonable to 
suppose, therefore, that the patch gave 
opportunity for something of this kind. 

We can, therefore, accept as quite authori- 
tative some old writings which have im- 
mortalised this feminine adornment into a 
silent but eloquent love language. 

The Lans:uag:e of the Patch 

Many a gallant must have spent hours of 
painful suspense anticipating his lady's 
favour, evidenced by the shape or the 
placing of her patch. Round patches, 
heart, star, and crescent shaped, were em- 
ployed to proclaim their wearer's mood, and 
women who understood the significance of 
the fixing of the patch were, needless to say, 
very careful not to cause a misunderstanding 
thereby. *■ 

The frivolous and light-hearted maiden 
whose coquettish instincts prompted her to 
tease and tantalise her luckless swains 
placed her patch near the lip — the correct 
corner being the left-hand side of the upper 
lip. The woman of deeper feelings, who 
meant more than a mere flirtation, indicated 


arrangement of the patch was considered to betoken a woman of 
serious taste and pronounced individuality 

her serious feeling for her suitor by wearing 
a round or heart-shaped spot on the left- 
hand corner of the left eyelid. Placed just 
below the eye the patch showed affection 
only, and that no deeper feeling had yet 
stirred the wearer. 

The pert and laughing girl who was only 
thinking of amusement placed her patch on 
the right . cheek by the side of the nose. 
Another practice of the frivolous was to cut 
a star-shaped patch and affix it on the left 
side of the chin. The heart-shaped patch 
worn on the left cheek was a warning to 
would-be suitors that the hand and heart 
of the lady were already engaged, and that 
she was already married was evident when 
she transferred the patch to the right side 
of the face. The patch on the forehead 
showed generally that its wearer was of an 
intellectual turn of mind, and was not to be 
approached unless by those of serious mien. 




THE : 


GOOD loo: 



T N the housewife's 
^ praiseworthy efforts 
to play her part with ^# r . 
success, she should bear '^^ " 
in mind that the bright- 
est touch is given to 
home when a wife pre- 
serves her own good 
looks. To accomplish this there is an open 
road for every woman to take. 
The Eyes 
The eyes, for instance, can be kept lustrous 
and free from signs of fatigue by a very 
simple process. Every morning for about 
three to five minutes they should be bathed 
with the coldest water procurable. Sluicing 
on this hardy principle tones up all the 
muscles about the sockets and lids, a host 
of delicate nerves, too, connected with the 
sight. When all these are vigorous the eyes 
move freely and retain the swift, darting 
action of youth. When they are feeble, lines 
reveal themselves about the corners, and 
then comes that sagging oi the eyelids which 
mars the prettiest face. 

When active duties swallow up all the 
daylight hours, and compel the needle to 
be taken up at night, strict attention should 
be given to the colour of globes and lamp- 
shades. Red is such a tempting hue, and 
gives such a festive note that one condemns 
it with reluctance. Green has traditions 
behind it as cooling to the eves. Neither 
should be chosen, however, but the affections 
should be fixed on heliotrope, which is the 
colour supreme for keeping the eyes un- 
dimmed when the midnight oil is burnt. 

Artificial light, with the exception of that 
given by real wax candles, is, as a rule, too 
yellow, hence the great service a heliotrope 
shade can render the housewife whose 
needle is busy over some belated task. 

A third hint, sound as the two preceding 
it, is to close the eyes when engaged in any 
hard thinking. Every good housewife knows 
well that a great deal of strenuous thought 
goes into household organising, that all mav 
work on lines of thrift. 

Eyes should be shut, then, when there is 
any scheming on hand, however homely 
the methods to be planned ; for to keep them 
fixed on external objects when the thinking- 
cap is donned, is to weary the optic nerves 
for no particular end. 

The Hands 

And now for a chat about hands. 

It should console anv reader in passing 
to our second subject to learn that more 
ugly hands are encouraged by idleness than 

are ever produced by 
domestic work. Not 
only the fat, flabby type 
comes of inactivity, but 
many another one 
equally unattractive. 

What the hands really 

need to keep them 

shapely is variety of occupation, and plenty 

of intelligent treatment when employed in 

the rougher spheres of household activity. 

If called upon, for instance, to turn 
culinary knowledge to account, special note 
should be taken of the fact that fresh air 
is one of the greatest needs for knuckles, 
palms, fingers, and wrists. Much contact 
with the heat of a stove enfeebles the 
frame of the hand. All the breezes of heaven, 
then, should be given it from time to time, 
for these will restore its vigour, and keep the 
ugly hollows at bay that come from weak- 
ened muscles. 


Gloves in connection with cooking opera- 
tions are not looked on as possible. The 
making of pastry or cakes in them, for 
instance, would be quite an absurd sugges- 
tion. Stirring pans on the boil, adjusting 
saucepans, or turning cakes in the oven, 
however, can always be done in gloves. 
They should be kept at hand, then, for such 
uses, loose chamois ones for choice. 

Easy chamois gloves are the best for every 
kind of household work. It should be added, 
though, not the type sold at a turner's, but 
the less clumsy ones stocked by drapers for 
golf and country wear. 

From time to time flour might be dredged 
into the pair reserved for kitchen use, as 
this affords still more protection from the 
heat which plays such havoc with the skin. 
Yet another way of keeping the backs of 
busy hands smooth and white, is the skilful 
use of glycerine and powder. 

A quick and ready way for having these 
always available, is for the glycerine and 
powder to be side by side in a washstand 
drawer. The former in a tiny Japanese 
bowl, sold at toyshops for a penny, the latter 
in a little muslin sachet. This arrangement 
is quite an ideal one for the hurried house- 
wife, who every time after drying her hands 
should dip each little finger lightly into the 

Just w^hat of this gets taken up — no 
more — must be rubbed on the backs, then 
these latter one against the other. When 
the glycerine has soaked well into the pores 
of the skin, the handy sachet comes into use, 

a good powdering being given from fingers 
to wrist, after which a Uttle more rubbing 
till the hands feel dry and smooth. 

No household work can ever succeed in 
coarsening the skin when this simple sugges- 
tion is carried out, nor can the frosts of 
winter disfigure the hands with chaps. For 
the removal of stains, however, other salves 
must be employed, as neither glycerine nor 
powder are of use in this connection. 

Discoloration brought about by cutting 
apples and pears can be very promptly 
disposed of by rubbing the fingers with lemon- 
juice. After sprigging black currants or 
stoning the darker kinds of plums, the 
lemon should be dipped into salt before 
applying it, as also after handling black- 
berries or black-heart cherries. 

Many things are recommended for whiten- 
ing the finger-tips after cutting potatoes or 
beans ; but if, given the present scarcity of 
cooks, the housewife adds these duties to her 
busy day, she will find the lemon and salt 
again do excellent service. 

The Hair 

Up to the present nothing has been recom- 
mended which makes much claim on a 
woman's time or -purse. Turning to the hair, 
all suggestions will be on the same simple 

First of all it should be remembered that 
the skin of the head has precisely the same 
needs as the skin of the rest of the body. 
When the latter has been heated, a bath or 
washing of some kind is always freely in- 
dulged in. The head, however, is invariably 
given the go-by, and the perspiration left 
to dry on the scalp. 

It needs little emphasising that in a busy 
housewife's day the head must often get 
considerably overheated, therefore if her 
hair is not to become poor, brittle, or prema- 
turely grey, a daily shampoo of a kind must 
never be neglected. 

When locks are taken down at night, for 
instance, the roots of the hair from the 
forehead to the base of the poll should be 
well rubbed with the damped corners of a 
Turkish towxl. Moisture and friction make 
the very life of the scalp. Without these, 
scurf quickly forms and chokes up all its 
pores ; with it, dandruff disappears, and each 
hair cell brings forth a healthy growth. 

To continue, hair should " be done," as 
the expression goes, at least twice a day, and, 
if possible, near an open sunny window. As 
each coil is let down in the breeze and sun- 
light a lot of hot air imprisoned amongst 
pads and curls is set free. W^hen this is 
retained it means so much poison kept about 
the skin of the head. 

On rearranging the coiffure, though no 
actual change of its style is needed, combs 
and hairpins might be differently placed, for 
to do this means rest for many a" tired nerve. 
As a matter of fact, the scalp is very sensitive 
to even trifling pressure, and is conscious of 
relief at the mere shifting of a pin from one 
position to another. 

3721 BEAUTY 

The gloss that so many lotions purport 
to supply can be successfully attained by 
stroking the hair daily with two silk hand- 
kerchiefs, one in either hand. This last is a 
hint from a very busy housewife, whose 
tresses are as burnished gold, and, in addition, 
have that buoyancy so rarely seen when 
girlhood's days, are passed. 

The Complexion 

Where the complexion is concerned, the 
housewife has only to bring common sense to 
her position to improve it considerably. 

Roses are courted for her cheeks, for 
instance, by dusting and polishing, if done 
with fresh air around her. Put through in a 
stuffy room there will be pallor and black- 
heads to deal with for just the same occu- 

Cooking by a gas stove, it must be owned, 
has nothing to recommend it in regard to 
the skin. One good hint is to put two vessels 
of water close to the former instead of the 
usual one ; for the moister the air the better. 
Immediately any little cookery is over, the 
face should be bathed, first in tepid water, 
and afterwards in cold, as the pores will 
require considerable bracing. Powder should 
be avoided, also any form of outward appli- 
cation, as all such treatment enervates the 
skin just when it requires ever^^thing to 
strengthen it. 

A glass of cold water drunk just before 
standing over a stove, and another directly 
the kitchen is left is perfect salvation for 
the complexion. To be particular about this 
will prevent that curious effect of network of 
tiny veins spreading itself over the face. 
It will make impossible, too, a coarse colour 
settling in patches about the cheeks. 

When cooks are unobtainable, as not in- 
frequently happens at certain seasons, these 
practical suggestions will prove themselves 
most helpful, for they have all the value of 
experience behind them. 

The Teeth 
As a good row of teeth is a woman's 
greatest charm, these, with the complexion, 
need a good deal of consideration where gas 
stoves are concerned. Fumes of any sort are 
bad for the enamel, likewise the steam that 
escapes from saucepans and kettles. 

To discount the ill effects of these things, 
teeth must be strengthened at the roots 
through the gums, and, as usual, cold water 
can prove itself a friend. Plentiful brushing 
with this, once a day with common salt 
added to it, twice a day with tincture of 
myrrh, will do wonders ; the toothbrush 
being left after each use of it to soak in soda- 
and-water. To do this last means a good 
wholesome brush instead of one loaded with 

It is always bad for the teeth when the 
housewife passes from one hot job to another. 
Needlework done cosily by the fire directly 
after a little cookery is distinctly inadvisable. 
Something active in a cool room, not actually 
a cold one, is the best, attention to the 
mending-basket coming later on. 



This is one of the most important sections of Every Woman's Encyclopedia. 


is written by leading authorities, and deals, among other things, with : 

The House 


Choosing a House Heating, Plumbing, etc. 

Glass Dining-room 

Building a House The Rent-purchase System 

China Hall 

Improving a House How to Plan a House 

Silver Kitchen 

Wallpapers Tests for Dampness 

Home-made Furniture Bedroo7n 

Lighting Tests for Sanitation, etc. 

Drawing-ro(^tn Nurseiy, etc. 






Plain Laundryzvork 

Household Recipes 

Registry Offices 

Fine Laundrywork 

How to Cleajt Silver 

Giving Characters 


How to Clean Marble 

Lady Helps 


Labotir-saving Suggestions, etc. 

Servants' Duties, etc. 

Ironing^ etc. 



The Welcoming Hearth — ^Exclusion of Draughts in the Sitting'room Hall — The Keeping of Outdoor 
Garments — Practical Hall Furniture — ^How to Arrange the Small Passage Hall — Lighting the 


'Y'he most import- 
^ ant feature 
in any hall should 
be its hearth. If 
it is possible to 
have a fireplace, 
however humble, 
we are right to 
make the most of 
it, for when the 
outer door is 
opened there is 
no more pleasant 
sight than a genial 
blaze, and the in- 
coming guest may 
well feel a glow^ of 
pleasure on seeing 
a cheerful fire on 
the hearth on a 
chilly day. 

An open grate, 
logs laid upon a 
great iron cradle, 
sparklingly bright 
fire-irons, and dogs 
that reflect the 
gleam of the 
flames, these are 

An excellent type of open grate suitable for a hall. Logs should be burned for the sake of warmth and f, u^^^^u.^ ^f +u*^ 
cheery appearance in such a fireplace the nCartn* OI tne 



A useful oak stand for a small hall. It 

takes little floor space and is of good 


Liberty &• Co 

ideal hall stove, 
or red-tiled, with 
beams of oak 
above, or with 
quaint flounce 
like a farmhouse 
kitchen, it mat- 
ters not, so long 
as the hearth is 
spotlessly kept 
and the fire well 

So much to 
the good is it if 
there be suffi- 
cient space for 
an ingle-nook, 
for, though 
much comfort 
may be secured 
by the use of a 
large fourfold 
screen or a thick 
curtain, a hall is 
apt to prove a 
draughty sit- 

Realising this. 

some modern 
architects build 
a small entry, securely cut off from the 
main hall by doors, 
a detail which 
makes for com- 

It is important 
that the outer gar- 
ments of the family, 
which are usually 
kept in the hall, 
should be hidden 
away. These most 
generally belong to 
the men of the 
house, who, by 
some strange un- 
written law, are 
always allowed to 
take off coats and 
hats downstairs, 
and are never ex- 
pected to take them 
to their rooms. 

Occasionally a 
small lobby is avail- 
able, in which a 
plentiful supply of 
pegs and shelves 
makes the bestowal 
of such things easy 
but more often some 
contrivance must 
be invented where- 
by the litter of 
gloves, caps, mack- 
intoshes, overcoats, 
and umbrellas may 
be kept. 

Many excellent 
cupboards have 

been put upon the market, some of them 
really handsome pieces of furniture. Made 
to serve half a dozen purposes in the way of 
seating the chance visitor, providing hanging 
room for the coats, and a stand for the um- 
brellas, they take comparatively little floor 

Such an ideal hallstand can be obtained 
7 feet in height and 7 feet 6 inches wide ; 
giving a really serviceable cupboard, with 
handsome bottle-glass window and good 
copper hinges. At the back of the umbrella- 
stand there are tiles, so that no damp can 
matter, a seat of very comfortable dimensions 
being also arranged. 

Another hall cupboard opens with two 
doors, and on the inside of one the stick-rack 
and umbrella-stand are fixed. This is a 
very excellent plan, for umbrellas have a very 
forlorn aspect when not in use, but necessi- 
tates some other provision for wet umbrellas. 

A round mirror fixed above on the same 
door, and a shelf for gloves, makes this 
receptacle complete. The inside of the cup- 
board is simply arranged with hooks and a 
hat shelf. Such a wardrobe of fumed oak can 
be had for fourteen guineas. 

In some hall cupboards there is a box for 
gloves. This seems better than the shelf, 
though whether any but the perfect male — 
not yet born — would ever be induced to put 

A hall stand which serves several purposes. It accommodates coats and hats, affords a comfortable 

seat and has a most practical umbrella stand 

Liberty & Co. 



A hall wardrobe in fumed oak, fitted inside with umbrella stand, 
shelf, and hooks. The round mirror is a most useful adjunct 

^l-'arUis &• Gilloiu 

his gloves each day in a box is not within the 
scope of this article to decide. 

A Good Carpet 

In the sitting-room hall there should 
always be a thick carpet. This serves a 
double purpose, in giving an impression of 
warmth and comfort on entering the house 
and also in ensuring quiet. 

If this carpet be warm in colour, so much 
the better. A rose-red, with the same colour 
for a damask-covered screen, would be a 
good basis for the rest of the furniture. 

The Small Hall 

Besides the halls in which it is possible to 
sit to read or sew in comfort, there are those 
which, though more dignified in size than a 
passage, are yet too small for anything but a 
place of entry to a house. 

The furniture for such halls must be very 
carefully chosen, and everything that is 
possible done to keep the floor space clear. 
A small cupboard or shelf, with curtain 
beneath, is essential for receiving the coats 
and hats, but nothing cumbersome must be 
allowed. A narrow table should hold the 
small silver card-salver and a post-box for 
letters ; a mirror should hang on the wall ; 
and a stick- rack, also on the wall, will 
economise space. 

These remarks apply also to the hall which 
is a mere passage. In such a space even the 
pictures should be small, and with flat frames. 

If in the country, a local time-table should be 
placed in an accessible position, and many 
people also place the times of incoming and 
outgoing posts on a card for the benefit of 
their guests. 

The telephone is often placed in the hall, 
but, if small, this is not convenient ; and, 
moreover, all conversations are the common 
property of the whole household. It is 
better to fix the telephone where there is 
space for a chair and small table, so that 
messages can be taken and noted in comfort. 

Some simple and artistic lighting fitment 
in a dark corner at the end of the stairs, or 
elsewhere, may be made a very pleasant and 
welcoming feature of a hall, and prevent an 
accident to unaccustomed feet. 

In the sitting-room hall want of light is 
frequently a bar to perfect comfort. In 
these days of standard lamps for electric 
light, as well as 
for gas and oil, 
it is not difficult 
to obtain suffi- 
cient light, and 
nothing so con- 
tributes to the 
general comfort 
as a well-placed 
and artistically 
designed light 

Such things 
can be obtained 
in form to suit 
any period. If 
the hall is pan- 
elled, and an 
Elizabethan oak 
cupboard or 

Flemish press 
has been con- 
verted to the 
purpose of hold- 
ing the coats, 
we should select 
a veritable lan- 
tern such as a 
man-a t-arms 
might have car- 
ried in a six- 
teenth century 
pageant. Even 
the glass is of a 
tinge, to 
the horn 
which pro- 
tected the 
dips; and, 
upon a 
stand, this 

„ ^ An antique design for a hall lantern which would 

well. be admirably in keeping with a panelled hall 



If Jacobean chairs and tables furnish the 
hall, hanging sconces of that period are 
obtainable ready for electric wiring or for 
gas. Should the later Chippendale style be 
suitable, then glass lustres or gilt girandoles 
can be had for the asking. 

The principal point to decide is the posi- 
tion in which the light will be most useful, 
and then to adjust it there. One word of 
warning : do not keep an ill-lit hall, if you 
wish your friends to obtain an impression 
of warmth, light, and welcome to your 

To have a good light in the daytime is also 
an essential of comfort. I know of houses 
where the building of rooms round a central 
hall — a good idea in itself — has led to 
disaster with regard to the admission of 
daylight to the place of entry. 

That architects are occasionally men of 
but one idea at a time is to be regretted, but 
the clever housewife can doubtless devise 
some way out of the difficulty, even though 
her professional house -planner may have 

There are several methods of letting 
daylight into a badly illuminated hall. One 
can sometimes be managed by means of a 
skylight, though to place this in a central 
position may be impossible owing to a room 
having been built above. There may be, 
however, a passage leading out into the 
garden, and this may permit of a skylight 
being placed so that the hall may have an 
opportunity of receiving some welcome rays 
of sunshine. 

Again, it may be possible, by the sacrifice 
of a small morning-room, to obtain better 

If the dark hall is surrounded by rooms, 
why not get rid of one of the partition walls, 
and thus, by opening the room and throwing 
it into the hall obtain a really adequate 
allowance of daylight. 

Occasionally one can vastly improve a hall 
by letting glass panes into the front door. 
These panes may be of the old clear glass- 
bottle order, which always have an excellent 
appearance, or, if the house is in the country, 
quite clear bevelled sheets of glass will have 
a very lighting effect on the darkest hall. A 
little silk curtain can be drawn over the glass 
at night ; or, better still, a good strong- 
shutter be put up, so that the gaze of passers- 
by may not annoy those sitting in the hall. 
A large-sized pane of clear glass is charming 
in a door leading into the garden, and, of 
course, if such a door gives on to the hall, 
much more Hght can be obtained, while, at 
the same time, the effect- of a framed 
picture enclosing the garden scene is really 

We remember to have seen such a garden 
door in an old house in Suffolk. The clear 
blue sky, with a tracery of cedar branch 
seen across it, together with a peep of an 
herbaceous border of flaming poppies and 
blue delphiniums made a garden picture of 
the most vivid and delightful colouring, 
which, until one had examined its beauty 
through the clear glass pane, had all the effect 
of a perfectly painted picture. 

Three beautiful designs for chairs suitable for a hall 



Why the Open Grate is Popular — Radiant v. Convexcd Heat — The Wastefulness of Open Grates — 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal Fires — Stoves and their Drawbacks — How to Warm an 

Entire House with One Stove — Hot-water Installations 

•yHE British householder is conservative in 
questions affecting his comfort ; and 
probably for many generations to come 
he will regard the open grate as the plea- 
santest, most cheerful, and most convenient 
means for warming his rooms. 

The open grate has lost none of its 
popularity, albeit other systems of heating 
are available, the efficiency of which has 
stood the test of use. 

The question of open grate versus closed 
stove is not one of relative economy, or 
the latter would before this have obtained 
a firmer foothold in our homes. Neither is 
it altogether a question of sentiment, much 
as we love the cheery glow of coals in the 
grate. The true explanation of the popu- 
larity of the open grate is to be found in 
the. character of the warmth it diffuses. 

Heat may reach our bodies in two ways. 
The heat rays emitted by incandescent fuel 
strike through the intervening air and 
become sensible heat when they reach our 
clothes and skin. This is termed radiant 
heat. It travels in straight lines from its 
source in every direction, and may be 
intercepted, as everyone knows who has 
used a firescreen. 

The other form is that known as convexed 
heat — heat conveyed to our bodies by the 
surrounding air, which has received it 
previously from some heated surface, such 

TTie two forms in which heat reaches us. Radiant heat is the more pleasant and healthful, but also the 

more extravagant 

as the iron casing of a stove or the coil ot 
a hot- water system. Such heat will pass 
wherever the air which carries it can find 

Radiant heat warms us without producing 
those symptoms of stuffiness and discomfort 
which are associated with convexed or air- 
borne heat. 

The open grate diffuses radiant heat in 
a greater degree than any other warming 
appliance, and hence the good favour in 
which it is held. But it is not economical, 
and in its more primitive forms is stated 
to waste five-sixths of the heat it produces. 
This waste heat, of course, escapes up the 
chimney with the products of combustion. 

The most modern and improved forms 
of grate probably waste one-half the heat 
they produce ; and it is questionable whether 
any appreciable further economy could be 
effected in the open grate without destroy- 
ing its efficiency as a dispenser of radiant 

The advantages of the open grate may 
be summed up as : Simplicity, cheerfulness, 
the pleasant character of the heat pro- 

To these must be added the incidental 
service it performs in ventilating our rooms. 
Its disadvantages are : Wastefulness, dust, 
need for frequent attention. 

So long as coal does not show any tendency 
to increase per- 
manently in price, 
we shall probably 
endure the waste- 
fulness. The dust 
we have already 
learnt to tolerate ; 
and as for the 
attention, we most 
of us regard that 
duty as a privilege, 
some even as a 
fine art. 

Taken together, 
these shortcomings 
of the open grate 
are more than 
counterbalanced by 
its advantages. 

The closed stove 
is not yet common 

in our living-rooms, 

though it has long 

been used in' 
churches, school- 
rooms, and other 
places where a large 
space has to be 
warmed economic- 

Its principal 
drawba ck is th e 


uncomfortable dryness it imparts to the 
air, which is not entirely removed by the 
common practice of placing a pan of water 
upon the stove top. 

Improved modes of construction have 
been devised, with the object of counter- 
acting some of these disadvantages, the 
most successful of which aim at reducing 
the external temperature of the stove 
casing ; but unless this reduction of tem- 
perature be accompanied by an increased 
amount of surface, the heat thus conserved 
will pass into the flue — and be wasted. 

Increased surface is sometimes introduced 
in the form of " gills," or radiating plates, 
and at other times by increasing the dimen- 
sions of the outer casing of the stove. 

All systems of heating are, or should be, 
co-related with ventilation. It has already 
been mentioned that the open grate acts 
as a means of ventilation. This it does by 
means of the draught induced by the 
ascending current of heated gases from the 
burning coal. The closed stove, on the 
other hand, unless arranged in connection 
with a special system of ventilation designed 
to utilise its heat, carries away no more air 
than it needs for the combustion of its 


A closed stove heats the room more 
uniformly than an open grate, producing 
a continually ascending current of warm 
air, which displaces the cooler air around 
it. This latter in time reaches the stove, 
and is in turn warmed, and thus a circulation 
of air is produced which carries the heat 
into every corner of the room. 

Closed stoves are designed to burn coke 
or anthracite, both of which are smokeless 
fuels, and a hopper is usually provided for 
storing a considerable supply of fuel in the 
stove itself, so that it need only be re- 
plenished at long intervals. 

There is one application of the closed 
stove which might receive more favour than 
it has done at present. A great defect in 
our ordinary system of domestic heating 
by means of open grates is that our living- 
rooms are well warmed, but the passages, 
stairways, and bedrooms are often at some- 
thing near freezing temperature. If a 
closed stove be fixed in the hall, and kept 
burning continuously through the winter 
months, it will diffuse a pleasant warmth 
through those neglected parts of the house, 
and will do much to eliminate those draughts 
in our rooms caused by the action of the 
grate in drawing air into them from the 
colder parts of the house. 

The warming effect of a hall stove is 
felt even in the living-rooms, so that the 
fires there may be kept lower, and on mild 
winter days need not be lighted until 
actually required. 

To sum up the advantages of the closed 
stove, they are : Economy, more uniform 
heating, little attention needed, practically 
no dust. 


The disadvantages are : Stuffiness and 
discomfort, unpleasant smell, need for sup- 
plementing ventilation, possible danger from 
noxious fumes. 

The question of appearance will probably 
influence some people ; and it cannot be said 
that much has been done to redeem the 
closed stove from ugliness. But recent 
patterns show a tendency to improvement 
in that respect, and if not altogether things 
of beauty, at least are inoffensive. 

Of other systems of heating, those which 
employ gas, oil, or electricity, may be 
classed as supplementary. 

Hot'water Systems 

Heating by hot water or by steam falls 
into a separate category, and will now be 

Such systems are expensive to instal. 

In the ordinary open grate about five-sixths of the heat produced 

escapes up the chimney, but a useful service is rendered by the 

ventilating of the room incidental to an open fire 

the cost generally falling upon the tenant, 
but they are economical in fuel, and give 
a uniform diffusion of heat when properly 
designed and erected. 

. For large houses and rooms these systems 
prove more generally efficient than any 
other mode of heating ; for small houses 
they are less suitable, owing to the difficulty 
of preventing overheating. 

Whenever the open grate is abolished in 
favour of hot water or steam piping, it 
becomes essential to instal an efficient 
separate ventilating system, with properly 
arranged inlets and outlets ; otherwise, as 
the valuable influence of the fireplace in 
changing the air of the room is lost, the 
result of the pipe system would be to 
create a circulation of warm foul-air currents 
round the room — a result which would be 



most injurious and unpleasant to the 

The usual plan is to introduce fresh air 
by an inlet placed so that the air passes 
through, or around, the coil or radiator, 
and thus becomes warmed before it enters 
the room. Proper outlets to remove the 
foul air have also to be arranged in the 
upper part of the room. 

Two systems of hot-water apparatus are 
in use, known respectively as the high and 
low pressure. , In both systems the arrange- 
ment consists of a complete circuit through 
which the water circulates in obedience to 
the law that when the water in one half 
of the circuit is heated it ascends, and is 
replaced by the cooler water in the other 

In the low-pressure system the tempera- 
ture of the pipes is about 200 degrees Fahr. 
They are of large diameter, and, the system 
being open to the air, is at atmospheric 
pressure. - 
• In the high-pressure system the water 

circulates under pressure in a closed system 
of pipes, and the temperature of the pipes 
ma}^ be 300 degrees to 400 degrees Fahr., 
the pipes being of small diameter. The 
latter system is open to the objection that 
the air is liable to be overheated, but it is 
more economical to instal, as the piping is 
smaller, and no boiler is needed. 

The steam system of heating is unsuited 
for domestic use in this country, though 
extensively employed in America, where 
houses are often built in large blocks sub- 
divided into tenements. It is liable to over- 
heat the air, and, besides other objections, 
is subject to emitting at intervals unpleasant 
noises known as " hammering." 

The advantages of these systems of pipe 
heating may be stated as : Uniform dis- 
tribution of heat, economy of fuel, absence 
of dust, smell, and discomfort. 

Their disadvantages are : High first cost, 
need for a separate ventilating system, if no 
fires are used with them, inapplicability to 
small rooms. 


Continued from page 3610, Part 30 


I II Illll l l — | I| | W M i l I 

6KE.TeH A 

5KE.TeH JB. 

The Fan 



Sketch e 

1. Lay the table napkin flat on the table, 
right side up. 

2. Fold down the two top corners to the half 
of table napkin (Sketch a). 

3. Fold back the two top corners (Sketch b). 

4. Fold the lower hem to within about 7 inches 
of top point (Sketch c). 

5. Form two i-inch folds (Sketch c). 

6. Kilt from selvedge to selvedge in i i-inch 

7. Pass the finger between each kilting, 
pressing down the first hem and two folds about 
half an inch, and firmly crease them. 

8. Open the fan out and arrange in glass (see 


1. Lay the table napkin flat on the 
table, right side up. 

2. Fold the two lower corners to 
within an inch of the top hem (see 
lower line, Sketch a). 

3.. Form three i-inch folds with the 
top portion of table napkin (Sketch b). 

4. Kilt from selvedge to selvedge in i.^-inch 
folds (Sketch c). 

5. Pass the finger between each 
kilting, pressing down the first hem, 
^WT^Tr^X^ also the three folds, about half an 

^A^-K ■»■ wXl. w inch, and firmly crease them. 

6. Open the fan out, holding it with the 
hems uppermost, and arrange in tumbler (see 







5KE.TCH :B> 

D 25 




1. Lay the table nap- 
kin, right side up, on 
the table. 

2. Fold it in half, 
selvedge to selvedge, 
having the selvedges 
towards the folder 
(Sketch A). 

3. Fold in half, hem 
to hem, crease, and 
open out again (see 
dotted line. Sketch a). 

4. Take the right- 
hand single Jower 
corner (leaving one SKEiTC 
on table), and fold 
it to left-hand lower corner (making four 
thicknesses of damask at the left-hand lower 
corner), and forming a triangle on the top 
(Sketch b). 

5. Take left-hand corner fold of triangle, also 
the corner beneath (leaving one on table), and 
fold again to right-hand corner. 

6. Put right-hand top fold to left-hand corner, 
forming a triangle (Sketch c)- 

7. Bring right and left-hand top folds to the 
centre crease (Sketch d). 

8. Turn over the table napkin, and fold right 
and left folds to centre crease (Sketch e). 

9. Again turn over right and left folds to 
centre crease. 

10. Turn over the table napkin, and fold 
right and left folds to centre crease, forming 
a long straight column (Sketch f). 

11. Stand up the table napkin, and turn back 
the four bottom corners to support the column, 
as shown by dotted lines in Sketch f. 


The table napkin when finished is shown in tne 




1. Lay the table napkin, 
right side up, on the table. 

2. Fold it in half, selv- 
edge to selvedge (Sketch a). 

3. Fold hem to hem to 
make a square (Sketch b). 

4. Turn the folded corner 
over to the opposite corners 
to form a triangle (Sketch c). 

5. Fold from the left- 
hand corner in five even pleats, being careful 
that the double fold of the napkin comes at the 
back (Sketch c and Sketch d). 


Four leaves 

6. Draw down the loose corners to form 
leaves (see photograph). 



Some Simple Shades and How to Make Them — The Best Reading Lamp — A Suggestion for 

Mever before has there been such a wide is now required to be done is to separate 
^ ^ variation in electric light shades as at the bulb and glass shade from the bracket, 
the present time. A great deal of fore- and secure the newly made shade on the 
thought and pains are given to the orna- end of the fitting, then readjust the bulb 
mentation of the drawing-room, dining-room, and shade as heretofore, 
and bedroom, but seldom enough 
to rendering the scheme of lighting 
the room an artistic one. Thus 
the room lacks the "finishing- 
touch," and at first sight it is not 
unusual to wonder what the slight 
addition required can be. 

Suitable light shades perhaps do 
more than anything to add a sense 
of warmth and comfort to any apart- 

The first illustration is ideal in its 
simplicity, for the shade consists 
merely of one Japanese, or ordinary 
plain paper serviette, or d'oyley. 
The former are the better, as the 
paper is of stronger texture. The 
serviettes can be . purchased from 
any of the leading drapers or 
stationers, and are sold, in boxes 
containing one dozen, from sixpence 
to a shilling. They are also pro- 
curable singly, but the outlay is 
generally found to be greater. 

The size of the serviettes should, 
of course, vary according to the size 
of the glass shades over which they 
are intended, to be placed, the smaller 
make of shades being the most satisfactory, 
as the d'oyleys are then given more freedom 
to hang in uniformity, and the designs are 
shown better. Many pleasing designs are 
also obtainable in chiffon, which arc ex- 
tremely handsome and dainty. 

The shades seen in the pho- 
tographs measure 13I inches 
square. Their adjustment is 
quite simple, the method being 
to cut out a circle in the 
centre of the paper to dimen- 
sions of about 5 inches round 
the cut edge, or according to 
the size of fittir 
is to be attached 

To obtain a correct circle, 
fold the paper equally from 
side to side, slightly creasing [ 
it, then refold it from end to 
end, and place a pin in the 
middle of the four squares 
thus formed. Make a loop of 
sewing cotton the length of 
the circle from the centre to 
the required edge and put it 
over the pin. In the other 
end of the loop place a finely 
sharpened pencil, and, holding 
the pin firmly in position, pro- 
ceed to draw a line by working 
the pencil round ; by this line 
cut out the circle. All that 

A simple but tasteful electric light shade, made trom a Japanese 
paper serviette 

When the lights are on the effect is en- 

The shade shown in Fig. 2 is a great 
boon to the reader and the industrious 
worker. The frequent use of electric light is 
not so good for the sight as 
that of gas. Therefore, to 
obviate the glare and hard- 
ness of the light, this shade 
should meet with high appre- 

It can be bought in all 
colours at a cost of 2s. 3d., 
a dark green or blue shade 
being the most suitable if 
required to soften the light; 
they are also reliable colours 
for harmonious effects. Neither 
is it a difficult object to 
achieve at home, for, after 
having obtained a wire frame, 
the silk is pleated on at the 
bottom edge and finally 
secured at the top of the 

A plain piece of silk covers 
the point, so that the light 
may not be impeded, and a 
very narrow braid finishes off 
the parts where the silk joins. 
Two wires, the shape of an 
egg and about the length of 
the electric globe, are fixed 

2. An electric light shade in dark 
green for the busy worker 
Sel fridge 



at the point in the inside of the shape, 
into which the globe is gripped, and by 
which the shade is held in position. 

For artistic and striking effects shades 
consisting of beads throughout cannot be 
excelled. The shades have expanding tops, 
which render them fit for use on either candles 
or electric lights. 

The method of shading candle lights has 
not, until of late, been largely in vogue. 



i^'^J&'SmSp m^mf'WL^Efm 


















'■ ^WMiil^i-* 


Fig. 3. A pretty candle shade, trimmed with narrow braid and 
chenille and finished with a glass bead fringe 

but now that the practice has been intro- 
duced, it is meeting with a favourable 
demand. A special fitting is required, on 
which the shade rests in position. 

A Candle Shade 

The square shape (Fig. 3) is a very becom- 
ing idea for this particular object. Such a 
shade can be had in very pretty colours of 
corrugated linen. It can, however, also be 
carried out by the home worker. 

Take a piece of thin cardboard and cut it 
into four parts. The depth of each priece 
should measure 3 inches, and the bottom of 
the shade may be 4 inches wide. Each piece 
should slope to about 2| inches to form the 
top of the shade. Join the four sides together 
by over-sewing them with strong thread. 

Cut a piece of cardboard 2-| inches square, 
out of which take a circle measuring 6| inches 
round the edge. Fix this square about 
I inch from the top in the inside of the shade 
by means of thin gummed paper. This forms 
the rest for the shade on the candle fitting. 

Cover the shape with pleated silk, being 
careful to allow a sufiicient quantity for the 
corners. Complete the edges with two 
rows of braid (^ inch wide), with a row of 
chenille between. Attach a wreath of che- 
nille to the centre of each side, drawing it into 
knots at a suitable distance apart to appear 
like roses. Complete the shade with a bead 
fringe of i| inches wide. 

A suggestion as to colour might be found 
useful. A pale green silk edged with pale 
green and gold braid, with pink chenille 
between, and forming the wreaths, would be 
extremely handsome. White glass beads 
should be employed for the fringe. 

One of the most useful and latest novelties 
is the nightlight stand and shade. Not 
infrequently is it required in the sick-room or 
that of the night nursery, and until recently 
the only means of burning a nightlight was 
by the aid of a fancy saucer or a glass holder. 
Now, a much more beautiful and beneficial 
scheme has been devised, which is depicted 
in Fig. 4. The stand consists of figured 
glass, and the light is placed under a globe, 
over which the shade is placed. The stand, 
together with the shade, costs only is. o^d, 

A Nightlight Shade 

As in the case of the candle shade, the 
nightlight shade shown in the photograph 
is made of corrugated linen, but it can be 
contrived in silk over a wire foundation, with 
a narrow fancy braid and bead fringe as an 
ornamentation . 

The materials most suitable for the cover- 
ing of these shades is flowered chine silk and 
satin grenadine silk, both of which range from 
6s. 6d. to 7s. 6d. per yard, double width. 

All shapes and sizes of wire foundations 
can be made to order at most of the large 
drapery and electrical houses, the prices 
charged, of course, depending upon the 
amount of wire and labour entailed. But 
it might be said that the " Empire " founda- 
tion, which is largely used for standing lamps 
and for hanging in the centre of rooms, can 
generally be obtained at once. 

Fig 4. A nightlight shade of corrugated linen or of silk over 

a wire foundation. A narrow braid and a bead fringe will 

complete the design Selfndse 

It is quite easy to cover an Empire shape 
with silk, and decorate it in any desired 

To those fond of painting, these shades 
offer great opportunities for their skill, and 
the results will prove to be ample recompense 
for their labour. 

Embroidered chiffon, worked in a pretty 
design and lined with silk, is, without doubt, 
an admirable accomplishment, and one that 
gives a soft and dainty touch to any room. 



This section tells everything that a mother ought to know and everything she should teach her 

children. It will contain articles dealing with the whole of a child's life from infancy to womanhood. 

A few of the subjects are 1 

lere mentioned : 

The Baby 


Physical Training 



How to Engage a 

Use of Clubs 

How to Arrange a 

How to Engage a 

Private Governess 


Children's Party 


English Schools for 


Outdoor Games 

Preparing for Baby 


Chest Expanders 

Indoor Gaines 


Foreign Schools and 

Exercises Without 

How to Choose Toys 

What Every Mother 



for Children 

Should Know, etc. 

Exchange with Foreign 

Breathing Exercises 

The Selection of Story 

Fam Hies for Learn ing 



Languages, etc. 





Dresses that are Easily Made at Home — Master and Miss Hook of Holland — ^A Pantomime Fairy — 

A Silver Butterfly — The Queen of the May — Some Flower Dresses — The April Fool and the 

Chocolate Soldier — A Doll — A Water Nymph — A Nursery Hero — A Dickens Child — Antony and 

Cleopatra — A Christmas'tree — The Chimney Sweep — Robin Hood 

A children's fancy dress ball is one of the 
prettiest and gayest sights imaginable, 
and fancy dress is nowadays so popular for 
children's parties that most little people 
receive invitations to several of such revels 
in the course of the Christmas holidays. It 
becomes, therefore, imperative to be able to 
contrive suitable fancy dresses at home. 

Where this is done, the matter of expense 
need hardly be considered, for most effective 
costumes can be made from inexpensive 
materials, and many of the needful acces- 
sories fashioned from odds and ends to be 
found in every house, or from the contents 
of the children's wardrobes and toy cup- 

Several of the dresses described in the 
present article can be carried out merely 
with the expenditure of a little time and 
ingenuity alone, while many others could be 
easily manufactured at an outlay of a few 

The Dutch Boy and Girl make a most 
attractive couple. 

The boy wears a short double-breasted 
coat and baggy trousers, gathered in at the 
ankle, made of loosely woven, light cornflower 
blue linen, with a white collar. 

His curiously shaped hat and flowing tie 

may both be of dull black silk, or a black 
hat and deep orange tie could be worn. 

His socks are white, striped with blue. 
Wooden sabots complete his attire. 

The little Dutch girl should be portrayed 
by a fair child with quantities of golden or 
flaxen hair. She wears a dress of cornflower 
blue linen — of a shade which will remain 
brilliantly blue at night — a plain, short- 
sleeved bodice and a very full-gathered 
skirt, worn over numerous petticoats. 

The apron is of white muslin, adorned with 
a couple of bands of blue and white em- 
broidery, and a band of similar embroidery 
encircles her neck just below a flat frill of 
white lawn. A similar frill peeps out beneath 
the sleeves of the little gown. 

A Dutch cap of very fine clear muslin, 
edged with lace, and with embroidered 
corners, is pinned on to her head on either 
side of the front with elaborate silver pins 
bearing dangling ornaments. 

Blue stockings and wooden sabots com- 
plete her attire, and her hair is parted from 
back to front, plaited and tied with big bows 
of white or blue ribbon to hang over either 
shoulder to below the waist. 

A Pantomime Fairy is a character which 
will delight the imaginative child. Her 


frock is composed of white dewdrop-spangled 
tulle, with a short- waisted bodice, cut with a 
low neck and wee puff sleeves surrounded by 
a tiny ruche. The skirt is very short, ending 
some inches above the knee, cut very full 
indeed, and finished at the bottom with an 
inch hem, or a wee ruche to match those on 
the bodice. 

The little bodice should be lined with silk, 
but the skirt must have five or six under- 
petticoats of stiff, clear book muslin, cut 
half an inch shorter than the tulle over-skirt, 
and very full indeed to make it stand out. 

Both under and over skirts must be caught 
up slightly higher just at the back to produce 
the true ballet skirt tilt. 

Very long white stockings must be worn, 
and white kid or satin shoes, with cross- 
over elastics for dancing, and a pair of tiny 
gossamer wings made from stiff white- 
covered hat wire. The wire should be bent 
to the required shape (not forgetting a couple 
of wee loops by which to put on the wings), 
lightly covered with stiff, transparent book 
muslin, and painted with water-colour to 
resemble a butterfly's wings. Each wing 
must be fastened on separately, a few inches 
apart, to look as though springing from the 

The fairy's hair should be fastened up on 
top of the head, with a wee white-spangled 
rose tucked in at one side, and her outfit is 
completed by a ribbon-covered wand, with 
a bunch of silver ornaments at the top. 

A Dainty Dress 

A Silver Butterfly dress might be carried 
out in almost exactly the same way, only in 
this case the wings should be of silver tissue, 
and a butterfly should adorn the top of the 
wand, with a trail of tiny silver gauze 
butterflies hanging from it. A pair of ribbon 
gauze antennae — ^fixed to an invisible wire 
to encircle the head under the little one's 
hair — should take the place of the white 
rose of the fairy's dress. 

The Village May Queen is a charm- 
ingly pretty dress if carried out in white, 
yellow, and green, with a posy of spring 
flowers on top of a ribbon-decked maypole. 

The under-dress should consist of a white 
muslin frock, cut rather long and very simply 
made, worn over a single soft white cambric 

The over-dress is made in the simplest 
fashion possible of soft dull green ninon, the 
colour of a beech-leaf in June, cut the same 
length as, or an inch or two shorter than, the 
frock, and finished everywhere with a hem 
a quarter of an inch wide. 

Round the w^aist a wide sash of dull 
yellow silk, with a big bow and long ends, 
may be tied ; though it may be omitted if 
not suitable to the child, and the ninon coat 
left to float free from neck to hem. 

The feet may be bare, or clad in soft 
green shoes and stockings. On the head is 
worn a wreath of spring flowers — white 
may or cowslips and wild daffodils, and 
the maypole is tied with green and yellow 

ribbons, with a big posy of primroses, cow- 
slips, kingcups, and daffodils at the top. 

The eldest of a family of little sisters 
might wear the May Queen dress, and the 
younger ones each a similar white muslin 
dress with a green over-dress, and garlands 
to represent some wild flower. One should 
be a Daisy, with a daisy chain edging her 
tunic, a double chain hanging from her neck, 
and a huge inverted daisy for cap upon her 
head, or a wreath of daisied. 

A Daffodil should have a wreath of 
daffodils in her hair, and carry a big bunch in 
her hand. A Wild Violet wears a border of 
wee blue and white violets to her frock and 
a wreath in her hair. 

A Boy's Dress 

An April Fool would be a splendid fancy, 
dress for an impish boy to accompany his 
May Queen sister and her little train of 

This dress, to harmonise with hers, should' 
be carried out entirely in green and yellow; 
the materials employed being either satin 
or a good make of sateen. 

It consists of a pair of straight-legged 
breeches, one leg being green, the other 
yellow. These breeches are cut rather wide, 
and reach to about three inches below the 
knee, where they are cut into three or four 
sharp points, to each of which a tiny brass 
bell is hung. 

The upper part consists of close-fitting 
under-sleeves, one green, one yellow, that 
reach to the wrists, mounted on to a separate 
lining waistcoat. Over this is a parti-coloured 
surcoat, the bottom of which is cut into 
pointed tabs, with wide, bell-shaped sleeves 
cut into a long, pointed cock's-comb from 
the elbows, each point adorned with bells. 

The head-dress consists of a close-fitting 
green and yellow cap, with a cock's-comb 
along its top. Long ears, adorned with bells, 
are on either side. From this cap hangs a 
pointed cape, cut with bell -bedecked pointed 
tabs ; or, if preferred, it can be made a 
separate garment. The surcoat is belted with 
a belt of russet leather to match the square- 
cut brass buckled shoes. A green stocking is 
worn on one leg, and a yellow one on the 

In his hand the April Fool carries a 
jester's doll on a stick, dressed in a bell- 
bedecked garment of the same colours as his 

Such a dress naturally carries with it the 
privilege of playing jests on one's fellow-guests 
unrebuked during the evening. 

For a Tiny Child 

The Chocolate Soldier is well suited to a 
very tiny person indeed, either a boy or a 
girl, who should be dressed to look as much 
like a chocolate figure from a Christmas cake 
as possible. 

The little uniform is carried out in thin 
chocolate brown cloth or sateen, braided in 
brown, or silver, with a cap of the same 
material, or of brown velveteen. 




a soft white cambric petticoat. Her feet 
are bare, or, for dancing purposes, they 
might be thrust into flat-soled green sandal 

In her hair she wears a wreath of tiny 
white flowered water weeds, and she carries 
a bunch of bulrushes or a trail of 


box of 
lates — 
tied with 
ribb ons, 
and fast- 
ened on the 
tunic with 

shoes and 
socks and 
silver but- 
tons, to 
look as 
much like 
the silver 
balls used 
on wed- 
ding - cakes 
as possible, 
the dress. 

The Doll is dressed in stiff pink muslin, w4th 
a ruche at the hem and a sash of thin shiny 
pink satin ribbon . Underneath her dress, she 
wears several stiff book muslin petticoats, 
and her feet and ankles are wound with 
pink satin ribbon. In her hair she wears a 
ruche of pink satin ribbon, with a Christmas 
star sewn on the front. 

Fastened in front of her frock might be a big 
label, with " 4^d." printed upon it in large 
black letters, or the label might be even 
more realistically fastened to the back of 
the skirt. 

The Water Nymph, or Undine, if that 
character is preferred, wears a long, very 
simple frock of soft transparent muslin over 

a trail ot water 
A necklace of dull green beads may be 
worn, if liked. 

A Nursery Hero wears a tin 
breastplate and leathern belt and 
bandolier. A chocolate medal 
is fastened to the front of his 
breast-plate. He carries a Union 
Jack in one hand and a tin trumpet 
in the other. A cocked hat made 
of paper might well adorn his 

This dress would be specially 
suitable for an impromptu 
fancy-dress tea-party, as the 
parts could be 
abstracted from 
almost any toy 

The Small 
Early Victorian 
Damsel, or 
makes the 

and most lovable 

figure i m a g i n - 

able, with her 

demure yet 

roguish air. 

She wears a short full 

skirt of dullgreen merino 

gathered on to a plain, 

tightly fitting bodice, 

with long, tight sleeves. 

Over this is a pelerine 

stuff, edged with fringe, 

over to hang in t\vo 

ends behind, in place of 

tiny embroidered mus- 

arranged at the neck. 

frock, which makes a 

dress for a child when 

fancy dress party, 

of the same 
'which crosses 
long, rounded 
a sash. A 
lin collar is 

Under the little 
sweet little indoor 
it has done duty for a 

come a pair of long white pantaloons of 
finest nainsook muslin, cut rather full, with 
frills edged with fine broderie anglaise. 
White socks and black sandal shoes with 
cross-over elastics are worn, and a skipping 
rope or hobby horse should be carried. 

The small damsel's coiffure is an im- 
portant point. The hair should either be 



■parted from back to front, and plaited in 
two braids to hang straight down on either 
shoulder, with a big green ribbon bow at the 
end of each one, or the plaits be twisted 
up just over each ear and tied in place 
there with long bows, as shown in the 

Antony and Cleopatra are two excellent 
characters for a small brother and sister to 

Antony's tunic should be made of fine white 
nuns'-veiling, with a Greek key pattern in 
gold braid appliqued round the neck, sleeves, 
and hem. It is a good plan to use a transfer 
pattern for the key pattern, which other- 
wise entails much measuring to keep it 

A girdle, edged top and bottom with finely 
plaited gold cord ornamented at four-inch 
intervals with cameos set in gold, encircles the 
waist, and from it depend ten two-inch wide 
bands of material reaching to just above the 
key pattern round the hem of the tunic. 
Each band is bound with gold braid, and has 
a gold lion's bead sewn on to adorn it two 
inches from the bottom. 

Five large decorated gold buttons, worked 
up with gold braid to re- 
semble spikes, are fastened 
on to the front of the chest 
of the tunic, and the costume 
is completed by a small 
leopard s skin with a long 
dangling tail slung as a cloak 
from the shoulders. 

If this is unobtainable, an 
excellent imitation may be 
made from a piece of leopard 
skin cloth. 

Antony's boots may be 
contrived from a pair of 
soles with wash leather 
uppers, adorned with gold 
braid, and made to lace up 
the front. 

A fillet of wide gold braid 
is tied round his head. He 
might, if liked, carry a small 
round Roman shield. 

Cleopatra is attired in an 
under-dress of scarab-blue 
satin or sateen, completely 
covered by an over-dress of 
indigo blue ninon, fringed 
with dull silver. 

The over-dress is cut 
kimono fashion, the stuff 
being folded into pleats on 
the shoulders to give extra 
fulness back and front. 

The waist is encircled with 
a brilliant flame-coloured 
sash of the thinnest Oriental silk gauze, the 
ends bordered with silver fringe. 

Cleopatra's hair is plaited in two long 
plaits entwined with pearls, and from her 
circular silver crown — richly jewelled — a 
high, glittering ornament rises in front, from 
which a deep blue or flame-coloured jewel 
depends upon her forehead. 

A ChristmaS'tree. This costume is of stiff dark 
muslin over sateen. If necessary, crinkled 
paper could be substituted for muslin 

There are characteristic Egyptian hangmg 
side-pieces to the crown, formed of chains of 
jewels, ending in tassels and caught together 
by scarab ornaments at three-inch intervals. 
A necklace of scarabs or indigo-blue stones 
encircles her neck, and from it a big scarab 
hangs as a pendant from a chain. 

Cleopatra's feet are encased in pointed 
sandal slippers of silver tissue, with jewelled 
bands down the front and round the tops. 

A Christmas-tree makes a most successful 
fancy dress, the foundation of which consists 
of stiff and finely-pleated dark green muslin 
cut in deep flounces, one overlapping the 
other, mounted upon a princess foundation 
of sateen. Dark green crinkled paper, how- 
ever, makes an excellent substitute for 

The sleeves are frills, and the skirt is set 
out as widely as possible over several stiffly 
starched muslin petticoats. 

A pointed cap bearing a Christmas-tree 
star is worn on the head, and the dress is 
completed by decorations consisting of 
quantities of the lightest Christmas-tree 
ornaments procurable, such as coloured glass 
balls and tinsel fringes. These are lightly 
tacked in place. Strings of 
very light crackers of brilliant 
hue may be included, and 
several gay penny toys, hung 
in conspicuous places where 
they will catch the eye of the 
beholder, are sewn through 
to the princess foundation, 
so that it may bear the 

Very dark green shoes 
and stockings may be worn, 
or gay red ones to represent 
the flower-pot. 

A Chimney Sweep. This 
character represents Tom in 
the " Water Babies." He 
wears a shirt and knicker- 
bockers of black calico, rather 
ragged, has bare legs, and 
his feet are thrust into old 
shoes. His hair is ruflied up 
on his head, his face smudged 
with soot, and in his hand he 
carries an ink-black sweep's 
l^room. This can be made 
from several circles of stiff 
black paper or muslin, cut in 
a stiff fringe to make the 
brush part, and fastened to a 
half broomstick covered with 
black paper. 

Robin Hood can easily be 
contrived from a dull green 
tunic nursery suit in thin 
cloth, with a narrow, turn-down collar of tan- 
coloured suede and a belt of tanned leather. 
A little round green cap with a long 
pheasant's feather thrust through the side 
and brown shoes and stockings complete 
the suit, though, to be very correct, high 
boots, to draw on, not fasten, might be con- 
trived from tan-coloured sudde. 

'pHE art of dancing had its dawn under an 
^ Egyptian sky. 

It was in Egypt, in those mystic, wonder- 
ful ages when the Egyptians possessed the 
wisdom and skill of to-dav, that cymbals 




By Mrs. WORDSWORTH, Principal of the Physical Training College, South Kensington 

The Origin of Cymbal Dances — Cymbals Used in Music and Dancing Among Civilised and Savage 

Races — Cymbals in Pictures and Statuary — ^A Typical Indian Dance — Oyster'shells as Castanets — 

Cymbals as Weapons — Their Use in Children's Dances — A Pretty and Simple Dance 

From the solemnity of religious rites and 
the fury of warfare, dancing passed to the 
quieter gaiety of pastoral sports, the dignity 
and grace of polished society. Beginning in 
Egypt, in the long-ago ages, the use of 
cymbals in dancing and music has marched 
hand in hand with the progress of the art of 
dancing, in every country, and every clime. 
As early as the year 2545 B.C., traces of 
the choreographic art are found. Hieratic 
dances, bequeathed by the priests of ancient 
Egypt to modern races, were then held in 
high honour among the Hebrews. In sacred 
pageants, dating back to the very beginnings 
of history, dancing makes a vague appear- 
ance as an expression of the immutable 
order and harmony of the stars. 

In its earliest forms dancing was closely 
associated with religion ; and cymbals always 
played an important part in ancient re- 
ligious rites. The earliest dancing move- 
ments, as in the cadenced swinging of the 
censer, rocked the shrines of the gods. 
Its first steps were trained and guided by 
the priests before the great granite sphinxes, 
the colossal hypogea, the monstrous columns, 

and high pedi- 
ments of their 

The mysteri- 
ous grandeur of 
these s a cr e d 
dances, per- 
formed to the 
musical clashing 
of metal cym- 
bals, charmed 
the spirit of 
Plato. When 
these astronomi- 
cal dances took 
place, the altar 
in the centre of 
the Egyptian 
temples stood 
for the orb of 
day, while 
dancers, repre- 
senting the signs 
of the Zodiac, 
the seven 
planets, and the 
c o n s t e nations, 
performed revo- 
lutions, imitat- 
ing the move- 
ment of celestial 
bodies round the 

From Egypt 

Step I. Fig. I. The dancer makes a backward bend, holding one 
cymbal above her head. 

Photos, Martin jfacolctte 

first came into use as musical instruments 
for accompanying or usage in conjunction 
with dancing. They appear prominently 
in many of the frescoes preserved to-day of 
quaint, spread-eagled Egyptian figures, with 
sphinx-like head-dresses, and tightly plaited 
hair. It is noticeable that when both hands 
of the dancer are visible one cymbal is turned 
towards and the other away from the onlooker. 

Cymbals, therefore, belong to almost the 
oldest known forms of dancing. Dancing is 
said to have germinated under the skies of 
tne Pharaohs ; and tradition speaks of 
"rounds" — symbolical of ethereal motion — 
circling beneath the stars on the august soil 
of Egypt, mighty mother of the world ! 

Dancing manifested itself first in sacred 
sciences, both severe and hieratic ; yet even 
then it spoke brokenly of joy and grief, in 
the yearly processions of Apis. Later on, 
in the course of ages, it became interwoven 
with all the manifestations of popular life, 
reflecting every changing mood and passion 
of mankind. 

Step 2. Fig. 2. The dancer looks at her 

reflection in the cymbal as she walks 

across the room 




Step 3. Fig. 3 The dancer clashes the cymbals, and, raising her 
left foot, turns slowly, listening to the vibration of tha instruments 

the use of 
c 3^ m b a 1 s 
passed to 
India; in- 
deed, cym- 
bals belong 
essentially to 
Eastern o r 
races, and 
have little 
connect ion 
with the 
more cold- 
blooded and 
less dances 
of the North. 
The wild 
clanging o f 
crashing high 
and low as the 
dancer turns 
and twists, 
acts as a spur 
to the ener- 
gi e s and 
passions of 
Such truly 

barbaric mu- j^^p 4 pj^ 4 kneeling step. After rising 
SIC has its from her knees, both cymbals are clashed 

real environ- above the head 

ment among the scents, sights, and sounds 

of the East. 

In India cymbals, played by three men, 
accompany the dances of the Bayaderes, 
that strange band of priestesses who dance 
only in the temple. A full description of 
the Bayaderes appeared in a previous article 
on scarf dances (page 3355, of Part 28). 



Writing of the dances of India, M. 
Rousselet tells us that in Rajputana the 
Bayaderes enjoy social privileges, and gives 
a clever description of a religious dance of 
the Nauratre, at which he was a privileged 

" The dancing girls were placed on the 
upper terrace of the palace, where an 
immense carpet was spread on the ground," 
writes M. Rousselet. " Braziers filled with 
resin flared in the angles of the walls, strug- 
gling intermittently with gusty flashes 
against the brilliant starlight of the Eastern 
night. A compact circle of women crowded 
the vast platform, glittering with jewels 
and spangles, and clashing cymbals that 
shimmered in every ray of light — a striking 
contrast to dusky arms and faces. In the 
midst of these women a dancing girl moved 
languidly to the sound of the ancient music 
of Indian worship. At certain festivals the 
dancing girls carried cymbals themselves, 
which were bound to their fingers with 
golden cords or braid. These instruments 
they used in harmony with their steps and 
poses ; sometimes knocking them together 
to accentuate the queer, broken rhythm of 
the Eastern music. 

" The scene was truly beautiful and 
poetic. The uncertain, flickering light, 
glancing fitfully upon the graceful, swaying 
crowd, the starry, deep-blue vault above 
the tufts of palm and nin that waved at our 
feet, shaking out their intoxicating scents 
on the clear mountain air that came to us 
laden v/ith the keen odours of the jungle ; 

Step 5. Fig. 5. 

The Egyptian position, in which both the arms arc 
extended to their full length 

3739 OlILbREN 

Indeed, on countless can- 
-> ' -3^ vases these instruments of 

music and adjuncts to danc- 
ing may be found. 

The talan, consisting of 
two discs, one copper the 
other steel, is used in India 
by the musicians who accom- 
pany the Bayadere dances, 
and is in reality another 
form of a cymbal. 

For use in children's 
dances cymbals are very 
valuable, and extremely 
pretty. But certain dangers 
are attached to their use, 
which make it advisable to 
teach cymbal dances only to 
children who are rather well 
advanced in their dancing. 

The cymbals vary in size 
and weight, but the lightest 
weigh a quarter of a pound 
each ; also, in addition to 
the weight, the fact of 
having such a thing as a 
cymbal bound across the 
fingers of both hands is apt 
to make a child stiffen the 
teresting source of the origin stcp 6. Fig. 6. The dancer runs forward with wholc of her hands, wrists, 
of the modern castanet, cymbals crossed and arms to the shoulders. 

the mysterious rhythm of 
the music, all combined in 
placing a strange, weird 
charm on the scene." 

In such a setting cymbals 
and cymbal dancing had a 
true place. 

Cymbals were not always 
made of bronze, brass, or 
copper, as we know them 
to-day. Among savage 
races they were often com- 
posed of flattened earth, 
like a large plate, shaped 
irregularly. Irregularity of 
shape was a marked feature 
of c^TTibals of the older type. 
In Greece, Egypt, and India 
cymbals made of metal or 
stone were used both for 
music and weapons of de- 
fence or offence. From their 
musical and warlike use 
sprang their subsequent 
adoption in martial dances. 
The Greeks, at one time, 
clinked oyster or other shells, 
holding them in their hands 
like castanets — a rather in- 


which, in Spain, takes the place of an 
Eastern cymbal in music and dancing. 

In ancient Egypt, the Almees, a sect of 
dancers, wore a long silken rolDC covered 
with an elaborate pattern, and fastened 
about them with a sash. This peculiar 
branch of terpsichorean slaves still exists. 
The Almees give themselves up to graceful 
contortions to the sound of C5nnbals, -tam- 
bourines, and castanets. 

The modern cymbal is a musical instru- 
ment of percussion, of indefinite musical 
pitch ; whereas the smaller, ancient cup- 
shaped cymbals sounded a definite note. 
The sound is obtained not so much by 
clashing the cymbals against each other as 
by rubbing their edges together, which 
produces a soft, lingering note, very effective 
and clear. 

Greek cymbals were cup or bell shaped, as 
seen in pictures of fauns and satyrs, or 
Bacchanalian dances, in which women are 
represented playing on cymbals, and dancing 
with them in their hands. 

Castanets and cymbals are undoubtedly 
related, for the older form of castanet was 
much larger than the modern type, and 
made of brass or bronze, being practically 
a cymbal of a smaller size. 

The history of cymbals, as used in the 
dances of various nations, might well be 
traced by means of pictures, frescoes, and 
statuary from olden times until the present 
century, and in every country. On a 
beautiful vase now in the Louvre, dancing 
nymphs are seen with cymbals ; and there 
is a Grecian study by Hirsch of a rustic dance 
performed by a man and a girl, also with 
C3'^mbals, which they use with great effect. 

This, besides being bad for the child, and 
undoing the loosening effect of other dances 
on her arms and wrists, produces a very 
ugly, strained effect, totally opposed to the 
true Eastern movement, which is remarkable 
for its freedom and breadth. 

It is wiser, therefore, to make sure that 
a child knows how to use her wrists and 
arms without tightening the muscles before 
putting cymbals into her hands. Even 

Step 7. Fig. 7. Position after springing across, illustrating the 

manner in which the cymbals are held, and showing the strap passed 

across three fingers 



then the steps and 
attitudes may well be 
mastered without the 

It is well to make 
the child understand 
thoroughly how to use 
and hold the cymbals 
before attempting 
the combination of 
steps and cymbals. 
Make her stand still, 
and put the leather 
strap of the cymbal 
across the back of 
her fingers, inserting 
three of them through 
the lo9p. Be sure 
that she draws one 
cymbal across the 
other, continuing the 
movement upward or 
downward, occasion- 
ally clashing them 
sharply together. The 

cymbals never remain touching each other — 
as beginners always imagine — but pass on 
at once. A clearly marked attitude usually 
follows each clash or touch of the cymbals. 

Ordinary brass cymbals, with a strap 
attached, may be bought quite inexpensively 
at any stores. 

Step i. (Fig. i.) The dancer walks four 
steps to the right, and four to the left, softly 
touching the cymbals at each step. A 
curtsey follows ; then she rises, clashes the 

cymbals, and bends 
backwards, • carrying 
one cymbal right over 
her head. 

Step 2. (Fig. 2.) 
She looks at her reflec- 
tion in the cymbal, 
which is raised above 
her head — each hand 
in turn — as she w^alks 

Step 8. Fig. 8, 

across the room. 

Step 3. (Fig. 3.) 
Listening Step. Having 
clashed the cymbals, 
she raises her left foot 
at the back and turns 
slowly, listening to 
the vibration of the 
cymbal ; then repeats 
the same to the left. 

Step 4. (Fig. 4.) 
Kneeling Step. The 
dancer, kneeling, the 
cymbals are clashed 
behind, in front, and 
above her head, as she rises and turns. 

Step 5. (Fig. 5.) Egyptian position, 
both arms extended to their full length. 

Step 6. (Fig. 6.) Running step forward, 
the cymbals crossed. 

Step 7. (Fig. 7.) Springing across, and 
putting foot to knee, the dancer swings both 
arms round her head, and repeats to the left. 
Step 8. (Fig. 8.) Final position. Turn- 
ing rapidly, the dancer sinks down on both 
knees, her C3^mbals crossed in front. 


Final position, in which, after turnins rapidly, 
the dancer sinks down on her knees 

Reine — French variant of Regina. 

Reinette — " Little queen." A pet name. 

Reinhild (Teutonic)—" Battle-maid of judg- 

Renata {Teutonic) — " Warrior of judgment." 
This is the Italian form of the name Rane. 

Renee — French derivative of Rane, which 

Reta (Greek) — " A pearl." Finnish form of 

RhOda (Greek) — " A rose." 

Rhodalind— " Fair as a rose." . 

Rhonwen (Welsh)— " White skirt." 

Riehenza (Teutonic) — " Ruling firmness." Popu- 
lar in Germany. 

Rina (Greek) — " Pure." A contraction of Kath- 

Rita (Greek) — " A pearl." Italian contraction 
of Margharita. 

Roberta (Teutonic) — " Bright fame." 

Robina — Scottish form of above. 

Robinetta — Endearing diminutive of above. 

Roesia and RohaiS (Teutonic)—" Fame." This 
name was in use as far back as the twelfth 
century, when it was borne by Rohais, wife 
of Gilbert de Gaunt, who died in 11 56. 
Roesia was popular among the wives of 
French knights at the Court of Henry II., 
and afterwards carried by these Normans 
over to Ireland, where it became converted 
into Rose, and lost its original meaning. 
Rosel and Rosette were also in vogue in 
France between the tenth and thirteenth 

Continued Jrom pa^-ejsiS, Part ig 


is the 

is the 

(Latin) — " Fame." Romola 

name-heroine of George Eliot's 

Ronat (Gaelic) — " A seal." Ronan 

Rosa (Latin) — " A rose." Rosa is the Spanish 

Rosabel (English) — " Rose fair." 
Rosabella (Scottish) — " Beautiful rose." 
Rosabelle — French "and English variants. 
Rosaclara — " Rose clear." 
Rosalba (Latin) — " A white rose." Italian 


Rosalia and Rosalie (Latin)— " A rose." 

Endearment derivative used in England, 
France, Germany, and Ireland. St. Rosalia 
was a native of Palermo, who was carried 
away by the angels to an inaccessible 
mountain, where she dwelt for many years 
in the cleft of a rock. For long a hole 
was shown in this rock, said to have been 
worn away by her knees in her devotions. 
Later, a chapel was built near the spot, 
with a marble statue in memory of this 
holy woman. In " Marmion," i. 23, Scott 
thus refers to this : 

" That grot where olives nod, 
St. Rosalie retired to God." 

In Christian art St. Rosalia is represented 
in a cave with a cross and skull, or else 
receiving a rosary, or chaplet of roses, from 
the Virgin Mary. 

To be continued. 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclop/EDIA deals with all phases and aspects of Court and 
social life. It contains authoritative articles upon : 

Preseniaiioiis and other Func- 
Conrt Balls 

The Art of Entertaining 
Dinner Pai'ties, etc. 

Card Parties 
At Homes 
Garden Parties^ 
etc., etc. 

The Fashionable Resorts of 

Great Social Positions Occupied 

by Women 
Etiquette for all Occasions, etc. 


Continued from page 3385, Part 28 



A Position that Appeals to the Patriotic "Woman — The Vicissitudes of Naval Government — 
Old Admiralty House and Its Memories — The Tragic Love Story of Lord Sandwich — Some 

Modern Chatelaines at the Admirahy 

HE wife of the official head of the 
Navy holds a position of special 
charm and interest. Who does 
not feel a thrill of patriotism 
at the mention of the " wooden 
walls of old England," and at 
their successors, the giant iron- 
clads which guard our native shores ? 

Everything connected with the sea appeals 
to British sentiment, and one can hardly- 
pass a sailor in the streets without a stirring 
of the pulse and an instinctive thought of 
our great naval heroes — of Nelson and of 
duty. The sailor may sometimes be a 
rollicking fellow ashore, but in the grim 
realities of his profession he faces the perils 
of the mighty deep and the thunder of the 
guns that we may dwell secure. 

Perhaps, even, it is an unconscious tribute 
which every woman pays the Service in the 
perennial fashion of wearing Navy blue. 

Leviathans Afloat 

The wife of the First Lord of the 
Admiralty had an inspiring sight at the 
Coronation Naval Review at Spithead, 
when she saw the Fleet lying at anchor in 
seven columns, each five miles long. It 
was stupendous to think of the power and 
strength of those miles of floating battle- 
ships. All the imposing array, with their 
gallant crews, come under the jurisdiction 
of the First Lord, together with every 
national craft afloat, every sailor in the 
Navy — from admiral to the rawest naval 
cadet — the dockyards, the naval hospitals, 
and every station at home and abroad where 
British vessels lie. 

The wife of the First Lord has, indeed, 

a wide field of interest and great oppor- 
tunities for helping by her presence and 
influence the various schemes and institutions 
for the benefit of sailors and seamen when 
she accompanies her husband to the dock- 
yards and naval stations. 

Origrin of the Office 

The office of First Lord of the Admiralty 
dates from 1708. Prior to that time the 
head of the Navy was the Lord High 
Admiral, a picturesque and autocratic 
person, who carried things with a high hand 
in Tudor times, when the Royal Navy was 
first organised. Lord Howard of Effingham 
was the Lord High Admiral of her High 
Mightiness, Queen Bess, and covered him- 
self with glory at the rout of the Armada. 

The office continued to be held until the 
early part of the seventeenth century, 
when the control of the Navy was confided 
to a Board of Commissioners, consisting of 
the chief officers of the State. At the 
Restoration, the office of Lord High Admiral 
was revived in the person of the Duke of 
York. Then, for a time, Charles II. took 
the office to himself, and James II. resumed 
it on his accession. 

At the^ Revolution, the Naval Depart- 
ment was again put into commission, 
until Queen Anne's husband. Prince George 
of Denmark, was made Lord High Admiral. 
The Earl of Pembroke succeeded Prince 
George in the office for a year, when a 
Commission of Lords of the Admiralty was 
again appointed, and has continued, with 
the exception of a brief interval, when 
William, Duke of Clarence, was Lord High 



A story is told that when the Duke of 
Clarence was dining with his brother, the 
Prince Regent, at the Pavilion in Brighton, 
he said to Croker, then Secretary to the 
Admiralty: " Ah, if ever I am King, I will 
be my own First Lord of the Admiralty/^ 

" Does your Royal Highness recollect," 
asked Croker, " what English King was his 
own First Lord the last time ? " 

The Duke shook his head, and replied in 
the negative. 

" It was James II., sir," said Croker 
significantly. There was a general laugh, 
at which the Duke was annoyed, and the 
Prince Regent greatly displeased. 

The Duke, however, did not do as he had 
said when he came to the throne, and 
certainly our present Sailor King is content 
to leave the Admiralty to the control of the 

An Historic Home 

At the head of the Board is the First Lord, 
who, by virtue of his office, is a member of 
the Cabinet. He receives ^4,500 per year, 
with Admiralty House as a residence. His 
colleagues are the other five Lords of the 
Admiralty, or Commissioners, together with 
the Political and Financial Secretary and the 
Permanent Secretary. 

The wife of the First Lord has in the official 
residence a home of great historic interest. 
Old Admiralty House adjoins the Horse 
Guards in Whitehall, and the mellowed 
bricks of the Georgian mansion show grey 
and hoary against the pile of palatial 
buildings which form the new Admiralty 
offices. It stands on the site of old 
Wallingford House, the birthplace of the 
notorious Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 

It was upon its roof that the Archbishop fell 
down in a swoon as he saw the axe fall on the 
neck of Charles I., down below on the scaffold 
at Whitehall. 

A handsome architectural screen shuts 
oif Admiralty House from Whitehall, and 
beyond the screen the buildings surround 
three sides of the courtyard. The centre 
building has a portico with four lofty Ionic 
columns, and above are the Admiralty 

Memories of Nelson 

As the visitor enters the vestibule with 
its air of antiquity, the figure of Nelson 
greets him, and up the staircase to the 
Board Room the hero himself often passed. 
To Old Admiralty House the body of Nelson 
was borne from the funeral barge which 
conveyed it in solemn procession up the river 
from Greenwich to the water-stairs at 
Whitehall. Sixteen men of the Victory 
carried their chief, amidst the strains of the 
Dead March and the booming of minute 
guns, across to the Admiralty, where it lay in 
state in the Captains' Room until taken for 
burial to St. Paul's. 

Many another scene of naval -^interest 
does the old house conjure up. We may 
picture, for instance, Captain Cook arriving 

with intelligence of his marvellous voyages. 
From its roof the semaphore signalled its 
messages to Portsmouth and other naval 
stations during the Napoleonic Wars. 
To-day the wires and apparatus on the top 
of Admiralty House tell of the triumphs of 
electrical science. Who that watched the 
old semaphore could have predicted the 
Marconigram ? 

The residence of the First Lord is the 
building to the left as the courtyard is 
entered, and in its reception-rooms his wife 
entertains for the Admiralty. 

Notable figures have passed through the 
apartments during successive Administra- 
tions, and some highly "jovial memories also 
linger about the Great Room where the 
First Lords, in " the good old days," dined 
with their gallant comrades. 

Most notorious of all who reigned at Ad- 
miralty House was the gay Lord Sandwich, 
who was First Lord for eleven years in the 
Administration of Lord North, and had 
twice before held the office. Lady Sandwich 
was prevented by mental illness from doing 
the honours, and the famous and beautiful 
Miss Ray presided over the dinners which 
the First Lord gave to his friends. 

A Romance of the Admiralty 

Her tragic story forms one of the romances 
of the place. 

Martha Ray was the daughter of humble 
people, and /worked as a mantua maker. 
She was extremely beautiful, with quiet, 
engaging manners, and had a fine voice. 
Lord Sandwich fell in love with her as 
she passed to and fro to the West End 
shop where she was engaged. He removed 
her from her employment, and sent her to be 
educated and to have her voice trained. 

Lord Sandwich introduced Miss Ray into 
his family circle at Hinchinbroke, Hunting- 
donshire, where it is said she charmed the 
county by her pretty, modest manners and 
beautiful voice. She frequently stayed at 
Admiralty House. One evening, when at- 
tending the opera, she was shot dead by the 
Rev. Mr. Hackmen — an infatuated admirer, 
whom she had refused to marry — just as one 
of her friends from the Admiralty was hand- 
ing her into the chariot of Lord Sandwich. 

To come to more recent times, the ladies 
who have reigned at the Admiralty have been 
political hostesses for their party, as the 
Navy is governed by the Cabinet through 
the First Lord. 

The names at once suggest themselves of 
Lady George Hamilton, a noted political 
hostess, who, during her husband's term of 
office took a keen interest in everything 
connected with our sailors and seamen. She 
was also much interested in the progress of 
women's work, and took an active part in 
promoting the Women's Section of the Vic- 
torian Era Exhibition in 1897. 

She was twice hostess at the Admiralty, 
first during the short Conservative Ad- 
ministration of 1885-86 and again, after the 
General Election, from 1886-92. 



Mrs. Winston Churchill, who, in virtue of her husband's position as First Lord of the Admiralty, fills the important role of hoste^ at 
Admiralty House. Mrs. Winston Churchill has always taken the keenest interest in her husband s public work, and is one ot the most 

beautiful and talented of society hostesses 

Photo, Lallie Charles 


She was succeeded 


bv the late Lady 
Spencer, who. as the granddaughter of that 
distinguished naval commander, Admiral 
Lord Hugh Seymour, had a very congenial 
position as the wife of the First Lord. 
Lady Spencer was a friend of Queen Victoria, 
and a member of the Order of Victoria and 
Albert. ^ ^ _ 

Another lady who has graced the Ad- 
miralty in recent years is the Countess of 
Selborne, a daughter of the late Marquis of 
Salisbury, and one who is distinguished by 
the cleverness and capability of the Cecils. 

Seldom, if ever, I believe, has old Ad- 
miralty House had so youthful a hostess as 
the wife of the Right Hon. Reginald McKenna. 
She was Miss Pamela Jekyll, the daughter 
of Sir Herbert and Lady Jekyll, and con- 
siderably the junior of her husband. 

Her engagement was announced on March 
28, 1908, and about a fortnight later Mr. 
McKenna was appointed First Lord of the 
Admiralty in Mr. Asquith's Government. 
They were married on Junes at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, and passed their honeymoon 
up the river. 

In olden days the First Lord and his bride 
might, had they felt so disposed, have set out 
in their state barge from the stairs at White- 
hall, and been rowed by their own watermen 
in picturesque style up the river. The old 
state barge of the Admiralty is, however, a 
thing of the past, like the state barge of the 
King, so Mrs. McKenna had to be content 
with a more prosaic mode of travelling. 

She returned from her honeymoon to take 
up her position at Admiralty House. On 
June 26, Mr. McKenna gave a full-dress 
dinner on the official birthday of the late 
King. The same evening Mrs. McKenna 
accompanied her husband to the reception 
at the Foreign Office, and made her debut 

in the political social world. Some eight 
months later, the young bride was called 
upon to fill a very important role as hostess 
at the Admiralty. 

Owing to the wife of the Prime Minister 
being abroad, the official Ministerial reception 
on the eve of the opening of Parliament in 
February, 1909, was held at the Admiralty. 

Four days later, Mrs. McKenna received 
at a second reception at the Admiralty, when 
the rooms were indeed a brilliant spectacle 
with naval officers, members of Parliament, 
Ministers, and the highest members of 
society belonging to all political parties. 

The whole train of circumstances conspired 
to make the inauguration of the First Lord 
and his bride at the Admiralty a particularly 
interesting and brilliant affair. 

Mrs. McKenna continued to play a graceful 
part in the private and official hospitalities 
of her husband. Throughout the three 
years of his office she was continually with 
Mr. McKenna, both when in London for his 
Parliamentary work and when visiting the 
dockyards and ports, and naturally took the 
greatest interest in all that concerned the 
Royal Navy. 

The appointment of the Right Hon. Winston 
Churchill (191 1) as successor to Mr. McKenna 
at the Admiralty brings another youthful 
hostess to the historic house. Mrs. Churchill 
is one of the most charming and beautiful 
of the young married women of the day. 
She has taken the keenest interest in her 
husband's public work during his term at the 
Home Office, and now that his versatile 
personality is devoted to naval matters, 
Mrs. Churchill brings her social gifts to aid 
him in his new sphere. Within a few 
days of his appointment she inaugurated her 
reign at the Admiralty by the launching of a 
new battleshiD. 


By " MADGE " (Mrs. HUMPHRY) 

The Girl with the Engaging Manner— Fauhs of Manner— Modern Manners— The Highest Type 

of Agreeable Manner 


^HARM of manner is a valuable possession. 
Someone has said that it is worth more 
than a fortune. 

This, perhaps, maybe true in the sense 
that it brings more happiness, more pleasure, 
more gratification into the life of its possessor 
than could any amount of money. 

The girl with a genial, bright, engaging 
manner is almost sure to escape many of 
those incidental disagreeables of existence 
that lie in wait for all of us in society. On 
the other hand, she who is entirely stoical, 
cold, and ungenial will find it difficult to 
make many friends, though she may be 
well worth knowing. 

Some twenty years ago, before the open- 

ing of so many gates and doors to women, 
when they were brought up in the seclusion 
of the home, with just a few parties and 
dinners and dances, with infrequent inter- 
course with men and women outside their 
immediate circle, the manner of the average 
girl \yas apt to be shy and brusque. Shy- 
ness is not at all an unlovable characteristic, 
but it is a hindrance to the shy girl herself 
in social matters. 

Now, on the other hand, one finds the 
majority of young women rather inclined 
to the opposite extreme — forward, bold, 
and assured. There is a frank ease about 
some of them which disarms criticism, 
but others, loud of voice and laugh, free of 



gesture, blunt in manner, apparently make 
no bid for affection and respect. They 
delight in their own independence, and have 
evidently set out to make the most of the 
world and its opportunities, regardless of 
the feelings of others. 

Perhaps the most charming manner is 
that of the girl who feels an emotion of shy- 
ness, and does her best to overcome it. 
She is well aware that shyness is only a 
form of self -consciousness, and also pro- 
ceeds from a lack of the habit of mingling 
with others. Her successful effort to sub- 
due this lends a certain charm to her con- 
versation and behaviour that is very telling. 
But, on the other hand, it must not be 
thought that even a modicum of shyness 
is necessary to charm of manner. The 
stiffness that this quality usually engenders 
is a foe to ease, and is often misunderstood 
for pride or arrogance. 

The Over-Qenial Manner 

At the other extreme is the fault of having 
too much manner-. One phase of this is 
the indulgence of nods and becks and head- 
shakings. Sometimes this is acquired in 
early life by imitation, unconscious or 
otherwise, or someone who inclines to over- 
emphasise every remark, and to accompany 
her conversation with a lavish allowance 
of smiles. There are women who cannot 
pay their penny fare in an omnibus without 
bestowing a smile upon the man who collects 
it. This may intimate amiability, but it is 
certainly waste. No one need glower nor 
frown when performing this small duty, 
but it is quite unnecessary to overwhelm 
with tokens of geniality the official with 
whom the transaction is made. 

" That lady's eyelids must be very tired ! " 
said a small girl, who, during a visit, had sat 
watching her with all the rapt intentness 
of the very young. If they were not tired, 
their immunity must have been due to 
constant practice. Never for one instant 
were they at rest. They flickered and 
fluttered, were raised or lowered, without 
ceasing during the whole three-quarters 
of an hour that her call lasted. 

She had evidently inherited some of this 
restlessness from her mother, who, on the 
same occasion, managed to weary and vex 
her hostess by turning her head sideways 
and back again, looking up, and casting 
her eyes down, gesticulating with both hands, 
dramatically suiting her tone of voice to the 
subject of her remarks, and as she left the 
room, almost curvetting in her progress 
towards the door. No doubt she and her 
like continue this over-elaboration of manner 
from morning to night, and possibly the 
members of their family become accustomed 
to it by degrees, but it is most tiring for the 
uninitiated to watch such a display of 
unnecessary energy. 

There is an old saying that one man may 
steal a horse, while another dares not look 
oyer the stable door. Something of the 
kind is equally true with regard to manner. 

D 2> 

Those who possess its charm can with im- 
punity do and say things which would be 
strongly resented in others less fortunate. 
Even an interruption of a private conversa- 
tion, contrary as it is to all the laws of good 
behaviour, can be condoned if the interrupter 
asks in a pretty voice, and with a charming 
smile, to be excused, and perhaps with 
a manner so sweet and caressing, that the 
person who might have been offended is 
actually flattered and delighted. 

How to Apolo^^ise 

Again, in the street, when one has been 
accidentally pushed or trodden on, one feels 
indignant until an apology is made. The 
aggressor, if possessed of a good manner, 
can make her excuses so agreeably as to 
lessen considerably the annoyance. 

In this connection it may be well to re- 
mark that the mere utterance of the word 
" Sorry," a word that has now to some 
extent taken the place of " pardon," is not 
sufficient in cases where injury, even of 
a small description, has been inflicted on 
another. In the motor-'bus of to-day we 
are often hurled against our fellow passengers, 
and sometimes made to tread on their toes 
or disarrange the angle of their hats. Who 
in these circumstances would consider 
" Sorry," uttered in a curt manner, sufficient 
apology ? But if pardon is begged in a 
voice full of regret, and an earnest hope 
expressed that one is not very much hurt, 
the grievance disappears as if by magic, 
and even the inconvenience itself seems 
palpably smaller. The person apologising 
may be at heart absolutely careless about 
the results of her awkwardness, but that 
is exactly where the charm of manner steps 
in, making all the difference in the world 
to the person addressed. 

The Chronic Smile 

Some girls wear a chronic smile, which, 
after a while, becomes absolutely exasperat- 
ing, and may be classed with the mechanical 
laugh beginning on exactly the same note 
and lasting precisely the same period. 
These are little mannerisms which are annoy- 
ing in over-proportion to the fault. The 
regulation smile frequently accompanies 
the gushing manner to which many girls 
are prone. Such girls are fond of embracing 
3,nd kissing the woman they know fairly 
intimately. Is it too much to suggest that 
permission should be asked of an elder 
woman by the young friend who dashes 
at her the moment the door is opened, and 
assaults her with a loud and hearty kiss ? 
This may be a demonstration of true affection 
but it is certainly a fault in manner. 

Perhaps the highest type of agreeable 
manner is that which has a delightful 
repose about it, the quietness of true gentle- 
ness. The good listener invariably has 
this charm. Her intent and kindly look, 
though it may cover absolute indifference, 
is very agreeable and refreshing to her 






Romance is not confined solely to the realms of fiction. The romances of fact, indeed, are 
greater and more interesting ; they have made • history, and have laid the foundations of the 
greatness both of artists and of poets. 

In this section of Every Woman's Encyclopaedia, therefore, among many other subjects, are 

included : . .. , 

Famous Historical Love 

Love Letters of Fainotis People 
Love Scenes from Fiction 

Love Poems and Songs 
The Superstitions of Love 
The Engaged Girl in Many 

Proposals of Yesterday and 

Elopements in Olden DaySy 

etc., etc. 




If " Romeo and Juliet " is the greatest 
love story in the world, then it must be 
conceded that the story of Robert Emmet 
and Sarah Curran has the elements of great- 
ness in it, for we have here the two helpless 
young lovers caught in the meshes of a 
destiny they could not escape ; we have 
political differences which are far worse 
than those of family ; and in addition there 
is the motive of unstained patriotism; and 
the story of Sarah Curran is as beautiful as 
anything in the pages of fiction or poetry. . 

In 1798, Ireland was in such a condition 
that even Lecky, a loyalist, says that it 
would be difficult to conceive a more dreary 
or a more ignoble picture than the country 
then presented. Misrule and injustice had 
roused to bitter resentment all those Irish 
who loved their country, and in Ireland 
patriotism burns with a fire that is born of 
many sorrows. 

At last the miseries of the poor, the in- 
justice shown towards all classes, the ruin 
and desolation which were spread over the 
whole face of the land under a government 
of wHfch now all Englishmen are ashamed, 
brought about tha.t heroic attempt at 
freedom which has come down to us in song 
and story as " The Ninety-eight." 

The rebellion was suppressed, and the 
leaders were granted their lives on condition 
that they left their country for ever. 

Among those who were thus transplanted 
to America was a brilliant young man called 

Thomas Addis Emmet. He was the son 
of Dr. Emmet, a man of means and good 
birth, who, according to an old-fashioned 
writer, had " imbibed opinions favourable 
to republicanism." In this quiet phrase is 
expressed the passionate ardour, the burning 
rage of a man who sees his country oppressed 
and misunderstood. The Emmet household 
looked upon Ireland as knights in the days 
of chivalry looked upon ladies in distress. 

So it came about that Dr. Emmet would 
look round his table and say to his children : 
" What would you do for your country ? 
Would you kill your sister ? Would you 
kill me ? " In this atmosphere the children 
grew up, until the eldest, put to the test, 
proved himself of the mettle his father would 
have had him, and sailed into exile a criminal 
convicted of loving his country. 
' But there was a younger brother, called 
Robert, then at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he was studying for the Irish Bar, 
and was already conspicuous not only for 
his abilities but for the wonderful power 
of oratory which already, in his earliest 
twenties, became noticeable. He was dark, 
with flashing eyes, and hair combed down in 
a straight lock across half his forehead. 
When he spoke his face lighted up and 
became the scene of a thousand expressions. 
Many a time he has been called a miscreant, 
his opinions dubbed diabolical and atrocious. 
These things are, of course, a matter of 
party policy. But for those who are not 


blinded by prejudice, Robert Emmet stands 
out as a hero actuated only by what was 
noble and good. He may have been 
tragically mistaken in his thoughts, but m 
his feelings there was no flaw. 

At the time of his brother s banishment 
Trinity College was suspected of being a 
hotbed of disaffection. An inquiry was 
instituted, and among those who withdrew 
their names from the college books was 
Robert Emmet. For the next three years 
he lived in France, then in the throes of 
the Revolution, where his opinions were 
strengthened by the upheaval that was 
going on around him. 

When he came back to Ireland, in 1803, 
he was still of an age at which most young 
men are just beginning the world, but in 
one sense he was an old man, for he had 
lived through a French revolution, and even 
before that had thought enough about the 
distresses of his native country to fling up 
for her sake all the brilliant prospects of a 
career at the Irish Bar. He came back to 
Dublin comparatively wealthy, for his father 
had recently died, and in his will Robert 
inherited ;^3,50o. The trouble of '98 had 
blown over, but an uneasy silence rested on 

The Currati Household 

Young Emmet had plenty of friends, at 
whose houses he was welcomed. John 
Philpot Curran, the famous barrister, had 
been a friend of Dr. Emmet, and his son 
Richard now struck up a friendship with 
Robert. Mr. Curran was a very witty man. 
Byron described him as " ugly, copious, full 
of wit and ardour and fire ; the man of fifty 
faces and twice as many voices." Young 
Emmet was soon introduced to his house- 
liold. The Currans lived in the Priory, 
Rathfarnham, and young Emmet, used to 
the unity in family life which is born of an 
overpowering common interest, must have 
found the Currans a family under a cloud. 

Early in life Mr. Curran had been a man 
of generous affections and emotions. He 
had married the daughter of a house in 
which he was tutor. He had been well 
known as a patriot, but these ardours left 
him as he grew older. He became famous 
at the Irish Bar ; briefs poured in upon 
him ; he was less and less at home, and at 
last, when he did return one day, his mind, 
as was his wont, still wrapt up in his work 
and his triumphs at Dublin, he found his 
wife gone. Pretty, pleasure-loving, and 
rather shallow, she had found the quiet 
country house and the solitude in which her 
husband left her utterly intolerable. She 
tried to find consolation in religion, and 
summoned the vicar of a neighbouring 
parish. But she was not religious by nature. 
In person she was young, pretty, and un- 
happy ; the vicar was also young and human, 
and in the end they fled together from the 
neighbourhood of cold Mr. Curran. 

For a year or two the household was 
broken up. The children went to friends. 


Mr. Curran, from being reserved and rather 
neglectful, became bitter, sarcastic, and 
severe. His youngest son went in awe of 
him till the day of his death, and of his 
daughters even the eldest feared him, and 
the youngest, a sensitive, loving, timid 
creature, although she adored him in a 
manner which almost amounted to ob- 
stinacy, was continually terrified by his cold 
rebuffs. When Robert Emmet was brought 
to the house the family had only recently 
been reunited. Fresh from the turmoils of 
France, he found this family life very quiet 
and beneficent, and even the shadow of Mr. 
Curran's severity could not spoil the pleasant 
times the young people spent together. 

Robert Emmet Falls in Love 

The youngest girl in particular was a 
lovely creature, slender and graceful, with 
quantities of cloudy hair, wonderful dark 
violet eyes and a wavy, wistful Irish mouth. 
Romney painted her, moved by her beauty 
at a time when he had almost given up 
painting. A gentle melancholy hung about 
Sarah. She had had a twin sister, who died 
when she was eight, and was buried under 
a tree on the lawn. Twins are bound to- 
gether by wonderful and almost mysterious 
sympathies, and Sarah had spent many an 
hour gazing froni a window at the tree 
under which she and her little sister used 
to play together, and under which one of 
them was now buried. 

Mr. Curran was now a determined loyalist. 
He was ambitious and hard. Although he 
must have known that the son of Dr. Emmet 
was not likely to be anything but a patriot, 
he never inquired into his principles, and 
long afterwards pretended that they came 
as a great surprise to him. Moreover, he 
thought that the young man came to the 
house to see him, a form of hallucination to 
which fathers of pretty girls seem par- 
ticularly liable. 

Romance and Revolution 

And all the time, under his nose, which was 
long, but apparently uninquiring, there was 
burning a living flame of romance. Robert 
Emmet and Sarah were in love. They had 
found in each other the perfect companion 
and helpmate. Robert poured out all his 
plans and hopes for his country to Sarah, 
who, like all generous natures at that time 
in Ireland, was easily convinced that in 
patriotism, as opposed to loyalism, lay the 
only hope of relief for Ireland. The state of 
their affections had, of course, to be hidden 
from Mr. Curran, for a time, at least ; but it 
is fairly certain that the brothers and sisters 
of Sarah, and at least one mutual ..friend, 
knew all about it. At any rate, unnl after 
July, Mr. Curran must not be told, for in 
July was to come the critical moment of 
young Emmet's career. 

Young, possessed of means, talents, and 
many friends, the " Newgate Calendar " 
remarks that " he might easily have estab- 
lished his own independence, but that sober 

business had no attractions for him." He 
was, indeed, dedicated to another service 
than that of sober business. He had 
gathered round him many of his own ways of 
thinking. He had spent his patrimony on 
weapons, and in a house in Patrick Street, 
Dubhn, was to be found a well-furnished 
arsenal. He had made all his plans for a 
rebellion against the English Government, 
when an explosion in a Patrick Street house 
threatened to expose him. 

He escaped attention, however, and 
immediately resumed his plans. It is signifi- 
cant of the state in which Ireland was that 
all over the country there were bodies of men 
who agreed to rise at the same moment on 
a given day and 
strike, a blow for 
freedom. In 
Dublin, at vari- 
ous points, large 
bodies of men 
were to advance 
at once upon the 

It was a well- 
concerted plan, 
and might easily 
have succeeded, 
but in every par- 
ticular it mis- 
carried. Indeed, 
the way in which 
it fizzled out all 
over Ireland was 
so extraordinary 
that there seems 
a good founda- 
tion for believ- 
ing the many 
rumours to the 
effect that the 
knew all about 
it long before, 
and were literally 
giving Emmet 
rope enough to 
hang himself. 
At any rate, on 
July 25, Emmet 
found himself not 
being borne on 

towards the Castle by a resistless tide of 
insurgents, but surrounded by only eighteen 
adherents, and for the rest a wretched mob 
only intent on violence and plunder. 

He saw in a moment that his hopes were 
broken. A rocket was to give the signal to 
bands of patriots at various points on the 
outskirts of Dublin. Emmet would not let 
it be fired, thus saving perhaps hundreds of 
lives. But the outstanding tragedy of the 
evening, which was one long tragedy, was the 
murder of Lord Kil warden, the one beloved 
judge in Ireland. He was piked by a man 
who fancied he had a personal grievance 
against him. His death was laid at Emmet's 
^oor, and a howl of execration went up all 
over Ireland. 

3749 LOVE 

Emmet fled to Wicklow, where he remained 
in hiding. He might now easily have 
escaped to America, and he sent a letter by 
Anne Devlin, the servant in the house where 
he lodged, asking Sarah if she would go with 
him. He asked too much. She was one of 
those loving, clinging souls who cannot up- 
root themselves quickly. She answered that 
she could not leave her father, and urged 
Emmet to leave the country at once. 

He was now hopeless. He was a marked 

man, with nothing but the gallows to look 

forward to if he were caught. The death of 

Lord Kilwarden, who was Mr. Curran's 

closest friend, made it even more utterJy out 

of the question that he should ever marry 

Sarah Curran in 

an ordinary 

manner. Her 

refusal to leave 

Ireland with him 

was the last blow, 

but he swore that 

at least he would 

not go until he had 

seen her again ; 

and with that 

purpose he moved 

to a house half way 

between Dublin 

and Rathf arnham. 

There he lay in 

hiding, waiting for 

an opportunity of 

seeing Sarah. 

In the Curran 
household, mean- 
while, there 
reigned the calm 
before the storm. 
Mr. Curran was in 
Dublin, so his 
family was spared 
hearing his re- 
marks on Emmet's 
abortive rising. 
Sarah, believing 
Emmet to be 
on his way to 
America, was at 
once happy and 
sad — happy to 
think of his 
escape, and sad at her own loss. She must 
have wondered whether she had done right 
in refusing to go wdth him, for even the 
strength of family affection, as it was dictated 
by the sentiment of 1803, could hardly have 
blinded her altogether to the fact that she 
had made herself and her lover miserable for 
the sake of a stern and unresponsive man. 

Meanwhile the hue and cry was up in 
Ireland. The house where Emmet had been 
staying was ransacked. Anne Devlin was 
put to the examination at the bayonet's 
point. When she declared she knew nothing 
of the young man who had been lodging there, 
the soldiers improvised a gallows, dragged her 
out to it, put the rope round her neck, and 
asked her: " Now^ will you tell?" She 

The story of Sarah Curran and Robert Emmet is one of the saddest romances of 

the last century, a story in which are fused all the emotions of the human mind, 

pitiful in some ways, noble in others 

Front the original picture by Roniney, in the possession of the Hun. Gerald Ponsonby 



answered: ''You can murder me, but I 

^^They actually hoisted her into the air and 
then lowered her again, by way of frighten- 
ing her. but she maintamed her silence, not 
only then, but before the authorities She 
was bribed with ^500. bribed even higher by 
the fact that her mother, father and brother 
were flung into gaol until she should speak 
None of these things having any effect she 
was thrown into Kilmainham Gaol, and there 
every artifice and trick were employed to 
trap her into betraying some knowledge 
of Emmet's whereabouts, or his plans both 
before and since the insurrection. 
A Fatal Mistake 

She was even confronted with him sud- 
denly when he had been apprehended, while 
she thought he was still at large, but this 
young, uneducated peasant girl was equal to 
anything in the cause she had at heart. She 
merely glanced at him and walked by. This 
girl, who afterwards married, and lived to a 
good age, is not the meanest figure m the 
story. She had risked many things by carry- 
ing letters from Emmet to Miss Curran, and 
of Sarah she has left us a vivid description : 
" You could not see her and not help likmg 
her, and yet she was not handsome. She was 
more than handsome. Her look was the 
mildest, the softest, and the sweetest look 
you ever saw. Whenever I handed her a 
letter from Mr. Emmet, her face would change 
so one would hardly know her." 

Emmet had not won this girl's heart easily. 
Twice he had proposed and been rejected, and 
the third time was not really a proposal. It 
was after the explosion in Patrick Street, 
when for a time he thought his plans had 
miscarried hopelessly, and that he must leave 
the country. In bidding her farewell, he 
suddenly perceived the change that had 
taken place in her feelings, and that change 
was now to be unalterable. 

Now she was his for ever, and on his arrest 
his thoughts turned to her at once. Taken 
by surprise, Emmet entrusted to a man he 
thought worthy of confidence a letter to Miss 
Curran. The letter was calmly handed to 
the authorities. 

Within the Prison Walls 

When Emmet heard that he, by his rash 
act, had implicated Miss Curran in his treason, 
which was a capital crime, he was half mad 
with remorse. Apart from the fact that the 
Government might even condemn her to 
death if his letters to her were discovered, 
there was Mr. Curran's wrath to think of, 
when he found that his good name and 
honour had been impaired — specially awk- 
ward for a man who had been a rebel in his 
youth — and that his daughter was deeply in 
love with a proved " traitor " like Emmet. 

Robert, alone in prison, with all this upon 
his mind, the certainty of death before him, 
and the agony of everlasting separation 
from Sarah, cast about for some way of 
averting the consequences of his rash letter. 

have been implicated at all. But a man in 
prison is a helpless creature. He has no 
friends ; he is cut off from all help and 
encouragement ; and discovers for the first 
time that all his talents and his warm 
emotions, his physical strength and the in- 
genuity of his brain, go for nothing when 
his body is merely surrounded by four 
strong walls. 

Emmet's Self-sacrifice 

In the midst of this agony, an idea 
suddenly struck him. He knew that the 
Government was very anxious that his trial 
should take place as quietly as possible. 
They had every reason to dread the effect 
of Emmet's wonderful oratory on the im- 
pressionable Irish. Emmet knew this. It 
was the one thing left to him in prison, and 
he offered to plead guilty at his trial and to 
remain absolutely silent if the fact of his 
letters to Miss Curran was suppressed, and 
her name not mentioned at all. This 
request, however, was denied, and nothing , 
remained for the ill-fated young man but 
to await with what patience he might for 
the day of his trial. 

Meanwhile at the Priory there was the 
acutest distress. The first knowledge that 
Sarah had that her belief in Emmet's 
security was false was when a party of 
soldiers rushed into her bedroom, and began 
to search it for letters. She demanded an 
explanation, and was told bluntly that 
Emmet had been apprehended, and was now 
lying in Kilmainham Gaol. It would be 
impossible to f)ortray what Sarah Curran 
must have felt. But for her refusal to leave, 
Emmet would now have been safely on the 
high seas, she with him, and a new life of 
hope and promise before them. Now he 
lay awaiting death, and before her eyes the 
soldiers discovered letter after letter which 
must incriminate him hopelessly. 

The Woman's Grief 

Sarah Curran was not a strong woman. 
Besides, she was very young, of a very gentle 
nature, not built for horror. She had but 
recently wakened from her morning sleep, 
a happy girl. Now she lay back upon her 
pillows with the light of reason gone from 
her lovely eyes. 

For many months her mind was com- 
pletely darkened. She did not know of 
Emmet's trial and execution ; she did not 
know of her father's unrelenting anger. 
She lay there, tended by her sisters, the 
one happy, because the one unconscious, 
person of all those connected with this 
tragic drama. 

When she recovered her senses, it was only 
gradually that she could be told of all that 
had happened. But the full truth concern- 
ing her lover's trial she never learned — his 
wonderful defence, that noble speech which 
moved even the judges to tears. Nor did 
she knew of thu letters which he wrote on 
the morning of his execution to her father, 
her brother, and his own brother in America. 

Except for that, he knew that she would never And they were splendid letters, too, telling 



in detail the story of his blameless, tragic 
love. Surely no man has ever proved more 
truly his devotion. 

" Receive her as my wife, love her as a 
sister," he implored his brother. But this 
request remained unanswered, for that 
letter never reached its destination. The 
Government was merciless, and even withheld 
from Sarah her lover's last message to her. 

As his coach was being drawn to the place 
of execution, amid crowds of eager spectators, 
Emmet watched eagerly till he met an un- 
mistabably sympathetic glance, then he 
threw out his farewell letter. 

The man picked it up, and would un- 
doubtedly have taken it to Miss Curran, 
but he was observed by those in authority. 
One would suppose that the dying 
letter of a lover could not have done 
much harm to the Government if it had 
reached the only eyes for which it was meant. 
This did not appear to strike the authorities, 
and Miss Curran never received her letter. 
It was read by various gentlemen, who all 
pronounced it extremely touching, and left 
the matter at that. 

Emmet' 5 Death 

Emmet died, as Mr. Curran's youngest 
son admits, with unostentatious fortitude, 
but all these things were mercifully hidden 
from Sarah Curran till long afterwards. 
When she recovered she found her father 
absolutely set in his determination to have 
nothing more to do with her. He banished 
her from his house, and she went to some 
very kind Quaker friends. There she did 
her best to be cheerful ; she allowed them 
to take her about in society ; she never 
made a business of her sorrow, but it was 
obvious to all who saw her that the really 
living part of her had gone beyond her keep- 
ing. She had a lovely voice; and one day, 
during a party, she wandered away and 
was found sitting on the stairs, singing to 
herself an old Irish melody so exquisitely that 
all those who heard her were moved to tears. 

Poor girl ! Her Hfe was full of shadows. 
She had no tender memories of a last parting 
either from her father or her lover which to 
cherish. Everything seemed cruel and dark ; 
she had only ruins to look back upon, and 
even the memory of him she loved had been 
obliterated so far as might be. She had no 
letter, no token to keep his memory green, 
but only the knowledge that he lay some- 
where in a dishonoured grave ; even his 
place of burial was kept secret. 

But still, perhaps for her lover's sake, she 
kept a brave face before the world ; no one 
was allowed to share the secret of her heart. 

And then eventually a young Englishman, 
a Captain Sturgeon, in the Royal Engineers, 
found her in her lonely misery. Her loveliness, 
her sorrow, and the romantic circumstances 
connected with her, all attracted him. He 
fell madly in love, and begged her to marry 
him, but she told him that her heart was still 
Emmet's, and always would be, and that 
she could never form any other tie. 

This did not deter him ; it rather increased 
his admiration. For two years he persisted 
in his suit. At the end of that time he dashed 
into the house one day and said that in four 
days he was under orders to go to England, 
and thence to foreign service. He had come 
to make one last attempt to obtain her for 
his wife. He was young, honourable, charm- 
ing, well born, rich ; in every way an ideal 

Sarah Marries 

Her friends with one accord urged her to 
marry him. She was a penniless girl in the 
house of those friends ; she liked young 
Sturgeon, and he was begging not for her 
love, but for her esteem and trust. She was 
really taken by surprise by the hurry of it all. 
At any rate, she became his wife in three days. 

It must have been a dismal wedding. She 
drove to the church with her four brides- 
rnaids, one of whom said afterwards that she 
did not know who cried most. She made 
Sturgeon a good and gentle wife, but happi- 
ness had never been for her since the day 
the soldiers rushed into her bedroom at 
home. Since then, with all her efforts to be 
cheerful, she had been gradually fading 
away, and even the change to Malta and 
Sicily did her no good. In three years she 
was dead. Her last request was that she 
might be buried with the little twin sister 
under the tree at Rathfarnham. Her 
father's reply was that he was not going to 
have his lawn turned into a burial ground ! 

So ended one of the saddest romances of 
real life in modern times, a story in which 
every human emotion is, as it were, centred 
and fused into the light of the love which 
bound together Emmet and Sarah Curran. 
If it is pitiful in some ways, it is noble in 
others. It has earned for Emmet more im- 
mortality than all his plans for Ireland, for 
all the world loves a lover. Thomas Moore 
was not a great poet, but he rendered a 
fitting tribute to these two when he fitted, 
to one of the most exquisite and plaintive 
melodies of those in which Emmet and 
Sarah Curran had delighted, the words which 
will always help to keep their memory 
green : 

A Splendid Tribute 

" She is far from the land where her young 
hero sleeps. 
And lovers around her are sighing. 
But coldly she turns from their gaze and 
For her heart in his grave is lying. 

" She sings the wild songs of her dear native 
Every note which he loved awaking. 
But little they think who delight in her 
That the heart of the minstrel is breaking. 

" He had lived for his love, for his country he 
died ; 

They were all that to life had entwined him : 
Nor soon will the tears of his country be dried. 

Nor long will his love stay behind him." 



Fox-tail Grass—" Sporting. 
Fraxinella— " Fire." 
Freezia — " Your looks chill me. 
French Honeysuckle—" Rustic beauty. 
French Marigold—" Jealousy." ,, 

French Willow—" Bravery and humanity. 
Fritillary {chequered)—" Persecution. 
Fuchsia {scarlet)—" Good taste." ^^ , 

Fuller's Teasel — " Misanthropy, impor- 

Furse — " Enduring affection." 


Galanthus— " Hope." A species of snowdrop. 

Galega — " Good sense." 

Garden Anemone—" Forsaken." 

Garden Chervil—" Sincerity." 

Gardenia — " Sweet charms." 

Garden Marigold—" Uneasiness." 

Garden Ranunculus—" You are rich m at- 

Garden Sage—" Esteem." 

Garland of Roses—" Reward of virtues. 

Genista — " Humility." Commonly called 
" broom." 

Gentian — " You are unjust." This pretty 
blue flower, much used in medicine since its 
bitter taste acts as a good tonic, is named 
after Gentius, King of Illyricum who, two 
thousand years ago, was the first to discover 
its medicinal value. 

Geranium, Dark — " Melancholy." These 
beautiful flowers belong to the crane's bill 
genus, from the Greek word " geranos" — a 
crane. The seed-vessels resemble the form 
of a crane's beak. 

Geranium, Ivy-leaved—" Bridal favour." 

Geranium, Nutmeg — " An expected meeting." 
Geranium, Oak-leaved — " True friendship.'" 

Geranium, Pencil-leaved " Ingenuity." 

Geranium, Rose or Pink — " Preference." 
Geranium, Scarlet — Comfort." 
Geranium, Silver-leaved — " Recall." 
Geranium, White — " Innocence." 
Geranium, Wild—" Steadfast piety." An old 
country superstition is that the wild 
geranium, technically known as' Geranium 
robertianum, is the flower of Robin Hood, 
the merry outlaw of Sherwood Forest. 
The origin .of the whole genus is certainly 
curious. The prophet Mohammed, having 
one day washed his shirt, cast it upon a 
mallow to dry in the sun. When the gar- 
ment was dry and taken away, it was found 
that the mallow, by contact with such a 
sacred vesture, had been transformed into a 
geranium, a flower hitherto unknown. 

Germander Speedwell—" Facihty." 
Gillyflower—" Lasting beauty." " Bonds of 

Gladiolus — " Strength of character." The 

sword-lily plant. 
Glaneium — " Consolation." The horned poppy. 
Glory Flower—" Glorious beauty." 
Gloxinia — " A proud spirit." 
Golden Chain — " Pensive beauty." A favourite 

name for laburnum. 
Golden KingWOrt — " Perception." 
Golden Mouse-ear — " Rapt attention." 
Golden Rod — " Encouragement." 

/'•»,'« SJf4. Part 21 

Golden Saxifrage — " Pure affection." 
Golden Thistle — " Luxury." The " sweet 

sultan " flower. 
Grape, Wild—" Charity." 

Ground Ivy — " FideUty." These pretty hlac- 
blue flowers with their white markings, so 
familiar in hedge banks and below walls, 
have inspired Bishop Mant's lines : 
And there upon the sod below, 
Ground Ivy's purple blossoms show, 
Like helmet of Crusader knight, 
Its author's cross-like form of white. 
Guelder Rose—" Winter," or " age." This 
pretty white flower, often called " snow- 
balls " (hence their meaning " winter "), 
derive their name from the ancient province 
of Guelder, or Guelderland, in Holland. 

Harebell — " Submission," " grief." The frail 
sweet harebell, that swings its pretty bells 
with every breath of air, was one of the 
many flowers that were supposed to supply 
the fairies with their silvery music, and has 
called forth Merritt's lines concerning 
The azure harebell that doth ceaseless ring, 
Her wildering chimes to vagrant butterflies 
As they in dalliance fan her with their wings. 
Another poet has given us a different, but 
equally exquisite explanation of this floral 
carillon : 

'Twas I that led you through the painted meads, 
Where the light fairies danced upon the flqwers. 
Ranging on every leaf an Orient pearl, 
Which, struck together with the silken wind 
Of their loose mantles, made a silver chime. 
Hart's-tongue — " Longing." This beautiful 
fern, whose glossy green leaves adorn the 
banks of many an English lane, receives its 
name from the supposed resemblance of its 
long and slender fronds to the shape of a 
hart's tongue. 
Hawkweed — " Quick-sightedness." 
Hawthorn — ' ' Hope. ' ' The more familiar name 
of " may," by which the hawthorn is fre- 
quently called, since it flowers in that month, 
conjures up many visions of the part it 
played in mediaeval times. In those days, 
when " Merrie England " deserved her 
name, not only the young men and maidens, 
but even the King and Queen and their 
Court were wont to "go a-maying." The 
may-pole was then a national institution, 
and May Day dances and sports rivalled the 
Christmas festivities. Of the several may- 
poles which London originally possessed, 
the last one, near Somerset House, was only 
taken down in 171 7. The meaning of hope 
was given to the hawthorn on account of 
the miracle Nature performs upon it every 
springtime, bringing the lovely white blos- 
soms out of the bare black stem, that seems 
so dead and lifeless, and thereby silently 
reminding mankind that there is no night 
but hath its dawn. Among the Greeks the 
whitethorn was the symbol of marriage, and 
long sprays of the sweet-scented blossoms 
were carried before the bridal pair, who w^ere 
ultimately lighted to the nuptial chamber 
by torches made of hawthorn wood. 
To be continued. 






When Camaraderie is Possible Between Man and Woman — The Charm of the Middlc-aged Man — 
A Friend With Whom One Can Think Aloud — The Limitations of Adonis— The Instinct of a 

Woman for Her Master 

TThere is nothing more delightful than the 
beautiful camaraderie which can exist 
between the middle-aged man and a woman. 
Here you find none of the shilly-shallying of 
youth, but the well-balanced attraction of 
mind for mind, where true sympathy and 
understanding often blossom into devotion 
before either the one or the other has fully 
realised the true significance of the pleasant 
path upon which they have drifted. 

At such times the uninitiated express sur- 
prise. " I always thought she admired Mr. 
Blank ! " they exclaim, mentioning one of 
the younger and apparently more attractive 
men of the community. The wise shake 
their heads, " We thought so until ' he ' 
came along," mentioning the name of the 
older man ; " but how fascinating he is 1 " 

The Love that Lasts 

The charm of the middle-aged man is un- 
questionable. When once a woman has come 
under the influence of such a personality, 
she may be inclined to consider " the world 
well lost for love." The adage, " An old 
man's darling," hardly seems to apply to 
the case ; she has not so much the desire to 
be petted as to acknowledge herself the 
disciple of a natural leader. It is the man 
himself, not his physical attractions or what 
he is or what he has, but the tout ensemble 
which has fascinated the woman. 

The man of mature years seems better 
able to understand the complexities of a 
woman's nature, and thus he wins her trust. 
As a friend, he is more unselfish, and the 
greater the strength of his personality the 
more he becomes her guide, philosopher, and 
friend. As a lover, the older man seems 
thoroughly to understand her little feminine 
shortcomings, and with the delicate tender- 
ness which the strong man will invariably 
show to the weaker and more highly strung 
nature, he will admire her perhaps all the 
more for her faults as he recognises the 
humanity of them. 

A woman instinctively feels more at her 
ease with the man of mature years, and 
relies upon his judgment almost before she 
has appreciated fully the fascination of 
his character and exceptional powers. She 
realises that here is a man with whom she 
may be perfectly natural, and with Emerson 
she may say of this man : " Before him I 
may think aloud. I am arrived at last in 
the presence of a man so real and equal that 
I may even drop off those undermost gar- 
ments of dissimulation, courtesy, and second 
thought." Would any woman care to "think 
aloud " before the younger man ? 

So, in literature as in life, we often find the 
spell of the older man more potent. The 
younger man is quite satisfied with the purely 
material, the older man has realised the utter 
worthlessness of the material without that 
elusive element in nature which we call the 
spiritual, the enduring link of mind and 

It is the man who claims a woman as his 
mental mate who possesses her true devo- 
tion, and the older man is often able to do 
this because he has not endeavoured to win 
it. His experience of life makes him interest- 
ing, his sorrows and struggles have made 
him more S5mipathetic. This adds to his 
fascination, for it touches a part of a woman's 
nature hitherto lain dormant. Adonis, with 
the fair hair and debonair manner, has only 
appealed to her through his physical charms, 
and not to the dominant lasting force 
behind — that mystic something which we 
call the mental. 

It would be folly to say that a woman 
cannot love Adonis, for there is a spontaneous 
unity of souls that are not mated in one 
sense, yet may be partially satisfied with 
what the world calls love. She may remain 
satisfied, if she does not develop. A woman 
may be quite pleased with Adonis as long as 
she requires nothing more than a good 
partner for the latest Viennese waltz. Let 
us hope that if her development is to come, 
it arrives in time to send Adonis packing. 

The Mastery of the Middle-asred Man 

The man of mature years has learnt that 
although a pretty face has its charms, to be 
happy he must possess the soul as well. 
When a woman loves him, he, as a rule, has 
appealed to the best in her. There is an 
understanding with " heart and brain," and 
sympathy is the unbreakable bond which 
links them. The grey hair may become white, 
the alert, kind eyes dim, but the woman 
who is under that spell will treasure every 
■year, every moment she has spent with 

A true woman rejoices in the knowledge 
that she possesses " a master," and the 
older man often impresses her with the fact 
that he is truly the man to whom she may 
look up as such. The young man only 
succeeds, as a rule, in touching the personal 
vanity of the woman. The older man does 
more. He has sought a comrade, a true 
" pal " in every sense of the word, and she 
has responded — almost unconsciously. It is 
not the passionate response of hot, impulsive 
youth, but rather the mature judgment of 
the highest part of her nature. 


The sphere of woman's work is ever widening, and now there are innumerable professions and 
businesses by which the enterprising woman can obtain a livelihood. The object of this section 
of Every Woman's Encyclopedia, therefore, is to point out the high-road to success in these 
careers. Ideas are also given to the stay-at-home girl which should help her to supplement her dress 
allowance and at the same time amuse herself. The subjects dealt with include : 



Civil Servant 







Dancing Mistress, etc. 

Woman's Work in the Colonies 

South Africa 
New Zealand 
Colonial Nurses 
Colotiial Teachers 
Training for Colonies 
Colonial Outfits 
Farming, etc. 

Little Ways of Making Pin- 

Chicken Rearing 
Sweet Making 
China Painting 
Bee Keeping 
Toy Making 
Ticket Writings 
etc., etc. 


The Girl Who Succeeds as a Manicurist— Advantages of Training in a Small Establishment 
—The Cost and Length of Training— The Way to Start a Business— Profits that may be Made 

and How to Make Them 

ANicuRiNG as a profession for 
women is one of which too 
little is known by educated 
girls, to whom it should make 
a strong appeal. It is work 
eminently suitable for ladies 
who have to earn their living. 
A manicurist depends greatly for her 
success on her personality. A manicurist 
who combines an attractive personality and 
a sympathetic manner with technical skill 
stands the chance of having more work than 
she can handle. Women go to be manicured 
in order to keep their nails in good order, 
but also because the hour they spend with 
a clever manicurist soothes and rests them 
in every way. To many women manicure 
is as ef&cacious as massage, and more plea- 
sant, for to some people facial or head 
massage is irritating. The gentle though 
firm rubbing of the finger-nails soothes 
the whole nervous system, and the mere 
fact of sitting still in absolute repose for 
an hour proves a pleasant rest to many 
wearied women. 

It is an interesting fact that manicurists 
are busiest in the luncheon hour, or after 
five. That is when tired workers come to 
have their fingers kept in trim, and at the 
same time to enjoy a complete rest before 
facing the evening's work or pleasure. 

No girl who is naturally taciturn or 
reserved should attempt the work. She 
will find that the time she spends with her 
clients is nerve-racking to herself and un- 

comfortable to them. Spasmodic remarks 
about the weather, delivered with an obvious 
effort, serve to counteract the soothing effect 
of the manicuring operations. An intend- 
ing student of manicure would do well to 
cultivate any natural talent she has for 
easy, unforced, and gentle, "light-hearted" 
conversation. It will mean her subsequent 
success or failure. 

Advantages of the Work 

Manicure work appeals to women who 
are not very strong, and to whom hours of 
standing or trudging about in all weathers 
is an impossibility. A manicurist sits to 
do all her work, and at a lower level than 
her client, so that she need not stoop. The 
little rubbing that has to be done is not 
so much a matter of hard, physical exertion 
as of knack. There is a way of rubbing, 
and girls who rub hardest do not get by any 
means the best polish. 

Manicure is work at which refined women 
should succeed, because they come into 
personal contact with clients of the educated 
classes. Indeed, the manicurist is a very 
live person indeed, who is called upon to 
exercise her personality every hour of her 
working day. 

The best way to train as a manicurist 
is to do so at one of the small private 
establishments, of which there are so many 
both in London and the big provincial 
cities. These businesses are run by ladies, 
usually in partnership, and most of them 



are only too glad to train promising girls 
for quite a moderate fee. Manicuring is a 
profession that can be thoroughly learnt 
in three months ; indeed, a clever, perse- 
vering girl could do so in a month. 

Most ladies who start a small business 
in which they take a personal part do not 
want to take twenty or thirty apprentices. 
To do so would mean increasing their 
expenditure in every way, and coming into 
open competition with the big firms who 
live on the strength of their advertising. 
Ladies who are wise know that there is 
far more to be made in a small, personal 
business which advertises itself among 
friends than in a large one which entails 
an enormous outlay of money. 

A . small manicuring business needs 
but one or two assistants at a time, and 
these girls, instead of getting occasional 
practice, and instruction from others who 
are in reality only learners themselves, 
have the benefit of instruction from qualified 
people and the daily practice of actual 

Fees for Training: 

The fee asked varies from ;^io to £15, 
though in exceptional cases it might be 
even less. For that sum a girl can become 
a thoroughly trained and efficient mani- 
curist, also a face-masseuse, if that branch 
of the business is to be acquired, and when 
she leaves she is fully qualified to set up 
for herself. She can have the recommenda- 
tion of a London firm, or one well known 
in a provincial city. She is in no way 
hound to her teachers, as she has paid for 
her instruction, and worked for them for 
nothing during her studentship. 

No manicurist or masseuse who makes 
up her own creams and lotions will give 
away her special secrets to her assistants ; 
but a girl working for a small private 
firm has every opportunity of learning and 
seeing exactly how things are made, though 
she may not know their precise ingredients. 
A little experimenting and reading-up will 
enable her to try the same creams and 
lotions for herself until she solves the 
secret of successful preparation. The sub- 
ject of creams and other home-made articles 
will be dealt with in a further article. 

The reasons why it is wiser for any girl 
anxious to do well for herself as a mani- 
curist to seek her training with a small 
rather than a large firm are manifold. In 
the first place, many girls suppose that the 
fact of having been trained by someone 
with a well-known name will be to their 
advantage. In manicure it is competency 
that counts, and competency depends 
entirely upon careful training and personal 
skill. Careful training is not always obtained 
in big concerns. With perhaps fifty or 
more students it is obvious that the training 
and teaching are more wholesale than 
individual. They have to be. And it is 
individual tuition that makes all the differ- 
ence in manicure work. 

Again, a girl who takes up manicure 
with a view to making money will not 
make it by serving her apprenticeship in 
a " smart " emporium where everything is 
sacrificed for show. The manager or ownei 
of a big business takes no assistants without 
a premium and the signing of a contract, 
which, as a recent case proved, is extremely 
rigorous in its binding of the assistant. 

The premium varies from /40 to £^0, 
and for that sum the firm agrees to train 
the assistant in manicure, etc., and binds 
her to work for them at a salary for two 
or three years. This salary starts at los. 
weekly, and never rises above a guinea. 
Yet the girl at the end of three months is 
probably quahfied to start in business for 
herself, and, if successful, could soon be 
making ;^3 or £^ a week. 

When a girl works for a small salary in 
the show-rooms of a big firm she often 
becomes popular with some of the clients. 
If she were able to start for herself these 
people would probably follow her, and 
form the basis of her clientele. But, as 
things are arranged by all important firms, 
the girls pay a heavy fee, receive a small 
salary, and only benefit by being able to 
say at the end of three years that they 
were trained by So-and-so. 

Then, also, when their training is over, 
they know nothing but the bare routine 
of manicure and face massage. They can 
learn nothing about creams or lotions, or 
the way to prepare them, for that work 
is not done in a fashionable show-room. 
So they have to start right at the beginning, 
and puzzle out for themselves the very 
things that they would have learned at a 
small establishment. 

Making a Start 

The girl who intends to work for herself 
must make up her mind to prepare her own 
creams, etc., and to keep her prices low if 
she wants to succeed. Home-made and 
pure preparations, both for skin and nails; 
are always attractive, and when they are 
used and found efficacious a customer is 
generally tempted to buy some, especially 
if they are attractively " done up " and 
not dear. A private manicurist will always 
tell a girl who goes to her for training 
the best places to patronise for drugs 
and scents, and where to buy bottles and 
jars and have labels printed quite inex- 
pensively. But a big firm will not do so. 

For manicure is. 6d. is a sufficiently 
high charge. Firms that charge 5s. only 
do so in order to pay for their advertise- 
ments and gorgeous premises ; the manicure 
itself is no better. A girl who charges 
IS 6d. is far more likely to attract customers 
than one who starts by asking too much. 
Many people would indulge in manicure if 
they did not imagine it was a most expen- 
sive proceeding. The high charges that 
have become so general make the public 
regard manicure as a luxury rather tlian a 





xtTu... n\A^r Women Stand a Chance o£ Succeeding— Experience a Better Asset than Youth— 
f^Tx Mlr/.^^v-Localitv Need Not be an Expensive Street-Privacy and Quiet Desirable-How 
^"'to S^cTthrs\op^Wh^^^^^ Byways-Cost of Training-Possible Profits 

fortunately, so long as it is easily 

to Stock the Shop— What 
HERE are many occupations 

THERE are many occupatiuna m which 
only the voung stand a chance of 
success, and it is a very difficult matter for 
a woman of mature years to find one upon 
which she dares venture with conhdence. 

A woman left a widow with young children 
is often eager to find some way in which she 
can earn a living for herself and children. 
Here, at any rate, is one solution of her 
difficulty— to start business as a baby-lmeri 
outfitter. Her experience as a mother of 
young children will have familiarised her 
with the details of baby- clothing, so that 
from her own experience she will know 
what other mothers need, and how to help 
them with suggestions. 

She can meet the mother on the comnion 
ground of motherhood and understanding 
of the child's body and the clothing suitable 
for it at different seasons of the year. The 
writer has in mind the case of a widow, left 
with a large young family, who turned her 
knowledge and business capacity to account 
in founding a successful business in a 
London suburb. She was a capable, motherly 
person, and, moreover, a woman of refine- 
ment, and these qualities told strongly in her 
favour. After working up a sound little 
business, until her boys and girls were 
almost grown up, she sold it, and the faniily 
emigrated to Canada, where they are doing 
very well indeed. 

Ways and Means 

But it may happen that a woman with 
young children has an invalid husband to 
support, yet the man is not so disabled but 
that he can keep the accounts of the business 
and do correspondence ; or the wife of a 
low-salaried City clerk may determine to 
put her shoulder to the wheel of the family 
coach. She always did take pleasure in 
making and fitting her baby's clothes, sq 
why not turn her deft fingers to account 
for other people's babies ? 

First to be considered are ways and means. 
It would not be safe to make the venture 
on a smaller capital than ;^i50. About ;^8o 
of this would be spent on the purchase of 
stock, the rest in rent, lighting, rates, etc. 
The turnover of the stock should be rapid, 
because some of the daintier articles — 
children's hats and bonnets, for instance — 
quickly soil and deteriorate. 

Next there is the question of locality to 
consider. The shop need not be in a main 


reached by the occupiers of private houses, 
both medium-sized and small ones. To 
open the business in a wealthy residential 
district of large, detached houses would be 
a mistake, for it is not the rooms of these 
large houses which know best the patter of 
tiny feet ; and so strong is mother-love in 
the heart of the poorer mother that the 
money which, if spent in the purchase of v 
boots or coat for herself would be rank 
extravagance, is willingly laid out in the baby- 
linen shop on a shawl or a bonnet for the 

Where to Begin 

Care should be taken to ascertain that 
there is no formidable rival in the field, 
and that there is really a need for such a 
shop. It is doubtful whether the existence 
of a large drapery store in, the neighbour- 
hood is a drawback. Most mothers would 
prefer to go to a little shop in a quiet street 
to make their purchases, and dislike buying 
or having a baby fitted in the midst of the 
noise and publicity of a big departmental 
house. Moreover, there is the disposal of the 
customer's baby- carriage to be considered. 

For a private business, therefore, a small 
shop in front of living-rooms, situated out 
of the main traffic, is best. The mothers may 
be trusted to find it out, and to recommend 
it to each other ; but, in addition, a little 
attractive advertising in the local paper 
and by handbill is advisable at the start, 
and the more friends and acquaintances 
there are in the neighbourhood, the better. 

The Necessity of Freshness 

One essential factor in success is scrupulous 
— one might almost say relentless — clean- 
liness. Windows, counter, glass cases, paint, 
floor, everything, should be clean as clean 
can be, and very spick and span. This 
essential characteristic of cleanliness is 
necessary for success. Its absence is the 
warning signal of failure, displayed that all 
may read it, in the window of the shop 
about to fail. 

Equally significant is a want of variety in 
the arrangement of goods in the window 
and display cases. If people see, month 
after month, the same articles in a window, 
in the end they naturally cease to look, 
and pass the window to find another with 
something fresh. 



Careful attention should be given to 
investigation of the shops of baby-lrnen 
outfitters, and mental notes made of the 
most attractive and newer fittings, and 
their arrangement. There will be plenty of 
glass — a gUiss-topped counter to hold the 
smaller and daintier goods, glass shelves to 
a display stand, and one or two mirrors, 
if there is room for them. The shelves along 
the wall have stored in them cardboard boxes 
and cases to hold soilable articles. 

The Stock 

At the ends of the counter there are 
usually some brass upright stands for the 
display of children's hats, bonnets, and 
hoods. But there is nothing like seeing other 
shop arrangements and fittings before 
deciding on one's own ; time so spent is never 
regretted. A common mistake is to over- 
crowd the window. 

As to the stock, the intending shopkeeper 
is advised to consult the catalogues of whole- 
sale dealers, and not to purchase extensively 
in any one kind of article at first, "but to 
dispose of samples, until it has been proved 
by experience what articles are most in 
demand. These include the layette and 
baby's toilet basket, from brush and comb 
and puff-boxes to gowns and swathes — 
everything, indeed, that a baby wants 
from birth to the shortening time ; and a 
complete shortening set from little frocks to 

A clever needlewoman who has taste, and 
is apt at contriving, will be able to fashion 
many a dainty frock of nainsook, cashmere, 
or silk, hood of silk or crochet cotton, pairs 
of socks and boots of knitted or crocheted 
wool, though wholesale houses now supply 
most articles at prices which hardly justify 
the making of stock without facilities for 
purchasing materials economically. 

Chiefly because of the privacy obtainable 
in a baby-linen outfitter's, girls and women 
resort to it for their supply of underlinen, 
day and night underwear, camisoles, spencers, 
knickers, dressing-gowns, bed-jackets, and 
corsets, as well as other articles and acces- 
sories familiar to the reader. 

Baby's and children's millinery is an 
important department of the business, and to 
it special attention should be given. Many 
a mother who can manage to make a little 
child's petticoats and frocks is at sea 
when the hood, bonnet, or hat is wanted, 
and has to resort to a shop for it. If, there- 
fore, an opportunity offers for doing so, it 
may be worth while to become for a time 
pupil to a good milliner, preferably in a city. 

A Training in Millinery 

The fees might be about ten guineas for 
a six months' course. Instruction is obtain- 
able at a trifling cost in the women's depart- 
ments of polytechnics and technical schools. 
These are advantageous to one who is 
engaged in a shop during the day, since 
classes are held in the evenings. It will be 

found that trimmings do not vary much, so 
that infants' millinery is not so intricate 
a subject as millinery for women ; yet a very 
fair jDrofit is obtainable on it. 

This question of profit should be carefully 
watched. It is safe to reckon on a price 
that will cover double the outlay on 
materials, plus the wage value of the labour 
— at any rate, when credit is allowed. If, 
for instance, the materials for a baby's 
bonnet cost 2S. gd., and the wage value of 
the time spent on it is., then the selling price 
can be fixed at 7s. 6d. It must be remem- 
bered that the artistic skill and ingenuity 
are thrown in, so that the price is not 
really high. 

On the whole, business profits should 
average 33^ to 40 per cent. Every effort 
should be made to turn over the stock as 
frequently as possible, and to avoid giving 
credit. Whether this is done or not, must 
depend on the class of business. 

The Bottom of the Ladder 

With the spread of cash stores, and the 
habit of cash payments among the lower and 
middle classes, the vicious system of allow- 
ing credit will be regarded in time in its 
true light. Meanwhile, in a high-class 
business, the shopkeeper dares not press 
for payment from a wealthy customer at the 
risk of offence. Therefore, in choosing a 
neighbourhood for the venture, it must be 
considered whether the means of the shop- 
keeper will bear the strain of allowing credit. 
If not, she had better locate herself where 
cash payments are de rigueur. 

It may be that a girl in a provincial town 
wishes to start at the bottom of the business 
ladder, and learn it so that she can become a 
manageress for some company, or, if she 
prefers, start a business on her own account. 
She would, of course, proceed on different 
lines, probably apprentice herself for two 
years, witliout paying a premium if living 
out of doors, and paying one of about ;^30 
if living in. Her hours would be from about 
8.30 to 7 o'clock, with half a day off once a 
week. She usually receives one shilling a 
week pocket-money, and, during the twelve 
months she is an improver, half-a-crown a 
week. This increases to £1 a week as an 
assistant, if the girl prove capable. After 
that, experience makes her services more 
valuable, and worth anything up to /60 
a year resident, or an even higher salary. 

As a manageress, she might expect a 
salary of /too, or in one of the departments 
of a large house from ;^200 to ;^300, or more, 
if she proved also an expert buyer. It will 
readily be understood that wisdom in bujnng 
is one great secret of success, whether the 
woman buys for her firm or for her own 

An advantage in working up a business of 
one's own is that it can be sold, and thus all 
satisfaction that has been given, and custom 
obtained, bring in a financial return which a 
woman who works for a firm misses. This 
is a consideration to be kept in view. 




Continued from page 366Q, Pari 30 

Taking up References a Wise Precaution— An Unfortunate Experience— What Constitutes a 
Paying Guest— A Trying Occupation— How to Obtain Guests— Prices— A Word of Warning 

In such close intercourse as that of hostess and 
* paying guest, references should not only 
be interchanged, but personally verified by 
oneself or a friend. There are such things 
as bogus advertisements, and the " guest," 
" lodger," or " boarder," once installed in 
the house, cannot, in the event of the adver- 
tisement being fraudulent, depart forthwith 
without full payment for the time agreed 
upon, under penalty of retention of the 

The only alternative is to compromise. 
An instance came to the writer's notice where 
misrepresentations were made which induced 
a lady and her daughter to engage a room 
for three weeks. On arrival at the house, 
they found to their cost how the advertise- 
ment and reference had misled them. But 
the occupier refused to allow them to leave 
without full payment for the three weeks. It 
might have been recovered at law, but the 
expense of doing so was not to be entertained. 

It may be asked what is the difference 
between keeping a boarding house and being 
the hostess of paying guests ? It is that the 
latter do not expect the house in which 
they purpose residing as guests to be 
populated as is a boarding-house. More- 
over, the relationship of hostess and guest is 
more intimate ; they meet on closer social 
equality presumably. Still, there are plenty 
of boarding-houses which disdain to be 
known as such, and pose as homes for paying 
guests. But alas for high-flown titles ! 
The latest news to hand is that in White- 
chapel the homely " lodger " has already 
yielded place to the " paying guest " — an 
amusing instance of the social see-saw of 
words and phrases. 

The Hostess 

A woman who contemplates offering 
people board-residence would be wiser to 
keep to the old-fashioned term " boarding- 
house," unless she intends limiting her 
enterprise to one, two, or three guests only, 
and is a bona-fide " hostess of paying 
guests." It has been said the intending 
paying guest should be careful in the matter 
of references ; the hostess should be no less 
so. Once installed, an objectionable person 
may work havoc in a home, and, unfor- 
tunately, there are many such who roam 
from guest-house to guest-house. 

A friend of the writer's, who has had a 
good deal of experience as a paying guest, 
draws a picture of the difficulties which beset 
the hostess. She has to consult the tastes 

and fads of this or that guest, be up betimes 
in the morning to see the staff or servants 
is at work, preside at table as though she 
were actually entertaining, which becomes a 
strain in perpetuity, give most careful 
attention to economical catering, satisfy the 
wants of each of her guests, and keep 
harmony between them. 

The Guests 

There is no blinking the fact that the 
picture did not portray weak human nature^ 
to advantage, what with two men-guests 
who had a hot argument over some 
educational question, and refused to sit 
together or speak henceforth, and the 
elderly women-guests who quarrelled over 
their pet chairs. Certainly much tact and 
savoir faire, understanding of people and 
skill in housekeeping, as well as physical 
energy and health, are wanted by the 
professional hostess ; and she must know the 
law concerning points that may arise in 

It is, of course, nicer to obtain guests 
by private recommendation, otherwise it is 
well to select for advertisement a newspaper 
or ladies' periodical circulating among the 
class from which the guest is desired, and to 
advertise at intervals. 

The bedrooms are priced variously, usually 
the best at two guineas, and, as they decrease 
in size and are on higher floors, 35s., 30s. 
25s., or less. The charge can be based 
on the rental of the house. If a living is 
to be made, the charge can be estimated by 
making a rough plan of the house, and 
entering in the spaces representing the bed- 
rooms the fee each guest should pay to 
cover the share of the rent for the house, 
plus the estimate for fire, lighting, servants' 
wages and the wear and tear of furniture, 
besides the cost of meals. If something of 
this kind is not done, it is difficult to dis- 
cover whether the guest-house is paying its 
way, or not. 

A Warning: to a Hostess 

One warning is perhaps necessary to the 
intending hostess. It is given as the result 
of investigation. Many hostesses, in their 
anxiety to make the guest at home, intrude 
too much. Undue curiosity is resented ; so 
is undue familiarity. One hostess lost a 
desirable guest through introducing her as 
" my friend," another departed because 
she suspected her letters were tampered 




By J. T. BROWN, F.Z.S., M.R.Sjm.I. 

Editor Oj '• The Encyclopcedia oj Poultry," etc. 
Continued from pa^e 3668, Part 30 

Concluding Advice — Housing and Ventilation — Problems— Importance of Method— The Preservation 
of Plant — False Economy in Buying Plant 

HThe various conditions under which 
poultry of all kinds may be profitably 
kept, and the principles relating to runs, 
shelters, feeding, etc., having been dealt 
with, we will now consider the general 
management of the plant and stock. 

Cleanliness should be strictly observed in 
all the houses devoted to the sheltering of 
the fowls. The roosting perches should be 
cleaned out daily, as, by so doing, not onl^^ is 
the work rendered more easy of accomplish- 
ment, but the air will be purer. 

As already pointed out, poultry manure is a 
valuable fertiliser, and one that may be used 
with advantage either upon vegetable plots 
or in the cultivation of fruit and flowers. If 
the fowls are running on orchard land, the 
refuse from the houses may be stored in a 
dry place and used as required, either for 
the making of liquid manure or for the 
top-dressing of the trees, whilst if the birds 
are worked about land devoted to the culti- 
vation of flowers and vegetables, the manure 
may be dug into vacant plots as gathered, 
or may be stored for use. 


It should be remembered that the accumu- 
lation of filth in the roosting houses not only 
renders the air impure, but encourages the 
visitation of insect pests, which breed and 
multiply amazingly in unclean places. These 
pests must be kept out of the houses by 
strict attention to cleanliness and such 
methods as brushing the perches over occa-. 
sionally with petroleum, and dusting the 
birds and their nesting-places with pow- 
dered sulphur. Twice a year, at least, the 
houses must be fumigated and limewashed. 
This work should be done at a time when 
the birds can be conveniently moved to 
fresh quarters, and when the weather is calm 
and dry. Before fumigating the houses, the 
nest-boxes and other internal fittings should 
be dislodged, so that the sulphur fumes may 
have free access to all corners, cracks, and 
crevices. The ventilators should be tightly 
closed, and any openings temporarily covered 
by pasting paper over them. 

For the purpose of fumigation, sulphur 
candles may be employed; and when these 
are placed on the centres of the floors and 
ignited the doors should be tightly closed 
and the fumes left to do their work. After 
fumigation the interiors of the houses and 
their fittings should be well coated with hot 
lime wash. 

A good limewash can be made by dissolving 
a lump of lime in hot water, adding to it 
some soft soap and petroleum, and well 
stirring the whole together. If strained 

through a piece of coarse fabric, the mixture 
will work smoothly and present a better 
appearance when laid on. The wash should 
be used in a hot condition, and well worked 
into the corners, crevices, and other places 
likely to harbour vermin. Once a month, 
at least, the perches should be wiped over 
with a rag dipped in petroleum, and the 
materials in the nest-boxes should be changed. 
Not only are insects kept out of the nest- 
boxes by a frequent changing of the litter, 
but the eggs deposited in them keep in a clean 
condition until collected, and when eggs for 
edible purposes are concerned cleanliness is 
an important factor. 


In the ventilation of the houses the atten- 
dant should aim at the avoidance of draughts, 
and at as good a volume of air as possible. 
So long as damp and draughts are avoided, 
and the temperature is kept on the safe side 
of freezing point, plenty of cold air will not 
harm the fowls, but will invigorate them. 

The houses should be visited after the 
fowls have gone to roost some time, and if 
there is the least sign of stuffiness more 
ventilation should be allowed. During the 
daytime, whenever the weather is fine, the 
doors and ventilators should be opened to 
their fullest extent, so that the fresh air 
may enter and sweeten the interiors. Sun- 
light should also be freely admitted into 
the buildings, so that the damp may be 
dispelled and the germs of disease, if any, 
destroyed. Apart from the roosting-houses 
and scratching-sheds, the above remarks 
apply equally to other appliances used, such 
as coops, nest-boxes for sitting hens, and any 
other contrivances tenanted by fowls. 

Overcrowding must be avoided at all 
times. It matters not whether it be in the 
rearing, breeding, or other quarters devoted 
to the stock, there must be ample room for 
the birds, otherwise they will fail to thrive. 

Many have failed at poultry farming 
through attempting too much in too little 
space. The land should be so managed 
as to ensure a sanitary condition of the soil. 
No plot should be used two seasons together 
for the rearing of chickens, and in no case 
must chickens be reared on land that has 
recently been occupied by adult stock. 

Where space is restricted, a limitation 
should be put upon the number of chickens 
reared. It is a good plan to reserve a portion 
of land especially for the rearing of the 
youngsters, and to divide this into two 
plots, the one to be used while the other is 
resting and freshening. 

To be continued. 




Marriage plays a very important part in every woman's life, and, on account of its umversal interest 
and importance, its problems are considered very fully in Every Woman's Encyclop.-edia. The 
subject has two sides, the practical and the romantic. Under the many headings included in this 
section are articles dealing with : 

The Ceremony 

Marriage Customs 
Wedding Superstitions 
Marriasre Statistics 


Colonial Marriages 

Foreign Marriages 

Efigagement and Wedding Icings, etc. 

The Mother Who Takes Her Daughters to Fashionable Resorts— The Far-seeing and Tactful 
Mother— Mother's Duty to See that Her Girls Have Opportunities of Meeting People of the Same 
Social Position— The Continental System 

ROADLY Speaking, and in the 
generally accepted meaning of 
the term, a matchmaking 
mother is an abomination. One 
mentally pictures the woman of 
maternal aspect who is invari- 
ably to be found at any of the 
fashionable resorts abroad, or at hotels and 
hydropathic establishments trailing in her 
wake three or four daughters of marriageable 
age. Anyone can recognise the type and 
young men flee before it. 

There is something vulgar about ostensible 
matchmaking which is repellent to any 
sensitive mind, and yet they say that every 
woman is at heart a matchmaker, only the 
truth is there are ways and ways of doing it. 

Misdirected Energy 

We are all so prone to condemn our fellow- 
creatures, and we so seldom put ourselves 
to the trouble of trying to discover the 
reasons for the actions we condemn. Nearly 
everybody detests the matchmaking mother, 
whose methods are so crude, and whose 
little tricks and manoeuvres so trans- 
parent, and yet in the majority of cases the 
poor harassed woman is more deserving of 
sympathy than of censure ; after all, she is 
only doing her duty according to her lights, 
and if her intelligence is outstripped by her 
desires, surely she is a subject for pity, not 

She looks into the future, and sees that if 
she cannot get her girls married and suitably 
provided for there will be nothing for them. 

but hopeless poverty, or, to her, the equally 
distressing alternative of working for their 
own living, therefore she strains every nerve 
to accomplish the end in view% and generally 
by so doing, manages to defeat her own 

Young men who are often attracted by 
the daughter are hopelessly scared by the 
parent, the fear of whom nips the incipient 
attachment in the bud. 

Yet there is no doubt about it that it is 
the distinct duty of every mother to see that 
her daughters should have the opportunity 
of meeting young men with whom they 
might form suitable alliances. Many charm- 
ing women, who might have made happy 
wives and mothers, have remained single all 
their lives, because during their impression- 
able and marriageable years they were never 
brought into contact with any man whom 
they might suitably have married. 

The Little God off Circumstance 

Of course, in the majority of cases such 
opportunities occur naturally. Two young 
people meet and are mutually attracted, 
and the little god of circumstance, who looks 
after such matters, can manage the rest ; 
but, on the other hand, there are very often 
cases in which these opportunities do not 
naturally occur, nor does there seem any 
likelihood of their so doing, and under these 
conditions surely it is a parent's duty 
to see that they are made ; but this must 
be done so tactfully as to be entirely un- 
noticeable, or the probabilities are that the 



opportunities so manufactured will he less 
than useless. 

To be a successful, yet undiscovered, 
matchmaker requires much tact and a great 
deal of discretion ; there are many cases in 
which the happiest marriages have taken 
place that have been privately pre-arranged 
by matchmaking friends who contrived 
opportunities for meetings. Surely there is 
nothing but kindness in such actions as 
these. And there is a certainty in the fact 
that in the making of marriage, propinquity 
plays an important part. 

I believe there are few women who have 
never had the opportunity of becoming 
wives, but, none the less, their opportunities 
of finding, among the men of their own 
small circle, really eligible husbands are 
very, very small. 

Take the provincial solicitor or doctor, 
or the clergyman of a poor parish — admirable 
though each might be as a husband, his 
limited income makes it almost impossible 
for him to perform adequately his duties as 
a father. 

H usband-hunting: 

Now, in the majority of small provincial 
towns or villages, the eligible young man is 
something of a rara avis ; the small propor- 
tion of male society is probably composed of 
a few ineligible youths, so if a mother does 
not take some means of giving her daughters 
a wider field for making their acquaintance 
the chances are that they will remain 
spinsters, and so lose the principal crowns of 
a woman's life, the crown of wifehood and 
of motherhood. 

It is a hopeless plan, and one repugnant 
to any woman of nice feeling, to take her 
girls about to the places where eligible 
young men are supposed to congregate, for, 
after a little while, a tiny whisper will go 
round that they are " husband-hunting," 
and that little whisper will sound the death- 
knell of all their chances. No, the mother 
who has the true interests of her daughters 
at heart m^U be much more far-seeing than 

A Wise Mother 

I know of a case^ which will serve to 
exemplify my meaning. 

A very charming but impecunious family 
were compelled, owing to the occupation of 
the father, to live in a little poky town in 
which there was hardly any society at all. 

certainly none of their own class, and the 
mother realised that when her girls grew up, 
be they never so charming, there was little 
or no possibility of their finding husbands 
in their own environment, so while they 
were still young girls, she scraped and saved 
till she could send them to a good boarding- 
school, trusting to their making friendships 
which would stand them in good stead in 
after years. Her forethought was rewarded ; 
both her girls met the men they afterwards 
married while on visits to their old school- 
fellows. The mother paved the way for the 
opportunities which other^vise would never 
have occurred. Can anyone blame her ? 

The Continental System 

On the contrary, the mother who fails to 
take these things into consideration is 
neglecting part of her duty towards her 

Of course, marriage is not of such para- 
mount importance nowadays as it was to the 
girl of some years back, but there is no 
doubt about it that every mother would 
rather see her daughter happily married, 
and mistress of a comfortable home, than 
working for her own living in the toil and 
stress of the world, and to attain this end 
the majority of them would like to give 
their daughters the chance of meeting the 
men who would be likely to make good 

There is a very great deal to be said in 
favour of the Continental system of arranged 
marriages (see page 12 14, Vol. 2). There 
the matter is settled openly; no one is 
ashamed of it ; and if the young people do 
not feel inclined to ratify the proposal the 
matter is dropped, while, if they are mutually 
attracted, it is concluded to the satisfaction 
of everyone. 

In England, however, the arrangements 
are made covertly and secretly, hidden most 
stringently from the two people most con- 
cerned. If a young man thinks he is 
being sought after as a husband for any- 
body's daughter, he sheers off at once in a 
state of alarm, while a girl determines that 
nothing wU ever induce her to like anyone 
someone else has selected for her. On the 
other hand, of course, if they know nothing 
about it, if they think they have met by 
chance, and are " courting " in secret, it 
is more than likely that they will be 
engaged and be married before many moons 
have waned. , 

D 26 




MAn as a Domesticated Animal-A Wise Angelina and a Helpful Edwin-The Simple Life as a 

^ac^or in Dom^^^^^^^^^^^^^ a Husband-A Husband and Wife Who Exchanged Duties-Justifiable 

Guile— The French and the English Husband— A Masculme Way of Dusting a Piano 

Things in which a man especially excels 

when he delivers himself over to the fascina- 

■/ri 01 wives sup uu»c. XIX cxxxxv.^^ tion of housewifery are salad dressings, black 

1^ every member of the masculine coffee (for which, however, he requires a 

~^-' -^ - ^ "- -^^ — ^ rather expensive cafetiere), toast, potato 

salad, and beefsteak. Intimate to him that 
you do not like to see a single red bit in the 
whole of the steak, and he will present it at 
table of a uniform brown-greyness which is 
most appetising. 


JAN is a much more easily domesti- 
cated animal than the majority 
of wives suppose. In almost 
every member of the masculine 
sex there dwells, sometimes 
carefully hidden away, an 
innate capacity for the practical 
domestic virtues, in fact, a love of house- 
wifery. Men are usually unconscious of 
this until circumstances bring it out. Let 
the wife in her own interests take means to 
educe it from those inner depths that, in 
every one of us, hold so much concerning 
which, as we go on in life, we make fresh 
and surprising discoveries. 

One morning at breakfast Angelina finds 
one of her beautiful wedding-present cups 
badly cracked. In a voice of lamentation 
she points it out to Edwin, and he sympathises 
in that perfunctory way with which a man 
regards such incidents as this. " I must 
wash them up myself," says Angelina ; and 
she desires her parlourmaid to bring a basin 
of tepid water, a clean glasscloth, and a 
small stick of firewood, on one end of which 
she ties a dainty little sponge. 

The Simple Life 

She then sets to work, going into every 
little crevice of the cup handle with the useful 
little mop ; and afterwards turning the cup 
upside down oil the tray to let it drain. 
With fascinated eyes the husband watches 
this performance, and Angelina, seeing how 
attractive it appears to him, allows him to 
dry the cups when they have become well 
drained. This is the first step to a long 
course of active persistence in household 
miatters by that member of the married 
concern who is least expected to perform the 
duties of a house or parlour maid. 

An excellent way to domesticate a husband 
is to take a country cottage and have in a 
daily help, who comes at seven in the morning 
and leaves at perhaps seven in the evening. 
The couple have to get their own supper, and 
Edwin soon becomes an adept in garnishing 
dishes, shredding lettuce for salad, and even 
in cookery itself. He washes his potatoes 
cleaner than any hired cook has ever been 
known to do, and cooks them to a turn, but 
the worst of his accomplishments is that he 
requires those at table audibly to appreciate 
his achievements almost without inter- 
mission. He thoroughly enjoys the products' 
of his own skill, and seems resolved that no 
one else should miss doing so from want of 
attention being drawn to them. 

Men Who Sew 

Another excellent achievement is the gravy 
made by these amateur cooks, guiltless of a 
single atom of grease, but sparkling with 
goodness, and just the right tint of brown. 
Any woman who has not tried to initiate her 
husband into the finer arts of the cuisine is 
hereby advised to try him with a simple meal, 
and, above all things, to leave him to himself 
in the kitchen while he works out his own plans. 
A man is often " snubby " when he is busy 
on a job, and this for a very excellent reason, 
one which makes his ill-humour pardonable. 
It is this : he concentrates the whole of his 
mental powers and several of his muscles upon 
the task in hand. Any interruption is conse- 
quently a grievance, and should anything go 
wrong with the food, it is always explained 
by the remark, "Oh, well, you would talk ! " 

One day a clergyman, watching his wife 
at work with the sewing machine, making 
suits for their little boys, administered such 
quantities of excellent advice that at last 
she jumped up and said laughingly, " I am 
sure you are longing to do it yourself ! " 

He was. He sat down before the machine 
with boyish eagerness, and a zest for the 
work, which suffered some small diminution 
for an hour, and then renewed itself with 
remarkable power. For many years after 
this incident he did the cutting out and sew- 
ing, and his wife wrote the sermons. He 
displayed uncommon skill with the needle, 
though he could never be induced to wear a 
thimble. Her sermons were excellent. Need- 
less to say, they were preached by him. 

Pardonable Hypocrisy 

Many men are born with a curious spirit 
of opposition which leads them to carp and 
criticise any new idea put forth by their 
wives, especially in matters of domestic 
science. It does not need many years to 
elapse for a wife to learn how to evade this 
incessant criticism. Women are often called 
hypocrites, but in many instances their 
hypocrisy is but a form of peace-making. 



For instance, should a wife have a brilliant 
idea about some department in the home, she 
finds that it is very foolish to thrust this 
information upon her husband when he is 
extremely busy, either over a meal, or 
enjoying a smoke, or reading the newest novel. 
On the contrary, her plan is to wait until he 
is in a suave mood, and doing nothing in 
particular, and then to present to him the 
facts which led her to evolve the idea, and 
allow him to approach it by the same means, 
as nearly as possible, as she did herself. He 
will then love and cherish it as a child of his 
own brain, and will exercise much ardour, and 
experience the greatest pleasure in carrying 
it out. This is really a piece of excellent 
advice. Hypocrisy is an evil quality, but 
the subtler shade of it employed in transac- 
tions of this kind is surely pardonable. In 
fact, we may conclude that it is one of those 
faults which lean to virtue's side. 

The French Husband 

Camping out will be found a very excellent 
training for young men as possible husbands. 
Without a woman to help them in making 
the preliminary arrangements for an enjoy- 
able outdoor life for a few weeks, they are 
perfectly certain to forget something, if 
not several things. Their future wives 
profit by these mistakes, also by the know- 
ledge that campers-out acquire of the prices 
of provisions, utensils, etc. 

" What have you done with that fifteen- 
pence ? " was the question that occurred 
frequently in a farce produced in the days 
of the old Lyceum. When a man obtains 
vSome notion of the prices of domestic neces- 

saries, he is less likely to carp about the 
weekly books and his wife's allowance. He 
can remember how short a way fiftcen-pencc 
will go towards purchasing the day^ re- 
quirements, and will be less likely to hurl 
inconvenient questions at her head. 

The domesticated husband is more often 
found in France than in England. He is 
usually an excellent cook, and he does not 
mind tending the baby, even when it is 
shrieking so violently that the English hus- 
band would hastily lay it down and shout for 
his wife. 

A Frenchman has a very tender way with 
his youngsters ; he calls them " little cab- 
bages," and bestows other tender names 
upon them, his voice appearing to encourage 
the small beings to good behaviour. 

English fathers might imitate him. 

The Masculine Housemaid 

In tlie case of domestication, very few men 
indeed will be found capable of resisting the 
attractions of housewifery in its lighter 
forms. A man is not clever at making a bed ; 
he would hate to sweep a room, and his 
dusting of the furniture might be oJf the kind 
which displayed itself on one occasion in 
college rooms. A girl, invited with her 
mother to a kettledrum, sat down to the 
piano, and immediately turned up her fingers 
and looked at them. "Fie!" she said. 
" What a dusty piano ! " To which her host 
replied : " You don't say so ! I dusted it 
with the clothes-brush just before you came." 

But thes« are revolutionary days; and 
before long a man may be as efficient with a 
duster as he is with the needle. 


T^HE story of Pepys' married life, as we 
glean it from the pages of his delightful 
diary, is wonderfully entertaining, and one 
feels no little regret that, as the diary does 
not begin till the year 1659, it does not tell us 
in its frank, naive way all about Pepys' first 
acquaintance with pretty little Elizabeth St. 
Michel, his courtship of her, and the earliest 
days of their married life, when they lived 
on little else but love in a garret, yet were 
quite happy and content. 

Mrs. Pepys was the daughter of Alexander 
St. Michel, a Huguenot, who came to Eng- 
land with Henrietta Maria on her marriage 
with Charles I. He had been disinherited 
by his father on account of his faith — for he 
came of a Papist family — and he was soon 
dismissed from Court as a result of striking 
a friar in the course of a heated argument on 
matters of religion. He married the widowed 
daughter of Sir Francis Kingsmill, and had 

two children, a son, on whom was inflicted the 
name of Balthazar, and a daughter Elizabeth. 
Mr. St. Michel was of an ingenious turn of 
mind, but fortune did not smile on his invent- 
ive efforts. Late in life we find him obtain- 
ing patents for curing smoky chimneys and 
cleaning muddy ponds, but in these early days 
the family was very poor. They lived for a 
while in Bideford, where Elizabeth was born. 

During a prolonged absence from home of 
Mr. St. Michel, a Madame Trouson, who must 
have been a very zealous Catholic, made 
determined efforts to secure his wife and 
children for the Roman Church. She assured 
Mrs. St. Michel that, if she would leave her 
husband, she would see that her children 
and herself were comfortably provided for. 
Her daughter should become a nun and her 
son page to the Pope's Nuncio, who was then 
in Paris. 

To Mrs. St. Michel's discredit — perhaps she 


found poverty very hard to bear— she agreed, 
and one day two coaches came to .her door, 
one for Elizabeth and herself and the other lor 
her son. They were taken to Roman Catholic 
institutions in France,.and soon EHzabeth was 
removed to the Convent of the Ursulmes. 

Directly Mr. St. Michel heard of these 
happenings he hastened to France and 
succeeded in rescuing his family, but for 
some time EHzabeth showed a liking for 
the Roman Church, which much worried her 
father, and he was very glad when she 
became engaged to be married to Samuel 
Pepys, whom he knew to be as good a 
Protestant as England could show. 

The two were married at St. Margarets, 
Westminster, towards the end of 1655. Mrs. 
Pepys was quite penniless, her husband 
nearly so, and for their poor little home itself 
they were indebted to Sir Edward Montagu, 
afterwards Lord Sandwich, who was Pepys' 
cousin. He entered this gentleman's family 
a year later, however, being employed as a 
kind of factotum for his cousin in business 
matters when the latter was away from town. 

In 1659, when his diary opens, he was clerk 
in Sir George Downing's office. In order 
to keep up a good appearance in public he 
was obliged to be economical in his house- 
hold expenditure, and we find such pathetic 
entries as the following : "At noon I went 
home and dined with my wife on pease 
porridge and nothing else." 

A Capable Wife 

The young wife proved quite a capable 
housekeeper, and in after years Pepys 
reminded her " how she used to make coal 
fires, wash my foul clothes with her own hand 
for me, poor wretch ! " — one wishes Pepys 
would not refer so frequently to the lady in 
this manner — " in our little room at my Lord 
Sandwich's, for which I ought for ever to 
love and admire her, and do." He refers 
elsewhere to her " care and thrift," and her 
success in the matter of housekeeping. We 
find her rising at five o'clock in the morning, 
before day, and going to market to buy 
fowls and other things for an elaborate dinner- 
party, on which occasion, her husband tells 
us, the house was " mighty clean and neat." 

But the Pepys' circumstances gradually 
became more comfortable, particularly after 
Samuel became Clerk of the Acts of the Navy, 
and could afford a fine house and good 
appointments, several maids, and a coach 
of his own. Both husband and wife spent 
a good deal on dress, and Pepys took great 
pride in his wife's appearance. Lord 
Sandwich once asked a friend, in Pepys' 
hearing, what he thought of the latter's wife. 
" Do you not think he hath a great beauty to 
his wife ? " " Upon my word he hath," was 
the enthusiastic answer. " Which," com- 
ments Pepys, as he narrates the incident, 
" I was not a little proud of." 

A Happy Couple 

He often accompanies her shopping, and 
helps to choose petticoats and gloves and 


other articles of apparel, and sometimes, 
after chyrch, they walk to Gray's Inn 
together to, , observe the fashions of the 
ladies, when Mrs. Pepys wants to make 
herself sorne new. clothes. 

She was almost too fond of dress, and occa- 
sionally needed her husband's restraining 
hand in the matter of personal adornment. 
For a long time they disagreed over her 
wearing black patches, but Pepys at last 
gave in, and was forced to admit that they 
made her look " very pretty." But he 
never approved of her artificial curls. 

They really had a very happy time together, 
visiting friends, going to see all the new 
plays, driving abroad in the most fashionable 
garments they possessed — they both liked 
this very much — and occasionally seeing 
bodies hanged at Tyburn by way of a change. 
Mrs. Pepys found time amid her household 
duties for lessons in dancing, painting, singing, 
and arithmetic. Her husband rather dis- 
approved of the frequency of the dancing 
master's visits, but he took a great interest in 
his wife's progress in all these subjects. 

The Susceptible Mr. Pepys 

But they had serious quarrels sometimes. 
The worst were due to Pepys inordinate 
admiration for pretty faces. His wife did 
not like the way his eyes wandered from the 
stage at the playhouse, and she did not 
approve of the amount of attention he paid 
her various pretty serving-maids. Once she 
appeared between his drawn bed-curtains 
with a red-hot pair of tongs in her hand. We 
are not surprised to hear that Pepys was dis- 
mayed, and went to some trouble to coax 
her into good humour again. If, however, 
Pepys was so upset that he " wept to himself 
for grief," she invariably melted absolutely 
and was " mighty kind." 

She certainly had reason to be jealous. 
There were several pretty women whom Pepys 
" could not forbear to love exceedingly," 
and sometimes he and his wafe would argue 
together about the charms of some fair lady, 
he in their favour, she against, till both got 
angry, and Mrs. Pepys retired weeping to 
bed. He himself says that his wife " do find, 
with reason, that, in the company of Pierce, 
Knipp, or other women that I love, I do not 
value her or mind her as I ought." And 
his behaviour in church, when unaccom- 
panied by his wife, was atrocious. 

He is, indeed, very difficult to understand, 
this Pepys. His tenderness towards his little 
wife when she is ill is very charming. He 
sits with her during long evenings when she is 
suffering from toothache, with her face so 
swollen that he is " frighted to see it." And 
yet he is angry with her when her new shoes 
prevent her from walking fast enough to 
please him, or when the meat is underdone, 
or the sauce too sweet. But, on the whole, 
they get on very well, and, although Mrs. 
Pepys died at the age of twenty- nine, her 
husband never married again, though at 
that time second and third marriages were 
very common indeed. 




Why Young Girls are Often Attracted by Elderly Men— The Wife Wtio Becomes an Old Man's 
Nurse — The Misleading Saying: ** Better to bz an Old Man's Darling than a Young Man's 
Slave ''—Elderly Women Who Marry Young Men— June and September Marriages 
HERE is a Scotch proverb which conditions 

is very true : "Like bliide, like 
gude, like age make the happy 

Young girls are attracted to 
elderly men more often than 
are young men to elderly 
women, and when a marriage between the 
latter occurs there is generally some sordid, 
mercenary motive at the bottom of it. It 
is not always so with girls. They do not 
seem to realise the tremendous barrier a 
great disparity of years will make ; and, 
indeed, the difference between twenty and 
fifty-five does not seem nearly so great as 
the difference between thirty and sixty-five. 
At fifty-five most men are still full of 
vigour, but there is no getting away from 
the fact that they have lived their lives. 
They are beginning to tire of the world 
and its ways, and to prefer the quiet of 
their own fireside to the gaieties that 
would be attractive to a young wife. It is 
this very feeling of weariness that often 
makes an elderly man desire a wife. He 
is really looking for a woman to make 
his home homelike. But how many of 
them would choose a woman of their own 
age, or even approximate to it ? Almost 
invariably a man's thoughts will turn to 
someone young enough to be his own 
daughter, and at her feet he will lay his 
heart. And many a young girl feels flat- 
tered by the attentions of anyone consider- 
ably older than herself. 

Wife or Nurse? 

For her the world is just opening ; it is 
all fresh and new and beautiful. She is 
not satiated with its pleasures, nor wearied 
by their monotony. Yet she gives her 
youth into the keeping of old age. 

It is like putting a jaded horse to run in 
harness with a fresh young filly.. 

It will be difficult for the woman to keep 
happily young and to enjoy the pleasures 
that belong by right to youth while her 
husband is growing too old to partake of 
any of them. It will be harder still for 
the man to try to keep pace with his wife 
while old age comes stalking nearer and 

Nowadays women retain their youth 
much longer than formerly. The altered 

under which they live have 
ordained that it should be so. But an old 
man is just as feeble as old men were wont 
to be, and, as a rule, an old man becomes 
so dependent upon a young wife that the 
latter is more like a nurse than anything 

Of course, under the circumstances no 
true woman would have it otherwise, but 
my contention is that such circumstances 
should never arise. 

The Wise and the Unwise 

There are some women who, after fifteen 
or twenty years of married life, accept the 
conditions under which they find themselves 
as inevitable. They take it as a matter 
of course that their husband should suffer 
from gout or rheumatism or any other 
accompaniment of age. They also accept 
it as natural sequence of events that it 
should be their duty to sink their own 
individuality, to forgo their own interests 
in alleviating his sufferings and making his 
old age happier. And they are right. The 
situation is of their own making ; they 
must carry out the contract to the end. 
They do not always even recognise the fact 
that they have voluntarily relinquished part 
of their birthright. 

There are other women who fight against 
the disparity of years, which must neces- 
sarily become more apparent every day, 
and who still struggle to live their own 
lives in their own way, who clamour for 
the joys and privileges which under other 
conditions would have been theirs as a 
matter of course, chafing daily and hourly 
against the chains which bind their keen, 
strong lives to feeble age, and faiUng to 
recognise that the fetters against which they 
struggle have been riveted by themselves 

An Untrue Saying 

" Better be an old man's darling than a 
young man's slave." But never, never were 
words more misleading, for the old man is 
much more likely to prove a tyrant than 
the young one, or, if he is not a tyrant, he 
will very probably become a gaoler. 

It is almost natural that an old man 
should be suspicious of a young wife, because 
at the botton of his heart he will know 


with what an insistent voice youth calls to 
youth. He will realise that her nature 
requires social gaiety he cannot supply, ana 
the probabilities are that in every young 
man who approaches her he wiU see a possible 
usurper of her affections. ., r 

I have seen this happen when the ais- 
parity of years has been no greater than 
ten or fifteen. 

Of course, there are exceptional cases 
where no regrets have ever been felt on 
either side. I know of one where the couple 
have been married twenty-two years. The 
husband is eighty and the wife forty-six, 
the youngest child a boy of fourteen. It 
must be a sad reflection for the father 
that the probabilities are very strongly 
against his hving to see his son grow up, 
but in every other respect the marriage has 
been a very happy one. But the man was 
a wonderful man, and the woman an excep- 
tional woman. 

A Young Husband's Elderly Wife 

It is far worse when the cases are re- 
versed. I know of one where a woman of 
forty-three married a boy just one-and- 
twenty. She was a charming woman, who 
had refused many a good match. How it 
was that she succumbed to the immature 
charms of a lad of that age she alone could 
tell, but she appeared to be as deeply in 
love with him as he was with her. They 
say that very often between forty and 
fifty some women renew the susceptibilities 
of their youth. If so, it may account for 
their many fooHsh actions at this period. 
But ten years hence, what will be the 
position of the last-named couple ? She 
will be an elderly woman, and he a young 
man in the full vigour of his manhood. 

One hardly knows for which to be most 
sorry, the tragedy of the woman fighting 
desperately to retain the remnants of her 
youth, trying vainly to obliterate the enor- 
mous disparity between herself and her 
husband, or of the man trying to be old 
before his time, giving up 
the pleasures in which his 
wife cannot share, ceasing 
to shave so that a beard may 
make him look older than 
his years. 

These are the cases where 
the man and woman both 
endeavour to do their best 
to rectify their initial mis- 
take, which sometimes even 
to themselves they will not 
acknowledge. But there are 
far worse ones in which no 
endeavour is made, and the 
younger partner of the ill- 
assorted couple goes his or 
her way, irrespective of the 
desires of husband or wife. 
Of course, it is blame- 
worthy, and there is no real 
excuse to offer. It must 
lead to trouble and dis- 


union, and perhaps despair. But youth is 
virile and strong, and sometimes when 
yoked to age it waxes cruel. 

Yet I question which is the greater 
cruelty — the youth which is neglectful of 
old age, or the age which selfishly possesses 
itself of youth. " Crabbed age and youth 
cannot live together," and it is a selfish 
thing to take a young Ufe in its springtime 
and bind it to one already in the sere and 
yellow of the leaf. 

But though the above remarks are not 
in favour of May and December marriages, 
there is a good deal that may be said in 
favour erf — may we call them ? — June and 
September alliances, and there are many 
cases in which these unions are not only 
permissible, but distinctly desirable. A 
woman of thirty will make a fitting partner 
for a man of fifty-five or so. Both have 
passed their first youth, but are not too 
old to feel a lasting affection, which, though 
it may not have the passionate ardour of 
early youth, may have its foundation 
securely built on comradeship. 

An intelHgent woman of thirty or there- 
abouts will make a far better companion 
for a man of middle age than will a young 
girl in her early twenties. They may not 
be able to look forward to a great many 
years together, but perhaps this unspoken 
feeling will make the years they have more 

Often a man of middle age is left a 
widower with a family of young children, 
in which case it is almost imperative that 
he marries again, if only for the sake of the 
children ; but even when there are no boys 
and girls to be considered, the average 
man who has been once married cannot do 
without a woman to share his life. 

Second Marriages 

It is a great mistake to consider that it 
is a slight upon a man's first wife should 
he marry a second time ; neither does the 
second wife take the place of her prede- 
cessor. The man probably 
marries for very different 
reasons from those which 
impelled him in his youth, 
but there is no reason why 
the love of a man or woman 
who has reached maturity 
should not be steady, strong, 
and loyal, though it may lack 
the ardour of twenty-one. 

Most men and women are 
happier married than single, 
and, though it is not good for 
the extremes of life to meet, 
yet a difference of fifteen or 
twenty years need be no bar 
to happiness . Between 
thirty and fifty the disparity 
docs not seem impossible, 
but between twenty and fifty 
there lies so deep a gulf that 
it were foolhardy to attempt 
the making of a bridge. 




In this important section of Every Woman's Encyclop/t.dia, conducted by this prominent 
lady doctor, is given sound medical advice with regard to all ailments from childhood to old age. 
When completed, this section will form a complete reference library, in which will be found the 
best treatment for every human ill. The following are examples of the subjects being dealt with 

Home Nta'sing 
Infants' Diseases 
Adults' Diseases 
Homely Cures 

Health Hints 
Health Resoi'ts 

First Aid 

Coiiwion Medical Blunders 
The Medicine Chest 
Simple Remedies, etc., etc. 


CoHthiiced front page 3676, Pa-rt 30 

P VERY woman who determines to do her best 
to further hygiene in her own home, and 
help in some way the campaign outside, is 
taking part in a public service. 

How can a woman who has not a great 
deal of time to spare help in the crusade 
against consumption ? 

In the first place, she can insist upon fresh 
air and the open-air life in her own home. 
We are wiser than were the women a genera- 
tion ago in the bringing up of children, 
perhaps, but in too many homes the hot- 
house atmosphere and lack of cold fresh air 
directly encourage any tendency to con- 
sumption. We have too many curtains and 
carpets and hangings, too many superfluous 
pictures and ornaments, which act as dust- 
traps and germ collectors, even in the best 
kept homes. The finest layer of dust offers a 
haven to thousands of microbes, and the 
housewife who furnishes her bedrooms with 
washable floors and washable walls is wise 
in her generation. 

Hygiene Rules for the Home 

Here afe a few rules which the housewife must 
bear in mind : 

Have all windows in the house to open at the 
top and bottom, and keep them wide open every 

See that every member of the household sleeps 
with open windows all the year round. 

Air the beds thoroughly in the morning before 
re-making them. 

Allow as much sunlight into the house as 
possible, because sunlight destroys the germs of 
disease, and when light is allowed to enter the 
house any lack of cleanliness is made apparent. 

Destroy dust by collecting and burning it. 

Use damp cloths for dusting, in order that the 

dust is not stirred into the air to re-settle upon 

Protect milk and other food from dust by 
means of fine muslin coverings through which 
the air can reach the food. 

Burn all household refuse. 

Boil water and milk for drinking purposes if 
-there is any suspicion that it is not pure. 

Teach personal hygiene in the house, and insist 
that the children brush the teeth several times 
daily. Bad teeth encourage consumption by 
causing deterioration of the health. 

Make children realise the importance of nose 
breathing and an erect carriage upon the health 
of the lungs. 

Wage war against flies. 

The Fly Danger 

It is only within the last few years that the 
common housefly has been properly recognised as 
a carrier of disease. Flies are the chief agents in 
carrying the poison of typhoid fever, consump- 
tion, and the summer diarrhoea of infancy. 
Their breeding and feeding places are refuse 
heaps. If they are allowed to find their way into 
.larder or pantry they contaminate the food by 
depositing germs of disease in milk, butter, 
meat, etc. 

It is not difficult to get rid of flies if systematic 
warfare is waged against them. .They should be 
caught as much as possible, and killed. The 
ordinary flypapers can be used, or shallow 
dishes containing two teaspoonfuls of formalde- 
hyde lotion to a pint of water, sweetened with 
sugar. If all refuse, dust, and dirt in the house- 
hold are destroyed the feeding materials of 
flies are at once reduced, and they are less 
likely to be attracted to the house. No 
child should be allowed to drink milk into 
which even one fly has found its way. No 
food should be eaten once it has been con- 
taminated by flies. 


Domestic hygiene, again, is of very great im- 
portance. This includes the care of smks, atten- 
tion to the drainage, and thorough cleansing of 
floors and walls. The careful housewife sprinkles 
wet tea-leaves for sweeping the floor because they 
gather the dust, and then can be burned, thus de- 
stroying all manner of disease germs efficiently. 
Kitchens, larders, etc., should be floored with 
tiles, as they can be thoroughly scrubbed and 
kept clean. Washable walls are preferable to 
any other, and all walls should be kept as free as 
possible from brackets, pictures, and other orna- 
ments, in order that they may be dusted down 
thoroughly once or twice a week. 

The hygienic housewife keeps an eye upon the 
eaves and spoutings, sees that scrapers are pro- 
vided by all the doors, and attends to the dis- 
posal of refuse. The best plan is to make a rule 
that household refuse is always burnt, and that 
what cannot be disposed of in this way is kept in a 
covered zinc receptacle to be removed regularly 
from the premises. Frequent flushing of drains 
is an important matter, especially in hot weather. 
A household disinfectant may be used, but 
boihng water is excellent for this purpose. 

The second duty of the housewife is to supply 
clean, nourishing, well-cooked food. This is not a 
question of the amount of money spent, because 
people may live in a luxurious fashion, and yet 
not get the right kind of food or the right 
quantity. We are beginning to grasp the fact 
that there is danger that the better-off classes 
of the community may over-feed, and take too 
much of the wrong sort of food. Most of us eat 
too much butcher's meat, and too little of such 
food as eggs, cheese, fruit, and oatmeal. 

The Women's National Health Association, 
Ireland, is doing a splendid work. Perhaps the 
most important section of Lady Aberdeen's work 
is concerned with the prevention of tuberculosis 
in the home. In reply to my request for infor- 
mation on her work she says, in the course of her 
letter, " Consumption being in earnest a disease 
bred in the home it can only be stamped out by 
the women of the country realising that the 
responsibility is theirs to ensure healthy homes, 
fresh air, good food, cleanliness, and habits of 
temperance and self-control."- 

The Standard Bread Crusade 

This sentence might form a text for a sermon 
on the power of the housewife. Women are 
becoming alive to the importarice of health and 
hygiene, and are studying seriously diet and the 
preparation of food. The " Daily Mail's " 
Standard Bread Crusade did good service in 
arousing us to demand pure food. 

Nearly all the arguments against white bread 
could be used against white rice which is so 
much used for puddings, soups, etc., in the home. 

In order to produce this polished white rice, 
the best part of the grain is removed, and in 
many cases the rice is treated with French chalk 
and other materials to increase the pearly 

The relative nourishing values of the two 
rices is as follows : 

One pound of white or pohshed rice contains 
I ounce 66 grains of protein and 32 grains of 
mineral matter ; and the same weight of un- 
polished rice contains i ounce 122 grains of 
protein and 80 grains of mineral matter. 

The public demand for extreme whiteness in 
their bread and their grains has brought about 
adulteration of food in the sense that the flour 
has to be bleached by chemicals or by ozone, 

whilst in many cases the most nourishing part of 
the wheat is rejected because it would impart a 
colour and take away from the whiteness of the 
finished material. A very important part of the 
teaching of the Women's Health Association of 
Ireland is concerned with the food question. 
Caravan tours are undertaken by lecturers who 
give practical talks to the housewives on diet, 
fresh air, cleanliness, and hygiene in the home. 
A caravan health lecturer will give a little lecture 
on milk, for example. 

The most important item of our food supply 
concerned with consumption is certainly the 
milk. The average person drinks about 42 gallons 
of milk in a year, and, in towns at any rate, one- 
fifth of the milk we drink is tubercular. One 
tumblerful in every five contains the dread 
tubercle bacillus. Indeed, it has been stated on 
good authority that about 10 per cent of the 
churns sent into towns contain the living infec- 
tion of tuberculosis. A large number of the cases 
of tuberculosis occurring in children is due to 
tubercular milk. In a special article on the pre- 
vention of consumption in childhood we shall 
deal with the importance of Pasteurising milk ii> 
the home. 

Women's Influence Outside 

In addition to hygiene in the home, how can 
the women of the country help forward the 
crusade against tuberculosis in other ways ? In 
every village and every town there is a crying 
need for a campaign against consumption. There 
are few women who are not in touch with poor 
people who need tactful teaching in health and 
hygiene. The great need is to get people to 
understand that illness is preventable. 

By personal influence, tact, and enthusiasm 
women could revolutionise the methods of the 
poor housewives in their own district. As a rule, 
these women are only too glad to learn simple 
facts about health and hygiene if they are tact-* 
fully presented. Every housewife who can be 
prevailed upon to keep the windows open, to 
burn all dust and dirt, to abolish refuse heaps, 
kill flies, and attend to sanitation is a gain to the 

Most of the cottage women's views on the food 
question require drastic alteration. They very 
soon learn that the bread and tea diet they give 
their families is just as expensive, and not half so 
nourishing as porridge and milk, good vegetable 
soup, such as lentil, bean, and pea soups, and 
well-cooked stews. A simple cookery class for 
the housewives of the place is a practical measure 
of value in the prevention of consumption. 
Then, housewives of all classes have to learn 
that neglected colds are dangerous in that 
.they may be the- beginning of consumption, 
and that it is of vital importance to keep 
the general health of the whole family up to a 
certain standard. 

Wherever there is a consumptive case in the 
house, if it cannot be removed to a sanatorium 
the relatives must be taught certain facts about 
infection. The consumptive need not be a danger 
to the family if he lives under hygienic conditions. 
Infection can be prevented if the consumptive 
attends to the points mentioned in the article on 
Nursing Consumptive Cases. 

New regulations make it the duty of every 
doctor, after January i, 191 2, to notify every 
case of pulmonary tuberculosis to the Medical 
Officer of Health for the district, who will keep 
the register. Such records will be considered as 
strictly confidential. 


A Series of Articles on What the Amatetir Nurse Should Know 

Continued from pa£;e 3672, Part jo 


Massage as a Healing Process Practised from the Earliest Times — Three Methods of Applying 
Massage— Why Massage is Useful — Its Employment in Surgical Cases — Passive and Active Move^ 

ments — How to Massage 

EVERY nurse must study the subject of massage, 
and practise the active and passive move- 
ments so much used for treating stiffness of the 
joints and deformities due to weakness of the 
muscles and ligaments. 

Massage has been used for healing purposes 

Massage of the forehead for relieving headaches and neuralgia 

from the earliest times. More than 3,000 years 
ago the art was practised in India and China, 
whilst some of the wonderful masseurs in modern 
times are to be found in Japan. 

The Greeks and Romans were also skilled in 
massage movements, but the art fell into dis- 
repute owing to its application by quacks 
and bonesetters in the exercise of their 
trade. Of late years, however, the sub- 
ject has been studied scientifically, and it 
is generally recognised as a valuable 
therapeutic measure in the hands of 
skilled persons. 

Massage consists in the application of 
pressure to the muscles and connective 
tissues lying underneath the skin by 
means of the human hand. Articles 
have already appeared dealing with 
the subject from the point of view of 
beauty culture (see pages 2392, 2572, 
Vol. 4). 

The Three Chief Methods 

The three chief methods which the 
nurse should learn are : 

I. By effleurage the skin is lightly 
massaged, either by means of stroking 
movements upwards towards the heart, 
or by a to-and-fro friction movement so 
that the superficial blood-vessels are dilated, 
the blood flows to the surface, and the skin 
is in a glow. At the same time the nerve end- 
ings are soothed, and a sensation of rest or com- 
fort is felt by the patient. Thus, the movement 
is used to deal with neuralgia, headache, and 
sleeplessness. The efficacy of this type of mas- 
sage is easily demonstrated in the case of an 

ordinary headache or neuralgia of the brows. 
The light rubbing movement is practised out- 
wards along the eyebrows, and upwards to the 
scalp. Gradually the pain ceases and the patient 
drops off to sleep. 

2. Tapotement, or tapping, is massage of the 
deeper structures. It consists in striking the 
muscles transversely v^dth the edge of the hand 
or half-closed fist, with varying force. This 
exerts pressure on the nerve trunks, thus tapping 
is sometimes used in dealing with sciatica. The 
muscles also are stimulated, and even the joints 
are affected by this movement. 

3. Petrissage, or kneading, is essentially used 
for the muscles and deep structures. The 
muscles are taken between the fingers and thumb 
and rolled and pressed — not pinched. When 
the patient complains of pain the nurse is not 
massaging properly, she is probably pinching the 
muscles and nerves between her fingers. 

Pressure can also be exerted by the ball of 
the thumb, working circularly, or the tips of the 
fingers, moving in one direction slowly with a 
sort of deep stroking movement. 

An excellent pressure movement for the 
muscles of the back is the following : 

Lay the hand flat on the back. Whilst keep- 
ing the fingers stiff, bend the hand at the junc- 
tion of hand and fingers. Flatten out the 
fingers again and repeat. Thus, by a sort of 
caterpillar movement the hand passes up the 
muscles of the back, kneading as they go» Then 
reverse the movement, keeping the palm fixed, 
sliding the fingers upwards and flattening the 
hand again. Repeat the movements until all 

Manipulation of the'iointsby the nurse while the patient's muscles remain passive 

the muscle has been kneaded. The effect is to 
stimulate the muscles and to get rid of waste 
products from the tissues by increasing the 
venous flow of blood back to the heart. 

How Massage Takes Away Tiredness 

When a muscle contracts, a certain chemical 
process takes place. Acid products are deposited 


Active movements, 

1 which the patient resists 
useful in convalescence 

the nurse, are 

in the substance of the muscle, and if these 
are in excess after prolonged exercise, for 
example, they poison the nerve endings and we 
feel tired. Massage by stimulating the blood 
flow causes these products of fatigue to be carried 
away, and the tired feeling passes off. Athletes 
for this very reason are frequently massaged 
after exercise. 

Then when muscles are flabby for lack of 
exercise, massage brings a healthy blood supply 
to the part and they are nourished and toned. 
When people are in" bed the muscles have no 
chance of exercise, but massage takes the place 
of it quite effectively if properly performed. 

Apart from the local effect in the muscles, 
massage strengthens the heart by its action on 
the circulation, nourishes the brain, and 
improves digestion by increasing the 
flow of digestive juices. Thus, chiefly 
through its effect upon the circulation of 
blood, massage makes all the organs 
healthier and more vital. 

Passive and Active Movements 

A nurse will have to use massage in 
many surgical cases. In dealing with 
fractures, sprains, and strains, it is a 
most valuable therapeutic measure. It 
saves time and hastens complete re- 
covery. It also soothes pain, and pre- 
vents after stiffness. 

In many general illnesses, such as 
anaemia, dyspepsia, chronic disorder of 
the liver ancl otlier organs, nervous ail- 
ments, etc., massage is useful for its 
general effects upon the circulation and ^.^^ 
nervous system. Spinal deformities of vVrap in 
the back and shoulders are best treated ^'"^ 

by massage and exercises of the part. Sleep- 
lessness is often cured by properly applied mas- 
sage, and constipation is another ailment which 
can be treated by this measure. 

Before describing how to massage a patient 
systematically, something must be said about 
passive and active movements. 

Passive movements consist of manipulation of 
joints by the nurse, the patient exerting no force 
nor > energy. Every muscle must be relaxed, 


absolutely off tension. The nurse then grasps 
a limb gently above and below a jomt and 
steadily and gradually bends the joint, exertmg 
a little more pressure every day if stiffness has 
to be overcome. 

In active movements the patient slightly resists 
the action of the nurse. For example, whilst 
lying in bed she holds the nurse's hands and 
resists an upward pull. Active movements 
again, may consists of muscular exercises such 
as may be practised with advantage in con- 

How to Massage 

When proceeding to massage a patient, first 
inspect the limb. Notice if there is any swelling, 
if the skin is cold or warm, rough or smooth. 
Now apply the light effleurage movement until 
the skin glows. Then apply kneading or 
petrissage over the muscular parts such as the 
calf or the muscles of the arm. 

Now take each joint and move it separately. 
For example, each finger is bent in turn, then the 
wrist and elbow, and lastly the shoulder is moved 
up and down and circularly, and then the strong 
muscles of the part are kneaded. 

Tapping, or tapotement, may be used for the 
biceps and shoulder muscles. The legs are 
treated in the same way and then the trunk. 
Circular rubbing movements are used for the 
muscles of the chest and abdomen, and deeper 
pressure as already described for the back. 

The spine and head should be massaged last 
as the patient is gradually soothed to sleep. 

A little boracic powder is pleasant to use as 
it prevents friction. As a limb is massaged it 
should be anointed with oil, and wrapped in 
warm flannel for perhaps half an hour. 

Tlie Effects of Massage 

When massage is ordered by the doctor it is 
most important for the nurse to understand 
thoroughly its method of application. When 
applied in the right way it is an excellent measure 

the limb in warm flannel after it has been massaged and rubbed with oil 

in treatment, but, especially in the case of 
sprains and strains, it may do a great deal of 
harm when the amateur nurse simply rubs in 
haphazard fashion, irritating the patient and 
perhaps causing inflammation of joints. But 
once proper movements are learned the nurse 
who is interested in her work, and likes it, will 
soon become extremely efficient as a masseuse 
by practice. And she will soon discover how 
beneficial it is in convalescence. 




Continued from pa^e 367s, Part 30 


** Teething** not an Ailment^ but a Natural 
Mismanagement — Temporary Teeth— 

'T'he cutting of the teeth is not in the real sense of 
^ the word an " ailment " at all. It is a natural 
physiological process. But mismanagement and 
maternal ignorance often make teething a pain- 
ful and dangerous period for the baby. 

Good management in the nursery ensures that 
baby will cut his teeth without anyone being 
aware of the process until they appear singly or 
in pairs through the gums. Most of the ailments 
attributed to the teeth are the result of 
improper feeding, of unhygienic nurseries, and 
unhealthy home conditions. 

The healthy, well-managed infant will pass 
through the teething stage without pain or 
marked discomfort. The badly fed child will 
suffer from diarrhoea or convulsions, and will feel 
the strain of teething. 

Temporary Teeth 

Everyone has two sets of teeth. The temporary 
set consists of twenty teeth ; it appears during 
the first thirty months of life, and ought to be 
complete in two and a half or three years. The 
complete set consists of eight incisors, the four 
upper and four lower front teeth, the four canines 
or eye teeth, which are placed one at each end of 
the incisors in both upper and lower jaws, and 
the back teeth, molars or grinders, two of which 
are placed on each side of both jaws. 

The lower incisors usually appear first in the 
sixth or seventh month. The upper incisors 
should be cut by the ninth month, and the lateral 
incisors by the tenth month. The first molars 
appear about the end of the first year, then the 
eye teeth at the end of eighteen months. The 
remaining molars usually are complete when the 
child is two or two and a half years of age. 

Sometimes the teeth appear earlier. Cases 
have been cited of a baby being born with a tooth, 
and occasionally a tooth may appear about the 
third month. Late teething is an evidence of 
debility, and rickets delay teething considerably. 

The " cutting of a tooth " through the gum is 
generally associated with increased flow of saliva 

Process— Teething Troubles are Due Mainly to 
-Comforters— Useful ** Teething ** Hints 

different ages, have been described under the 
articles on infant feeding. (Page 2416, Vol. IV.) 
Digestive disorders are the chief danger during 
teething. This trouble can be lessened, and 
considerable pain and risk can be avoided if the 
mother takes reasonable precautions. She should 

1. Attend carefully to the diet, feed the child 
regularly only at stated times, and should rely 
upon milk, because it is the natural food of all 
young animals. 

2. If the child is "on the bottle," pay the 
closest attention to cleanliness by boiling the 

--. Neck 

Milk teeth in right half of lower jaw. Section to display bags in 
which second set are contained 

and dribbling. The gum may be a little tender 
from local inflammation, but no other signs 
should be present under normal conditions. 

Teething Troubles 

The chief factor which promotes painless 
teething is careful diet. Until the teeth appear, 
the one food for all infants is milk. If the 
mother is unable to nurse her own child, cow's 
milk, diluted with barley-water, should be given. 
The preparation, and so forth, of this diet for 

"* Crown 


Milk Molars 

Milk teeth in right half of upper jaw 

bottles, teats, and valves daily, and scalding 
milk jugs and bottles after use. She should, 
moreover, take steps to protect the milk from 
infection by flies, especially in hot weather. 

3. Make quite sure that she has a supply of 
pure milk from healthy cows. 

4. Never permit the use of a comforter 

The comforter is one of the greatest sources of 
trouble during the age of teething. In the first 
place, it is invariably dirty, medically speaking. 

Secondly, the constant sucking action en- 
courages an abnormal flow of saliva, and tends 
to the formation of adenoid growths. 

Thirdly, it causes deformities of the jaw and 
irregularity of the teeth. 

The bronchial attacks or " colds " which are 
said to be due to " teething " are very frequently 
the result of excessive dribbling which is set up by 
constantly sucking a dummy teat. The moisture 
soaks through the bib and clothing, and a chill 
results. A jaconet bib must always be worn 
underneath the ordin&,ry bib to protect the chest. 
An ivory ring which is frequently boiled is often 
useful for a child to bite against. 

Restlessness and irritability may be present 
when a child is cutting a tooth. A hot bath at 
bedtime wjll induce sleep. 

A simple aperient, such as cascara, magnesia, 
or castor oil, should be given if there is the 
slightest evidence of gastric disturbance. 

Wash the mouth from time to time with a piece 
of clean cotton- wool dipped in boracic solution. 

Occasional sips of water relieve thirst. 

If the gum requires lancing, it should always 
be done by a doctor. 

Tenderness of the mouth or any patch of 
ulceration should be treated by brushing the 
mouth with a camel-hair brush, dipped in 
glycerine and borax, in the strength of a tea- 
"spoonf ul of borax to a wineglassful of glycerine. 




Continued from page 3674, P'^rt 30 



-To bandage the right foot and leg, begin by 
A holding the roller bandage m the left hand. 
Place the free end of the bandage over the inner 
ankle-bone, and hold it in place with the tip 
of the thumb or forefinger. Then carry 
bandage across 
the instep to 
the root of the 
little toe, and 
beneath the 
foot to the ball 
of the great 
toe. The band- 
age must now 
b^ taken once 
more across the 
instep to the 
outer ankle- 
bone, and 
round the back 
of the leg until 
it reaches the 
ment of the 
bandage. The 
nurse has now 
made a figure 
of eight turn 
round the foot, 
and this must 
be repeated in 
order to fix 
the bandage firmly. Now it remains to bandage 
the foot. This is done by taking the bandage 
again to the root of the little toe and carry- 
ing it right round the foot across the base of 
the toes. As the surface is irregular here. 

Bandaging the foot. 


reverses may have to be made on the centre 
of the roots of the toes. Continue this spiral 
bandage round the foot several times, making 
reverses in front in order to make the bandage 
lie smoothly. In five or six turns the ankle is 

reached, when 
another figure 
of eightismade 
round the 
ankle and in- 
stepthus bring- 
ing the band- 
age above the 
Pass up the leg 
by means of 
the spiral 
bandage round 
and round, 
each bandage 
o V e r 1 a p p in^ 
the one pre- 
ceeding it by 
about one- 
third. On 
reaching the 
thicker part of 
the leg reverse 
each turn in 
front of the leg. 
Then pass up 
the leg until 
the knee is reached. Take another figure of 
eight turn at the knee-joint. This figure of 
eight bandage has been described in a previous 
lesson. The bandage is continued above the 
knee until the thigh is reached. 

The nurse is making reverses over the front of the foot to make the 
bandage lie smoothly 


Contimied from page 3670, Part 30 


The Choice of Games for Growing Girls — Danger of Overstrain — Cricket One of the Best Games 
when Slightly Modified — Skipping — Hoop Bowling — Swimming and Rope Climbing as a Life-saving 

Exercise — Step'dancing — The Graceful Carriage 

'T'he old idea that girls should not be taught strain than for boys ; and although no girl can 

■^ sport or physical culture at all has passed grow up with a strong, healthy body, and a sense 

of fair play and com- 
radeship, without 
playing games with 
other children, these 
must be carefully 

Many running ex- 
ercises are bad for 
young girls. Rough 
games of any kind 
should be avoided, 
and even such a game 
as hockey, which is 
extremely popular 
amongst girls, has 
a very large number 
of disadvantages, in 
that it does not 
supply exercise of 

Cricket for girls. Cricket can be modified so as to make a splendid game for girls J^^ ^^S^^ SOrt and 

away, and in some quarters the, danger is that ■ Where young girls are concerned, it is of the 

we are going to the other extreme. utmost importance that play should be regular. 

It is even more dangerous for girls to over- moderate, without excessive strain. Asa rule, 



hockey does not answer any of these require- 
ments. It is played once or twice a week, not 
daily. It is so hard that school-teachers say that 
the girls are lethargic and overtired next day. It 
is exceedingly fatiguing, especially if the girls 
lead a sedentary life in between, and are really 
exerting themselves with lessons and mental 

On the other hand, cricket, which is practic- 
ally reserved for boys, could be played either 
by girls alone, or converted into a game in which 
the family can join with advantage. To this end 
the ordinary game of cricket must be modified. 

certain amount of play if they are to develop 
into healthy girls. 

Skipping is such a useful exercise for girls that 
a special article was given to it in an earlier part 
of the Encyclopedia (page 1924, Vol. 3) ; whilst 
step-dancing, in which two or three children are 
taught to dance together, is one of the very 
best methods of physical culture for young girls. 
Very few people realise "the educative value of 
hoop bowling. It makes a girl graceful, teaches 
her poise and balance. It trains fhe eye, and 
develops dexterity and co-ordination of the 
muscles. If the hoop is occasionally bowled 

with the left hand, 

then it can be used 
for purposes of teach- 
ing ambidexterity. 

Girls can be taught 
fencing, and there is 
no doubt that it is 
an excellent exercise. 
Light cane walking- 
sticks can be used, 
and the girls taught 
to lunge and practise 
the graceful and 
healthy arm exercises 
necessary for fencing. 
The game is more 
suitable for older 
girls, after the age 
of twelve or thirteen. 

Dancing as an exercise for girls. Step'dancing can be made a delightful game and exercise combined 

In the first place, when the girls are young at 
least, a soft ball should be used, and the boys or 
the older players handicapped in some way. 

One writer on physical culture has suggested 
that a good method of handicapping in cricket 
is to make brothers use a broomstick instead of a 
bat. Another method of handicapping is to 
allow the younger players two or three innings 
instead of one. Also, when young girls play 
cricket, a much shorter pitch is necessary, and a 
lighter bat. 

With these modifications, the game is a first- 
rate one for girls, and the educative value of 
cricket is too well known to require that anything 
should be said about 
it. In some of the big 
girls' schools and train- 
ing colleges cricket is 
becoming exceedingly 
popular. The game 
can be taught to little 
girls at home perfectly 
easily, and whenever 
there is a garden it 
can be played at all 
seasons of the year, 
except in the very 
cold weather. It must 
not be forgotten that a 
modified cricket can 
be played indoors in 

Of other games of 
ball suitable for girls, 
badminton and lawn 
tennis occupy a high 
place. But these 
are hardly suitable 
for very small girls, 
who yet require a Hoop bowling. 


Girls as well as boys 
should be taught to 

swim, and this art should be included amongst 
one of the necessary exercises because of its great 
utility. In Venice, all children are taught to 
swim at the age of six years, so that if accidentally 
they find themselves in the canals they can swim 
to a place of safety. 

The movements necessary for swimming can 
be learned on dry land, and the exercise is 
splendid for developing the muscles of the legs, 
arms, and back. First, the proper sweep of the 
arms should be mastered, then the movements 
of the legs. Afterwards, the two can be practised 
together until the child can perform the swim- 
ming exercise involuntarily. When she comes to 

One of the best exercises for girls of all 


put this into practice, very shallow water should 
first be chosen ; and if the girl is nervous, a belt 
can be fastened round her waist so that a second 
person can give her some measure of support. 

Life-Saving Exercises 

If s\\'imming is one exercise that ought to be 
mastered because it may be the means of saving 
life in the future, rope climbing is another. 
Every boy and every girl should know how to 
climb a rope, and to descend easily and quickly 
from a height by means of a rope. 

We never know when we may be in an accident 
at sea. in a fire in a house or hotel several storeys 
from the 
ground. Under 
such circum- 
stances, the 
chance might 
arise of reach- 
ing safety by 
descending a 
rope. At the 
climbing is one 
of the best 
exercises for 
the muscular 
system. Let 
anyone whose 
muscles are un- 
trained try to 
climb a rope 
slung upon a 
branch of a 
tree or -a hori- 
zontal bar in 

the gymnasium, and she will realise how difficult a 
feat it is to the novice. As a rule, one grips the 
rope feverishly, and finds it impossible to keep 
it from slipping between the feet. The truth is 
that certain muscles of the leg are undeveloped. 
The arm muscles have not strength to sustain 
the weight of the body, and until definite practice 
is obtained, rope climbing is anything but an 
easy accomplishment. 

In teaching children, several knots should be 
made in the course of the rope which will give 
some slight assistance to the feet. The child 
should stand grasping the rope, right hand above 
left, as high as possible above the head. The left 


leg is then raised, so that the rope lies inside 
the knee and outside the foot. The next move- 
ment grips the feet, and brings the left foot and 
leg across the rope. Gradually the hands are 
raised, then the knees, then the hands, until 
the climber can go quite a little way without 
fatigue. Once simple climbing is mastered, and 
the child learns to descend by means of bringing 
one hand down under the other and letting the 
body gradually sink, various fancy exercises 
can be practised. The child should learn 
to mount with the right hand leading all the 
time, then with the left hand leading all the 
time, and, lastly, hand over hand. 

The Girl's 

If mothers 
knew how 
much good 
carriage in a 
woman d e- 
pended upon 
proper phy- 
sical exercises 
in childhood, 
they would 
pay more at- 
tention than 
they do to 
physical cul- 
ture for girls 
in the school- 
room. Every 
girl should 
have a definite 
time daily 
spent at phy- 
sical exercise. 
She should do deep breathing as a matter of routine 
when she gets up in the morning, and before she 
goes to bed. She should be taught such hygienic 
common sense as that eating should be leisurely, 
and the food thoroughly chewed ; that fresh air 
is essential to health and beauty ; that the left 
side should be trained as well as the right, and 
that games should fill up the hours of recreation. 
Sport is becoming recognised as important in 
the training of girls as well as boys, but even 
nowadays the average girl does not have enough 
attention paid to her physical development and 
bodily health. Physical development and bodily 
health are in themselves the key-notes to beauty. 

First position for rope climbing . The right hand is held as high as possible. The left foot 
is ready to rise 



In this section will be included articles which will place in array before the reader women born to 
fill thrones and great positions, and women who, through their own genius, have achieved fame. It 
will' also deal with great societies that are working in the interests of women. 

Womaji's Who's Who 
The Queens of the World 
Fatuous Wometi of the Past 
Women! s Societies 

Great Writers, Artists, and 

Women of Wealth 
Women's Clubs 

Wives of Great Men 
Mothers of Great Men^ 
etc., etc. 

^^OMAM^S l^MO^S W^M© 

Mdlle. Balashova 

Ih'ii'cr Street Studios 


I IKE Mdlle. Pavlova, Mdlle. Balashova entered 
■^ the school attached to the Imperial Theatre, 
Moscow, as a child, her parents being induced to 
send her there by the fact that she was always 
singing and dancing about the house, and gave 
evidence of the posses- 
sion of a great gift for 
mimicry. In the school 
she remained for the 
regulation nine years, 
and distinguished her- 
self as the laziest pupil 
there. So great, how- 
ever, was her natural 
skill, that she got into 
the corps de ballet. 
Then she determined to 
achieve distinction, and 
so strenuously did she 
work that within twelve 
months the manage- 
ment entrusted her with solo roles, and within 
the short time of six years she was elevated to the 
position of a premiere danseuse. It is claimed for 
Mdlle. Balashova that she has the most remark- 
able feet and the highest instep of all the dancers 
in the ballet of the Imperial Theatre, and so 
wonderful is the conformation of her foot, and so 
strong are her muscles, that she could walk the 
whole day long, were it necessary, on her toes. 


'T'he story goes that it was a cricket 
•^ accident which led Miss Florence 
Morphy, of Victoria, Australia, to 
become the wife of Lord Darnley, in 
1884. His lordship was Mr. Ivo Bligh 
when he took a team to Australia. 
One day, while fielding, his left hand 
was badly injured, and he retired to 
the pavilion. Then it was that he 
first met Miss Morphy, who offered 
her handkerchief to bind up the 
injured hand ; and thus the peerage 
gained one of the few peeresses it has 
recruited from the King's dominions 

The Mftharani 
Botfite & 

beyond the sea. There are few people who know 
more of the inner side of Colonial life than the 
Countess, whose father was originally a squatter 
in the " Kelly country," where he ultimately held 
the office of police-magistrate. A good-looking, 
attractive woman, the Countess of late years 
has taken to literature, 
and written quite a 
number of stories. Her 
home, Cobham Hall, 
Gravesend, is an his- 
toric mansion. Charles 
I. and his queen spent 
their honeymoon there, 
and Queen Elizabeth 
was also entertained 
there. The Countess 
has three children, the 
heir to the earldom 
being Lord Clifton, The Countess of Darnley 

who was bom in 1886. Ksmi coiuhus 


THE marriage of the Maharajah of Kapurthala, 
in 1908, was the consummation of a striking 
romance of real life. The Maharani was Anita 
Delgade, the daughter of a cafe-keeper of Malaga. 
It w^as in the Southern Spanish seaport town that 
Anita and her sister Victoria grew up, both of 
them remarkably beautiful- girls. -Ultimately the 
Delgades removed to Madrid, and Anita and her 
sister, in 1906, obtained an engagement at the 
Kursaal, where the Maharajah first 
saw them when visiting the Spanish 
capital for the purpose of attending 
the marriage of King Alfonso and his 
English bride. The Maharajah im- 
mediately fell in love with Anita, and 
two years later placed her on the 
throne of Kapurthala, one of the 
North-West Punjab States. The wed- 
ding took place in January, 1908, at 
Kapurthala, and was celebrated in 
accordance with the orthodox Sikh 
rites. The Maharajah is one of the 
handsomest as well as one of the 
richest Indian princes. 


MADAME PATTI (Baroness Cederstrom) 

kUEEN Alexandra has often been quoted as 

Madame Patti 

Dover Street Studios 

Q^'the ^nTfadTwho'has found the re"al secret 
of perpetual youth, but Vl^^^^^rf.^u^^'^ 
Madame Patti is near- 
i n g her sixty-ninth 
birthday. "Pretty, 
popular Patti," as she 
was early nicknamed 
by a great personage, 
is still pretty, in spite 
of her age, and as 
popular to-day as in 
the height of her fame. 
It is on record that she 
was born in Madrid, 
that her father was 
Salvatore Patti, of 
Catania, Sicily ; while 
her mother was Caterina Chiesa, a well-known 
opera singer. Madame Patti made her d(tbut 
in public at the age of seven at the Academy 
of Music in New York, and for a time was 
very successful on the concert platform. Two 
years later, she came, quite unknown, to London, 
and when she appealed to the manager of 
Covent Garden for an engagement she was 
allowed to appear only on condition that she 
sang for nothing. Her success was instantaneous, 
and in after years she was able to command the 
huge sum of ;^i,ooo a night from the management 
of the same theatre. Altogether it has been 
estimated that Madame Patti's voice has earned 
over ;^8oo,ooo. The great diva has been married 
three times. In 1868 she became the bride of 
Henry, Marquis de Caux, Equerry to Napoleon 
III. The marriage was dissolved some time 
later, and in 1886 the singer married Signor 
Nicolini, himself a well-known singer, who died 
in 1898. The following year Madame Patti 
married her present husband, Baron Rolf Ceder- 
strom, and still lives for the greater part of 
the year at her beautiful home, Craig-y-Nos, 
in South Wales. 


T^HE wife of that eminent artist, Mr. Seymour 
*■ Lucas, whose splendid collection of his- 
torical costumes has been acquired for the new 
London Museum, is not only herself an excep- 
tionally clever painter, but is lineally descended 
from Antonius Cornelissen, of Antwerp, patron of 
the fine arts and friend of Van Dyck, who painted 
his portrait. A daughter of Rubens married into 
the Cornelissen family. Mrs. Lucas was born in 
Paris in 1855, receiving her early education there 
and in London and Germany. Like her husband, 
she also became a student, and eventually an 
exhibitor at the Royal Academy. Among her 
better- known works are 
those charming paint- 
ings, . " We are but 
Little Children Weak " 
and " Weighed and 
Found Wanting." Mr. 
and Mrs. Lucas were 
married in 1877, and 
live in a charming 
house in the North of 
London. Mrs. Lucas has 
a preference for paint- 
ing little children, whom 
Mrs. Seymour Lucas ^he considers most 

E. H. Mills fascinating models. 



Possibly no Suffragist has done more to enlist 

A recruits to the cause than Miss Annie 
Kenny, who began life at ten years of age by 
earning her living in a 
Lancashire mill as a 
half-timer. Miss 
Kenny, whose mag- 
netic personality en- 
dears her even to 
crowds hostile to her 
views, started as a 
Suffragette at the be- 
ginning of the militant 
tactics, for at the very 
first meeting she was 
one of those ejected 
and imprisoned. This 
was in October, 1905, 
when she and Miss 
Christabel Pankhurst went to question Sir Edward 
Grey. She has been arrested on a number of 
occasions, once in connection with a demonstra- 
tion outside Mr. Asquith's house, and again in 
February, 1908, when, she accompanied Mil's. 
Pankhurst te^ the House of Commons, and was 
sent to Holloway in consequence. . Even her 
enemies admit that Miss Kenny is a brilliant 
speaker, and she has a wonderful knack of 
answering the objections of her hearers, as, for 
instance, when a man objected to her arguments 
on the ground that as man was created first he 
was superior to woman. " Ah," replied Miss 
Kenny, without a moment's hesitation, " do 
you know what Burns said about that ? He 
said : 

" ' His 'prentice hand He tried on man, 
And then He made the lasses, O.' " 

The interrupter left hurriedly. Miss Kenny is 
a native of Lees, near Oldham, and it was the 
condition of the factory girls among whom she 
worked which led her to take up reform work. 


"\To small sensation was created in Denmark, 
■'^^ and, in fact, throughout Europe, when, 
towards the end of 1910, " The Dangerous Age," 
by Mme. Karin Michaelis, was published — a book 
which in Denmark alone ran into seven editions 
within ten months. By some it was denounced 
as an immoral book, but all agreed that its 
strength and power furnished but another illus- 
tration of the remarkable literary skill of the lady 
who to-day is regarded as among the foremost of 
Danish writers. It was in 1 898 that the first novel 
written by Mme. Michaelis was published, and 
since then not a year has passed without two 
volumes appearing from her pen. Mme. Michaelis 
was born in 1872 at Radners, Jutland, where her 
father was employed in the Danish Telegraph 
Office. Early in life she 
displayed her literary ^'^'^ "W^ 

skill by contributing 
novels, stories, • and 
sketches to magazines, 
and later entered upon 
a journalistic career on 
one of the Copenhagen 
daily papers. It was 
while engaged upon 
this work that she met 
Sophus Michaelis, the 
well-known author, 
dramatist, and — ' 

Madame Karin Michaelis 




Qy Ems ^ 

- WORM) - 

Queeti €leotiore of Buidaria 

A Queen of Charity— Her Mission in Life— A Devoted Stepmother—** My Children and My Poor *'— 

The Russian Florence Nightingale— The Tsar of the Bulgarians— His Romantic Career— A Simple, 

Homely Royal Couple— Bulgaria's First Prince—** A Queen of Peace ** 

It was the late King Edward who once 
referred to Queen Eleonore, the second 
wife of the Tsar of the Bulgarians, as one of 
the " most noble and high-minded women 
in Europe " ; and the description is in no 
sense exaggerated. 

Queen Eleonore is a woman who has 
sacrificed comfort and luxury in order to 
alleviate the distress of the less fortunate. 
She is a veritable queen of charity, and it 
was she who earned the title of the * ' Russian 
Florence Nightingale," by going out to 
Manchuria during the Russo- Japan War, 
and restoring order in an ambulance service 
which had become greatly disorganised on 
account of the terrible Russian losses. 

A Queenly Mission 

To people in this country Queen Eleonore 
is a very unfamiliar figure, for this reason : 
that she is a woman who shuns publicity. 
Some time ago she remarked to an intimate 
friend: " I have made up my mind that my 
mission in life is to utilise my rank and 
wealth for the benefit of the less fortunate ; 
and if I succeed in that mission I shall be 
satisfied." And although in the world of 
litterateurs and scientists Queen Eleonore is 
recognised as one of the cleverest and most 
accomplished women in Europe, the average 
person knew little about her until she 
married King Ferdinand of Bulgaria in 

It was a trying position which she was 
called upon to fill. As Queen-Consort of 
the monarch who ruled a country which 
has been called the " hornet's nest of the 
Western hemisphere," she had many difficul- 
ties to face. It is somewhat early yet to 
speak of her success as Queen Consort, but 
there is no doubt that her influence is making 
a marked impression on the turbulent 
character of her husband's subjects. 

The Ideal Stepmother 

Furthermore, the manner in which she 
has acted as stepmother towards the four 
children of her husband by his first wife 
has evoked the greatest admiration. The 
deepest bond of affection exists between 
her Majesty and the two boys and two girls. 
She watches over their studies and amuse- 
ments with constant interest and care. 

D 27 

She is almost the same to them as their own 
mother could have been — as much, at least, 
as any stepmother could be. 

Recently the royal family were spending 
a happy time at the beautiful summer 
palace which the King, years ago, had erected 
at Varna, on the Black Sea. Varna is some 
two hundred miles from Sofia, the capital 
of Bulgaria; and after the children had 
gone back to Sofia to continue their studies, 
her Majesty also prepared to depart for the 

" Will you not be sorry, madam, to leave 
the beautiful palace here, and go back to 
Sofia ? " someone asked her. 

"Not at all," she answered. "My chil- 
dren are there." And then added quietly: 
" and so are my poor people." " The 
children " and " my poor people " ! They 
make up the life of the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria. 

Specially attached to their stepmother are 
the two daughters of the King, Eudoxia, who 
was born in 1898, and Nadejda, who was 
born a year later ; and it is a charming sight 
to see her Majesty seated at a table giving 
her husband's little girls a lesson in needle- 
work. Like her neighbour, the Queen of 
Roumania, Queen Eleonore finds chief 
recreation in needlework and embroidery. 
Indeed, during the evening the Queen 
occupies herself with needlework, the result 
of her labours being devoted to charity. It 
is a sort of moral obligation which her 
Majesty imposes upon herself and carries 
out religiously. 

Labours of Love 

Reference has already been made to the 
Queen's nursing work in Manchuria, and it 
might be mentioned that at Sofia she takes 
personal charge of the Clementine Hospital, 
founde'd by the late Princess Clementine 
Bourbon of Orleans, daughter of King Louis 
Philippe, and mother of King Ferdinand, 
and refuses to allow its direction to be placed 
in anybody else's hands. And it is no 
nominal post. She visits all the patients, 
ministers to their comfort, and attends 
operations and consultations, where her 
knowledge and insight are highly welcome. 
Like the Queen of Roiunania, too, she is 
particularly interested in the blind, deaf 
and dumb. She has founded a technical 



school for the blind very similar to Carmen 
Sylva's where people who otherwise would 
be helpless are taught to earn their own 

^^Kmg Ferdinand, too. takes the keenest 
interest in his wife's philanthropic schemes. 
It has been asserted that his Majesty is a 
somewhat selfish autocrat, with no thought 
beyond his own ambitions. It is not a fair 
description, however, for no monarch has 
done more for his subjects than the Tsar ot 
the Bulgarians. 

Moreover, he is essentially a family man. 
Indeed, there is a legend that the sight of 
the King playing with his children so moved 
an Anarchist 
about to strike 
him down that 
h e refrained 
from his foul 
design and 
turned his 
dagger on 
Whene v e r 
possible, h i s 
Majesty leaves 
Sofia and 
State troubles 
behind him, 
journeys t o 
Varna, and 
there spends 
happy days 
with his wife 
and children at 
his beautiful 
palace, which 
overlooks the 
sea and one 
of the most 
deligh tf u 1 
stretches o f 
country in the 
Balkans. Fer- 
dinand is very 
proud of his 
palace at 
Varna, which 
he used to 
describe to 
British visi- 
tors as " my 
Osborne." but which he now styles 

C j„: T >' . s :a. :_i.x 1. 

H.M. the Queen of Bulgaria, whose self'S&crificing devotion to the sick and needy makes 
her a veritable "Queen of Charity." Her work for the wounded during the RussO' 
Japanese War earned her the title of "The Russian Florence Nightingale " 
P/tofo, UhUnhuth 


Sandringham " ; for it might be mentioned 
that his Majesty has a great fondness 
for English life, manners, customs, and 
scenery. He was on special terms of 
friendship with the late King Edward; and 
it may be remembered that he was one of 
the nine monarchs who attended King 
Edward's funeral in 1910. 

It is at the palace at Varna that the* king 
keeps his principal collections, zoological 
and botanical, which have cost him so much 
study and are the chief joys of his private 
life. The palace, too, has a model farm, 
surrounded by a private garden where 
grow the most rare and beautiful plants. 
Much of this garden has been laid out at the 

suggestion of Queen Eleonore, who, like her 
husband, is passionately fond of flowers. 

" This land," his Majesty is related to 
have said one day, " is blessed. It produces 
anything with the slightest effort. You 
perceive all these flowers that it offers us 
in so profuse abundance ; they are incom- 
parable, and I have never seen any nearer 
perfection . " His Maj esty is an accomplished 
naturalist, and spends most of his time 
classifying insects and plants. He has 
catalogued nearly all the flora and fauna of 
Bulgaria, and in Sofia has established a 
zoological garden at his own expense. 

At Varna, the King and Queen lead the 

life of simple, 
ho m e 1 y 
people; and 
here the 
Princesses and 
their brothers. 
Prince Boris 
and Prince 
Cyril, have 
spent most of 
their child- 
hood. Meals 
are delight- 
fully simple. 
For instance, 
there is no 
stately array 
o f gorgeously 
dressed ser- 
vants waiting 
at table. 
D ishes arc 
passed round, 
and the King 
and Queen 
help them- 
selves and 
their children. 
The King pre- 
sides at the 
table himself, 
with his two 
daughters, one 
on either side 
of him, and 
plies them with 
du ring the 
meal. What have they been doing with 
themselves all the morning ? What did 
they see when they went for their walk ? 
How are they getting on with their lessons ? 
And so on. He will examine their lesson- 
books, listen to their reading, and admire 
the sewing which they have done under 
their stepmother's direction. In a word, 
his Majesty, like his wife, neglects no oppor- 
tunity of showing his children that their 
interests are also his interests. 

The manner in which Ferdinand came 
to the throne is one of the romances of 
modern history. He was merely a half-pay 
lieutenant in the Hussars in the Austrian 
service when, in 1887, the Bulgarian 
National Assembly elected hini to succeed 



Prince Alexander of Battenberg, who had 

At that time Bulgaria was passing through 
very troublous times. Turkey and Russia 
were striving for its conquest ; and memory 
of the Bulgarian atrocities, when 12,000 
men, women,' and children were cruelly 
slain, was still fresh in the mind of Europe. 
Ultimately the Powers granted Bulgaria 
independence, and the first prince freely 
elected was Prince Alexander of Battenberg, 
cousin to the Grand Duke of Hesse. 

Plots and Counterplots 

In 1885 the outbreak of a rebellion in 
Roumania, and Prince Alexander's accept- 
ance of its union with Bulgaria, provoked 
the jealousy of Servia. The consequence was 
that Milan invaded Bulgaria, and in the 
fourteen days' war which ensued the 
Bulgarians suffered temporary defeat. Then 
Prince Alexander turned the tables by 
entering the Servian territory at the head of 
50,000 men. 

Many were the plots put forward to as- 
sassinate King Ferdinand when he succeeded 
Prince Alexander to the throne, but they all 
failed, although the assassins killed Stam- 
buloff, who was to Bulgaria what Bismarck 
was to Germany. Ultimately, the manner 
in which King Ferdinand developed the 
country for his subject's good, set up a 
proper educational system, a network of 
railways, and plenty of good roads, and 
encouraged agriculture and town-building, 
and raised the army to the highest pitch of 
perfection, won the admiration and loyalty 
of all his subjects. 

In this progressive policy King Ferdinand 
has been ably seconded by his wife. 

" What a wonderful statesman she might 
have been ! " a famous European diplomat 
remarked, apropos of her Majesty's keen 
insight into international affairs. " For it is 
mainly due to her knowledge of the forces 
which have led to the development of the 
world's nations that she has been able to 
induce her husband and his advisers to 
institute the important movements which 
have for their aim the peace and prosperity 
of Bulgaria." 

A Queen of Peace 

The people recognise this ; and one has 
only to see Queen Eleonore drive through 
the streets of Sofia, witness the enthusiastic 
greeting accorded her by her husband's 
subjects, to understand how deeply grateful 
they are to her for doing all that hes in her 
power to maintain an era of peace and 

There was a glowing tribute to her Majesty 
in a Bulgarian journal a short time ago. 

" We have been accustomed," said the 
writer, " to regard force of arms as one of 
the main assets of this country. Queen 
Eleonore, however, thinks of the dead and 
dying ; of the fatherless homes ; the devasta- 

tion and vengeful spirit that all wars breed ; 
and in the years to come Bulgaria will 
recognise that she, with her high thoughts, 
refining influence, teachings, and counsel, has 
done more for our country than any single 

Queen Eleonore has been termed the 
"Queen of Peace"; and whenever she visits 
a school, as she so often does, she never 
neglects an opportunity to instil into the 
young minds the benefits of peace and the 
value of becoming a good and prosperous 
citizen. " Peace and quiet," she is rather 
fond of saying, " bring out the good qualities 
of men and women." 

At first she was somewhat disturbed by 
the fact that Prince Boris, King Ferdinand's 
eldest son, who was born in 1894, t>y his first 
wife, Marie Louise, eldest daughter of Duke 
Robert of Parma, is passionately fond of 
soldiering and the art of war ; but, although 
he has inherited much of the bluff cha- 
racter of his father, the gentle, refining 
influence of his stepmother has made a great 
impression on his character during the last 
three years. A sturdy, handsome youth. 
Prince " Boris promises to prove an ideal 
ruler when the time comes for him to occupy 
the throne. Prince Boris was originally 
baptised a Roman Catholic, but according 
to the Bulgarian Constitution the ruler must 
be a member of the Bulgarian Church. After 
a great deal of political and ecclesiastical 
controversy between the two Churches, the 
Bulgarian Government and Russia, young 
Prince Boris was re-baptised and placed in 
the charge of the Russian priest of the 
Greek Church. The Tsar stood as his sponsor 
at the ceremony, and the same day the 
National Assembly presented the infant 
Prince with ;^2o,ooo to be banked till his 

The Hope of a Nation 

King Ferdinand's greatest hopes are 
centred on Prince Boris, and Queen Eleonore 
shares her husband's ambitions, particularly 
in regard to those which affect his son, and 
her counsel in regard to his upbringing has 
often proved of the utmost value. 

Furthermore, Prince Boris relies on his 
stepmother's judgment to a very large 
extent, and consults her about most things 
concerning himself. Indeed, the bond of 
affection which exists between them is very 
' similar to that which characterises the Uves 
of ex- King Manoel and his mother. 

" Her Majesty is more than a mother to 
me," once remarked Prince Boris to a 
friend. " She is my constant companion. 
You see, she understands me so well, knows 
my little weaknesses, and helps to settle my 
everyday difficulties. My only regret is that 
I have known her for such a short period." 
And there are many other people in Bulgaria 
who echo the latter sentiment of Prince 
Boris in regard to the Tsaritsa of Bulgaria. 


The triumphal entry into Orleans of Joan of Arc. The wonderful s.ory c ,hc hc,o,c Mad .r J h . . u 

name have inspired the pen of the poet and th^ Kr.,cl, (\ '^Kona^ i a nave R?.thercd round her 

w n or me poet and the brush of the pa>nter in other lands than her native France. . 






/^N the banks of the Upper Meuse, not far from 
^^ ' Vaucouleurs, is the little village of Domremy. 
Its red-roofed cottages lie in the midst of meadows 
fragrant with meadowsweet, through which 
straggles the winding river, whilst all around 
are high hills, here and there dark with 
thick' forest. Here Joan of Arc was born, 
on Twelfth Night, 1402, and here she spent her 
childhood and girlhood. 

Her father, Jacques d'Arc, was an honest, hard- 
working peasant, who owned sufficient land and 
cattle to support his wife, Isabeau, and his three 
sons and two daughters in comparative comfort. 

The Heavenly Voices 

One day, however, while walking in the 
garden, so she told the judges at her trial, Joan 
was suddenly dazzled by a brilliant light, and a 
sweet voice bade her " be a good girl, and God 
would bless her." Later came a second vision, 
which told her of the part she was to play in the 
history of her country. While she was tending 
the sheep one day in the fields, wonderful forms 
floated past her, and a strange, sweet music 
filled the air ; and she was told that France was 
to be delivered from the English through her 
aid. From that time she conversed often with 
these beings — St. Catherine, St. Margaret, and the 
Archangel Michael. She knew them, she said, 
from their manner of addressing one another. 
• Meantime, England was pressing France very 
hard. The Duke of Bedford had made himself 
master of all France north of the Loire except 
Orleans, and to that town he now laid siege. 
When the news of her country's desperate condi- 
tion reached Joan's ears, she was seized with a 
consuming desire to help her unfortunate king. 
She begged to be taken to the Governor of 
Vaucouleurs, De Baudricourt, that she might tell 
him of the saints' bidding, and obtain from him 
an introduction to the king, and an escort to 
take her to him. Her uncle accompanied her, 
and got well chided for his pains. To De 
Baudricourt poor Joan was but a visionar5^ 

But she was not to be so easily turned from 
her purpose, and at last the Governor gave in. 
The news of her " mission " spread rapidly, and 
the people of Vaucouleurs, roused to enthusiasm, 
volunteered to pay for her equipment. She left 
in February, 1429, and traversed Champagne, 
Nivernois, Beri, Touraine. The journey was 
made longer because they had carefully to avoid 
the enemy's positions. . When she arrived before 
her " gentle Dauphin," as she termed him, she 
wore a black pourpoint, a kind of breeches 
fastened by laces and points to the pourpoint, 
a short, coarse, dark grey tunic, and a black 
cap on her close-cropped black hair. 

Joan showed no nervousness. ^ 

"Most noble Lord Dauphin," she said, "I 
come from God to help you and your realm." 

An interview with Charles resulted in his 
believing implicitly in her mission to relieve 
Orleans and to compass his crowning at Rheims, 
yet it was some time before she was allowed to 
set out for the scene of war. 

At last the march to Orleans began. Her armour 
was made at Tours, and was white. She wore 
also a cloak of rich stuff, cloth of gold or velvet. 
Her standard was of white linen, with the fleur- 

de-lys scattered over it, and with two angels 
represented on it on either side of a globe. It lx)re 
the motto " Jesus — Maria." Her personal blazon 
was a shield azure with a white dove, bearing 
in its beak a scroll with the words " De par le 
Roy du ciel." She was exhibited to the people 
on horseback in military attire, when her 
dexterity in managing her horse was regarded as 
a fresh proof of her mission. Joan was a tall girl, 
and beautiful. To Guy de Laval, one of her 
companions in arms, she seemed " a thing all 
divine," and others speak of her as beautiful in 
face and figure, with glad and smiling eyes. 

The rescue of Orleans is too well known to 
need repetition, but, as much has been written 
to prove that she took no actual part in the war, 
it is interesting to note what two of her comrades 
in arms have said about her conduct in the field. 

The Due d'Alengon was her staunch friend. 
She had yi^pn his heart at Chinon by her wonderful 
management of her horse and her skill with the 
lance ; and later she saved his life on more than 
one occasion. He writes of her : " She was most 
expert in war, as much in carrying the lance as 
in mustering a force and ordering the ranks, and 
in laying the guns." 

And De Termes writes : . "At the assaults 
before Orleans Jeanne showed valour -and 
conduct which no man could excel in war. All 
the captains were amazed by her courage and 
energy and her endurance." 

And she was as full of pity as she was of courage. 
She was once seen resting the head of a wounded 
Englishman on her lap, comforting and consoling 
him. We have remarkable evidence of the atmos- 
phere of purity she diffused about her. Her pro- 
hibition of swearing in this war, which she regarded 
as holy, was respected to a surprising extent. 

Triumph and Tra(;edy 

The march to Rheims was an extraordinary 
one. The town was in a distant quarter of the 
kingdom, and the country traversed was in the 
hands of the enemy. But every town opened its 
gates, and Rheims sent its keys. At the corona- 
tion Joan stood next to the king, standard^ in 

She would fain have retired from the war now, 
for she felt her mission was ended, but she was 
pressed by the French to stay. Yet her counsel 
was seldom followed, and disaster began to over- 
take the Dauphin's arms, and at length, in making 
a sally from Compiegne, Joan was taken prisoner 
,by the Burgundians. Her captor, Jean of 
Luxembourg, sold her into the hands of the 
English, and during a long imprisonment she was 
treated with incredible brutality. She was 
condemned to be burned for sorcery and magic, 
and on the morrow of Pentecost, 143 1, was led 
out to her doom. 

But the awfulness of the death she was to die 
terrified her, and she recanted, declaring herself 
to have been misled by her visions. The sen- 
tence was thereupon commuted to perpetual 
imprisonment. This did not please the English, 
and they soon found an excuse for asserting her 
relapse into heresy. When she was led out to the 
stake a second time, she died bravely, asserting 
her belief that her voices were from God, and 
with the word " Jesus " on her lips. 







FncrlKh Homes in Foreiffn Countries— Protection of Young Girls— Princess Christian's Interest in 
Women Er;j]grants-Miss pf^^^^^ Perception of What Girls Require-Actual Work Done 

in Various Parts of the World 

"The spirit of emigration is in the air, and 
* each year increasing numbers of girls 
from the homeland start for distant parts of 
the Empire to find the means of earning a 

Those who go out under the auspices ol 
reputable emigration societies receive some 
amount of care and supervision on leaving 
the country and on reaching their destina- 
tion ; but there are many girls who go out 

for establishing more homes and hostels, 
particularly in India and South Africa. 
Royal Patronajre 
Her Royal Highness went to South Africa 
immediately after the war, and the sad errand 
of visiting the grave of her gallant soldier 
son did not entirely absorb her attention. 
She was able to judge of the state of the 
country at that period of desolation and 
upheaval, and form an idea of the difficulties 

on their own responsibility, and have no • which would beset the woman emigrants of 
cA/-i'o+i7 Q+ +hAir bark to anoeal to in time of -t^e future. 

Already homes have been established at 

society at their back to appeal to in time 
need. This is where the foreign department 
of the Young Women's Christian Association 
comes in to fill the gap with its homes and 
hostels, where friendless girls in a strange 
land can find shelter and advisers. 
A Much Needed Work 

These homes are not, strictly speaking, 
emigration homes, as they are open to those 
who have not gone out under emigration 
auspices. Yet the girls for whom they are 
provided are in a certain sense emigrants, 
though not technically coming under that 
designation. Numbers of educated and 
respectably brought up girls are now going 
out to India, South Africa, and even Japan, 
as clerks and typists and to fill other business 
posts ; while there are always governesses 
and nursery governesses going out to situa- 
tions. The change in women's education in 
recent years has enabled girls to qualify for 
new posts in the business world, and, like 
their brothers, they leave the Old Country 
to try their luck in distant lands. Frequently 
they set out in utter ignorance of the country 
to which they are going, and perils beset 
them on landing which do not affect the 
voung man similarly placed. 

One can understand the boon that it is to 
a girl to know that at Calcutta, at Pretoria, 
or at Tokio there is an English home and 
EngUsh friends to whom she can go in case 
of need. She may, at the end of her voyage, 
arrive too ill to enter upon her work imme- 
diately. She may receive summary dismissal, 
or other casualties may happen to place her 
in temporary difficulties, when thus away 
from home and kindred ; and, again, she 
needs protection from evils of which she 
knows little. The temptations which beset 
lonely women in foreign cities need no com- 
nient, and these are specially dangerous to 
girls- coming at a time when isolation in 
unaccustomed surroundings weakens their 
power of defence. 

Princess Christian has long taken a deep 
interest in this work of the foreign depart- 
ment of the Y.W.C.A., and is supporting the 
appeal which is being made for raising a 
sum of £3,500 to. fulfil immediate obligations 

Johannesburg, Durban, and Port Elizabeth, 
and have done splendid work for our countr)^- 
women in South Africa, but at the present 
time £1,000 is urgently needed to staff the 
work and further means to found homes at 
Pretoria and Bloemfontein and other towns 
as they develop. The latter circumstance is 
a matter to be borne in mind, for population 
is rapidly increasing in many places which 
were small centres a few years ago. At 
Pretoria the association, by an arrangement 
with an existing institution, is able to offer 
a girl a shakedown in an emergency ; but 
there is urgent need of a good home for the 
increasing number of newcomers to this city. 
There is, too, an ever-pressing need for the 
extension of the work in India, and much 
has already been accomplished. Miss Picton- 
Warlow, now at the head of the foreign 
department in London, has spent some years 
in India, and has a very intimate knowledge 
of the needs of girls who are leaving home in 
increasing numbers to find posts in that great 
Eastern land. They are thrown, amongst a 
heathen population, on the one hand, and 
are often brought into touch with European 
life which is frivolous and lax, on the other 
hand. An anchorage to a Christian home 
with high moral influences is of the utmost 
importance to girls thus situated. 
Havens of Refuge 

Governesses who have gone out to situa- 
tions are occasionally cast adrift by incon- 
siderate employers, and are often subjected 
to privations and temptations while seeking 
a fresh situation, and, failing to find one, may 
be driven to a suicide's grave. To such the 
home or hostel is indeed a haven of safety 
and a centre from which they are likely to 
find employment. The superintendent, too, 
will often discover frauds practised upon 
attractive girls seeking situations, which they 
in their ignorance and innocence would not 
have suspected. 

Yet another of many instances may be 
mentioned of the manner in which the 
association watches over the young woman- 
hood of our country in foreign lands. The 




fact that girls set out with the family which 
has engaged their services is not always a 
guarantee of safety. 

A Typical Ca^e 
• During their voyage to India two ladies 
connected with the Y.W.C.A. were attracted 
by a bright, lively girl of about twenty on 
board. She was nursery governess to the 
children of a major's wife, and was noticeable 
playing with her charges on deck. A fracas 
occurred with the mistress for no sufficient 
reason, as it appeared, and the girl was told 
that her services would not be required after 
the end of the voyage. Great sympathy was 
felt with her, and the ladies of the Y.W.C.A. 
asked her what she was going to do when she 
landed at Calcutta. She admitted that she 
had no friends to go to, but was hopeful of 
obtaining another situation. 

" Will you come to our Y.W.C.A. home 
until you hear of something ? ' they asked. 

But the girl declined to go into a home, and 
said that she did not like that kind of place. 

Meanwhile, it was noted that a man, who 
was mistrusted by other passengers, was 
paying the girl attention. The ladies were 
much concerned about her fate when the 
last day of the voyage came. But in the 
evening, as the vessel made its way up the 
Hooghly, and Calcutta stood outlined in the 
gathering darkness, the girl, feeling the terror 
of approaching loneliness, came up to the 
ladies and said, " 1 have changed my mind, 
I should like to go with you." 

With what relief they heard her decision 
may be imagined, particularly as the man 
who had been forcing his attentions upon 
the girl followed her to the carriage on land- 
ing, and asked where she was going. Happily, 
the girl was cared for and protected until a 
suitable situation w^as found for her. 

Work in India 

The w^ork in India has already met with 
generous support. Ten years ago there was 
no home in Bombay. The association had 
made a beginning with a small flat, where 
three or four girls could be accommodated ; 
then the organisers started to build a home, 
for they felt that they could not go on saying 
" No " to applicants any longer. 

They were in great straits for money, 
but an American girl, who had voyaged to 
India with Miss Picton-Warlow, said that 
she would ask Mr. Denny, a London gentle- 
man well known for his philanthropy, to 

give them ;^6,ooo. On receipt of the letter. 
Mr. Denny called a few friends together, 
amongst whom was Lord Overtoun, and very 
shortly telegraphed the ;^6,ooo to the ladies. 
The home thus founded accommodates 
fifty, but it is now too small for the ever- 
increasing number of applicants, and funds 
are urgently needed to extend the work, 
the sphere of whose usefulness is certain to 
expand with the passage of time, and the 
increase of the white population. 

A Crying: Need 

Colombo, which has been termed the 
Clapham Junction of the East, is urgently 
in need of a central home for the girk who 
pass there on their way to all parts of the 
world. For eighteen years the association 
has rented bungalows, and it is very desirable 
that it should have its own home. 

Holiday homes are a great feature of 
the work in India. In 1900 the first holiday 
home was opened, and now there is not a 
hill station of any size without one. These 
are open to new arrivals, and are also a great 
boon to governesses during the holiday season, 
and to girls in need of rest and change of air. 

The Eurasians, or half-castes, are welcomed 
to these homes as well as Europeans, and are 
often much in need of care and protection. 

The spread of education amongst the 
women of India has created a student class, 
and many of these seek board and lodging 
in the homes of the Y.W.C.A. 

Opening In Japan 

A word may be said about the develop- 
ment of work in Japan. Although that land 
has not yet begun to attract Englishwomen 
in any numbers, still the daughters of our pro- 
gressive ally are breaking away from Eastern 
tradition by leaps and bounds. Girl students 
are flocking into Tokio, and many of them 
will find a home in the two student hostels 
which are being opened this year (191 1), and 
be surrounded by Christian influences at a 
most impressionable period in their lives. 

In Cairo the association has removed its 
home to new quarters in a beautiful native 
house, with large, airy rooms and a garden. 

This account does not touch on the emigra- 
tion department proper of the association, 
which is self-supporting, and organised in 
connection with the employment bureau, 
and has well-equipped homes in Canada 
and other colonies. 

To be continued. 



All matters pertaining to the kitchen and the subject of cookery in all its branches are dealt 

with in Every Woman's Encyclopedia. Everything a woman ought to know is taught in the 

most practical and expert manner. A few of the subjects are here mentioned : 

Recipes for 



Cookery for Invalids 

Gas Sieves 


Cookery for Children ^ 



Vegetaria7i Cookery 

The Theory of Cooking 


Preparing Game and Poultry 

The Cook's Time-lable 


The Art of Making Coffee 

Weio-hls and Measures, elc. 

Preserves, etc. 

How to Carve Poultry, Joints, etc. 

For the sake of ensuring abso 

lute accuracy, no recipe is printed in this section which has not 

been actually made up and tried. 


Saucepans— Boilers— The ^' Bain^Marie ''—Frying and Omelet Pans— Baking-tins— Meat Screen 

A TTENTiON should first be given to the pans, 
^~^ which are of importance in the equip- 
ment of a kitchen, whether large or small. 
No kitchen should be considered complete 
without a stockpot of some description. 
The ideal one is made either of seamless 


fear of 
boiling over 
or drying up. 
The bai n- 
marie itself is 
half-filled with 
water, and the 
sauces, etc., 
are placed in 
the different 
pans in the 
bain-marie, which 
of the stove. 

A strong block-tin fish-kettle should 
found in every kitchen, and should 

A bairi'marie is invaluable, as by its use 
sauces, soups, and gravies can be kept hot 

without risk of spoiling 

is kept on a hot 



A stockpot of seamless steel with tap, by which the fluid 
contents can be drawn off 

steel or tin-lined copper, and possesses a 
tap, behind which is placed a grating to pre- 
vent pieces escaping when stock is drawn off. 
A "bain-marie " is invaluable, for in it can 
be placed various sauces, soups, etc., which 
can be kept hot for any length of time 

kept exclusively for fish. 

Though doubtless every cook has her own 
particular favourite " make " and shape 
of sauce- _ 

pans, it is 
well to 
have one 
or two of 
each kind, 
with two 
or more 
tin-1 i n e d 
or enam- 
elled cast- 
iron or 

" A double saucepan, in which to boil milk or cook 

iron ones. porridge, prevents risk of burning 



The lid of a braising-pan is sunk in order that hot coals may be 
placed on it to supply upper heat to the contents 

In appearance these would be the same, but 
would differ in price and weight, the wrought 
iron being the dearer and heavier. 

An " oval boiler " or "leg of mutton 

Double baking'tin with revolving grid. Water is poured into 
the outer tin when baking meat 

Seamless steel pans are very strong and 
durable and not too heavy. They are of 
good appearance, can be easily re-tinned, 
are good, even conductors of heat, and do not 
destroy the colour and flavour of delicate 

A milk saucepan is a great convenience, 
and consists of a pan made either of tin, 
iron, or enamel ware, into which a china 
pan fits. The milk is placed in the china 
one, while water is put in the outer one. This 

A deep frying-pan is necessary when cooking 
by the French method 

pan " made of the same 
material is most useful for boil- 
ing hams, joints of meat, etc., 
as well as for making broth. 

A useful and economical 
contrivance is the cast-iron 
saucepan with a block-tin 
steamer fixed over it. Two 
articles can be cooked in it at 
the same time; for example, 
potatoes might be boiling in 
the saucepan, while a pudding 
is being cooked in the steamer. 

The steam cooker is an 

A frying'basket which fits into the outer pan is very con» 
venient when cooking small articles 

excellent device for flats where stove room 
is very limited. Each compartment is 
entirely separate, and a whole dinner may 
thus be cooked over one pan of boiling water. 

A Dutch oven, game oven, and broiler will each be found very useful in the kitchen 

arrangement prevents the milk from boiling 
over or burning. A porridge saucepan is 
much the same, and does away with the 
necessity of constantly watching and stirring 
the porridge. 

A braising-pan, though most useful, is not 
absolutely essential. The centre of the lid 
is sunk, to allow room for hot coals to be 
placed in it, the idea being for the meat to 
be cooked between two fires. The pan is 
made either of copper or wrought iron. 

The frying'pan is one of the utensils 

A saute pan, though not essential, is most convenient 

Baking'tin for meat, with well and movable grid 



deemed by all an 
absolute essential to 
the well-being of the 
house. Though con- 
venient, it is used 
much oftener in 
English homes than 
it ought to be, and 
is often substituted 
for the grill. A 
shallow pan is re- 
quired for English 

When making clear soups and 
jellies, a straining stand VA/ill be 
found a great saving of trouble 

A screen is not only 
useful when roasting 
joints, but is convenient 
for keeping plates hot, or 
dough for bread can be 
placed in one to rise 

or " shallow frying," 
but a deep frying-pan 
is necessary for the 
French or "deep fry- 
ing " method ; for 
example, when cooking rissoles, croquettes, 
or fritters. 

Though not always necessary, a frying- 
basket is very convenient when frying white- 
bait, parsley, or any other small articles. 

A saute-pan is most convenient, though 
not absolutely essential. If, however, there 
is not one, a frying-pan may be substituted 
without difficulty. 

An omelet-pan is necessary for the making 
of good omelets. The rounded ones are the 
most convenient, as there is then no crevice 

A Fricassee — Turkey 


Soup — Blanquctte of Turkey — Devilled 
Turkey a la Marlborough 

in which the mixture can stick. Omelet- 
pans should be used only for omelet-making, 
and they should never be washed. They 
should merely be rubbed over with pieces of 
soft paper, using, if necessary, a little salt. 

Baking-tins for meat are best made of 
tinned steel. They should have a well at 
one corner, and either an iron grating or a 
revolving grid. The latter does away with the 
necessity for turning the baking-tin itself in 
the oven, as the meat can be revolved on 
the grid, thus saving time and trouble. The 
best baking-tins are made double, the outer 
one having an inner lining. Water is 
poured into the outer one, and this prevents 
the fat from burning. 

A Dutch oven, game-oven, and broiler are 
all useful adjuncts to the kitchen, while 
baking-tins of various shapes, sizes, and 
depths are absolutely essential. 

A meat-screen made of wood and lined 
with tin is most convenient for 
keeping meat, plates, etc., hot, 
and for protecting articles from 
draughts. It is an excellent place 
in which to put bread to rise. 

When roasting, a meat-screen 
is not only a convenience, but a 
great saving of heat. The bottle- 
jack is hung in it, the joint 
being suspended from it. The 
meat is thus protected from all 
draughts while it is being roasted. 
When much clear soup and 
clear jellies are made it is advis- 
able to have a proper straining 
-Hjuiw- stand, but an excellent substitute 
P^J may be made by placing a kitchen 

^^ chair, seat downwards, on the 

w table, and fastening a clean 

teacloth by the four corners to 
the legs of the chair. 

To be continued. 
Turkey Legs — Croquettes — 

A bottle'jack, to 
be hung inside the 
roasting ' screen, 
from which the 
joint is suspended 


Required : About a pound or more of cold turkey. 
One pint of Bechamel sauce. 
The yolks of two eggs. 
One lemon. 

Two tablespoonfuls of cream. • 
Salt and pepper. 
Croiitons of bread or toast. 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

Cut the turkey into neat pieces. 

Make the Bechamel sauce (see Vol. i, 
page 652), put in the pieces of turkey, and 
let them heat through gently. Beat up the 
yolks, add the cream, stir these into the 
sauce, let it cook for a few minutes, being 
careful not to let it boil or it will curdle. Add 
the strained lemon-juice, and salt and pepper 
to taste. Arrange the pieces of turkey on a 
hot dish. Strain the sauce over and garnish 
the dish with the croutons or neatly cut pieces 
of toast. 

Cost, IS., without thue turkey. 


Required : The remains of a cold turkey. 

Two quarts of white stock, or milk and water in 

equal proportions 
One and a half ounces of rice flour. 
One small onion. 
One bay-leaf. 

A bunch of parsley and herbs. 
A small blade of mace. 
Salt and pepper. 

Two ounces of macaroni or spaghetti. 
[Sufficient for six or eight.) 

Cut up the remains of the turkey into 
small pieces and chop the bones. Put meat 
and bones in a stewpan, add the herbs, tied 
together, the peeled onion, and the stock, 
also a little salt and pepper. Put the lid on 
the pan, and let all simmer gently for about 
three hours; then strain off the soup, rinse 
out the pan, and put it back again. Mix 
the rice smoothly with a little cold milk, stir it 
gradually into the soup, let it boil gently for 




about ten minutes. Have the macaroni or 
spaghetti boiled in salted water until it is 
just tender, then cut it into short lengths, and 
put it into the soup. Make it very hot. See 
that the soup is nicely flavoured, and serve 
it in a hot tureen. 

Cost, without the turkey, about 6d. 


Required : The remains of a cold turkey (about a 
Three-quarters of a pint of stock or milk. 
One ounce of flour. 
One and a half ounces of butter. 
The yolk of an egg. 
One shallot. 
A blade of mace. 
Salt and pepper. 
Two tablespoonfuls of cream. 
(Sufficient for four to six.) 

Cut the turkey into neat slices. Put all 
the bones and rough pieces in a stewpan 
with the shallot and mace and a little salt 
and pepper. Pour in enough cold water 
to cover, put the lid on the pan, and let 
the contents simmer gently for an hour or 
longer. Then strain, off the stock. 

Melt the butter in a saucepan, stir in the 
flour smoothly, and cook it for a few minutes 
without allowing it to colour. Then pour 
in the stock, and stir this sauce over the 
fire until it boils. Next let it simmer 
gently for about ten minutes, and season 
it to taste. Lay in the slices of turkey, 
and let them heat through very gently in 
the sauce ; on no account must it boil, or 
the meat will be hard and tough. Beat 
up the yolk of the egg, add the cream to 
it, or, if more convenient, use milk. Stir 
these gradually into the sauce, let it cook 
gently for a few minutes, then arrange the 
slices of meat on a hot dish and pour the 
sauce over. 

Cost, without turkey, about 6d. 


Required : T~he legs. 

One teaspoonful each of French and English 

Two teaspoonfuls of chutney. 
Salt and black pepper. 

A few browned crumbs. 

A little warmed butter. 

{Sufficient for three or four.) 

With a sharp knife score the legs round 
and lengthways in deep, regular gashes. 

Brush them well over with warmed butter. 

Mix together the mustard, chopped chut- 
ney, and a good dust of pepper, cayenne, 
and salt. Spread this mixture over the 
legs, then sprinkle over a few browned 

Have ready a clear, bright fire, heat the 
grid, and brush or rub it over with a piece 
of dripping ; put on the legs, and grill 
quickly until nicely browned and crisp. 

Serve on a hot dish with a few small 
pieces of butter placed here and there on 
them. Garnish with watercress. 

Cost, without turkey, 4d. 


Required : About four ounces of scraps of turkey. 
Two ounces of cooked ham or bacon. 
Two teaspoonfuls of chopped onion. 
Three teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley. 
Half a pint of thickened gravy or stock made 

from the carcase. 
Two eggs. 
Salt and pepper. 
{Sufficient for six.) 

Chop the turkey and ham finely, add the 
parsley, onion, and a good seasoning of 
salt, pepper, and, if liked, a little nutmeg. 
Add enough stock or gravy to moisten the 
mixture, stir it over the fire until it is hot 
through, then add one beaten egg, and 
re-cook the mixture for a few minutes. 

Next turn it on to a plate, spread it 
evenly over, mark it into even-sized divi- 
sions, and leave it to cool. Flour the 
hands very slightly, shape the mixture into 
neat balls, brush them over with beaten 
egg, then cover them with crumbs. 

Have ready a pan of frying fat, and 
when a faint blue smoke rises from it put 
in two or three balls at a time, and fry 
them a golden brown. 

Drain them well on paper. Serve them 
on a lace paper, garnished with fried parsley. 

Neat rolls of toasted bacon are an excellent 
accompaniment to this dish. 

Cost, without turkey, 6d. 


Required : The remains of cold turkey, about one 

Allow to every four tablespoonfuls of bread- 
crumbs : 

Two tablespoonfuls of chopped ham. 

Two teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley. 

One teaspoonful of chopped shallot. 

Half a level teaspoonful of curry powder. 

One tablespoonful of melted butter. 



Frying fat. 

Half a pint of tomato sauce. 

Half a pound of fresh mushrooms (if possible). 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

Cut the bird into cis neat pieces as possible. 
If there are legs to be used, chop them across 
in four pieces. Mix the crumbs, ham, 
shallot, parsley, and curry-powder together. 

Beat up one or more eggs on a plate, 
according to the quantity of turkey. Mix 
with each egg a tablespoonful of warmed 

• Brush the pieces of turkey over with the 
egg and butter, and cover them with the 
crumbs, etc., and repeat this egg and 
crumbing so that each piece is done twice. 
Put them in a pan of clean frying fat from 
which a bluish smoke is rising, and fry them 
a delicate brown. 

Drain the pieces on paper to remove all 
grease. Heap them up on a lace paper on 
a hot dish, and garnish them with the 
mushrooms, which should be first nicely 

Hand the tomato sauce separately in a 
hot sauce-tureen. 

Cost, from is., without turkey. 




Lobster Finwrs-DeviUed Livers-Prawns in Aspic-Devilled Sardines-Croutes of Bananas- 
Oyster Croquettes-Foie^gras in Aspic-Sardine Bouchees-Oyster Aigrettes 

a neat edging around each, the contrast of 
the pink and green butters being very 


Required : Half a pound of puff pastry. 
Half a small lobster. 
A dessertspoonful of thick cream. 
Two handfuls of spinach. 
A quarter of a pound of butter. 
A sprig or two of parsley. 
A little lemon-juice. 
Salt and pepper. 
{Sufficient for SIX.) 

Roll out the pastry till it is about a 
quarter of an. inch thick, and then cut it 
into pieces about an inch wide and two 

Lobster fingers. The contrasting colours o5 the butters used in this 
savoury arc very effective and pretty 

and a half inches long. Place these on a 
baking- tin, which need nat be greased as 
the pastry is so rich, and bake them a 
pretty pale biscuit colour. 

Put the flesh of the lobster into a mortar 
with an ounce of butter ; pound them 
together. Next add the cream, and when 
that is mixed in season the mixture with 
salt, pepper, and lemon- juice. Now rub it 
through a sieve. 

Carefully split open each 
piece of pastry. Spread them 
carefully with the lobster 
mixture, and press the two 

Wash the coral from the 
lobster, put it on a tin in 
a slow oven, and dry it very 
slowly. Then pound it in a 
mortar with one ounce of 
butter until it is smooth. 
Lastly, rub it through a 
hair sieve, and keep it in a 
cold place until it is required. 

Next carefully wash the 
spinach, and boil it in about two tablespoon- 
f uls of water ; then press it through a piece of 
muslin. Add enough of the green liquid 
to the remaining two ounces of butter to 
make it a pretty pale green, and put it 
into a cold place until it is wanted. 

Put the green butter into a forcing-bag, 
and pipe a ribbon-like strip of the butter 
down the centre of each finger. When 
these are done put the coral butter into a 
clean forcing-bag, and with a fine pipe force 

effective and pretty. 

Serve them on a lace paper, and garnish 
with. a few sprigs of parsley. Cost, is. 6d. 

Required : Four or more poultry livers. 
Four small rounds of bread. 
One ounce of butter. 
Half a teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 
Half a teaspoonful of chopped chillies. 
Salt and cayenne. 
{Sufficient for four.) 

Melt the butter in a 
frying-pan, and when it is 
hot fry the rounds of bread 
in it until they are a golden 
brown ; then drain the^m 
well. Wash and dry the 
livers, and then fry them in 
the butter for a few minutes. 

Place a liver on each 
round of fried bread, season 
it well with salt and cayenne 
pepper, and sprinkle over it 
a little chopped parsley and 

Serve them very hot on a 
lace paper. Cost, about 6d. 


Required : Half a pint of aspic jelly. 

Half a dozen prawns, fresh or preserved. 
A little chervil. 
A hard-boiled white of egg. 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

Rinse out some very tiny dariole moulds, 
suitable for savouries, with cold water. 
Pour into them a little melted aspic jelly to 
coat the top of each mould to about the 

Croutes of Bananas. A novel manner in which to serve bananas 

thickness of half-a-crown. Allow this jelly 
to set, placing the moulds, if possible, on ice. 

When set, decorate the tops lightly with a 
feathery strip of chervil, and a few tiny fancy 
shapes cut out of the white of egg. Set these 
with a few drops of warmed jelly, and when 
it is quite firm lay in each mould a shelled 
prawn, sprinkling on it a grain or two of 
cayenne. Fill up the little moulds with more 
jelly, and leave till set. 

To turn them out, dip the moulds into 



warm water, and shake them gently on the 
hand ; then place the jelly on a pretty dish. 
A little chopped aspic jelly placed around 
makes a pretty finish. 

Large shrimps or small oysters can be 
used in the place of prawns. 

Cost, IS. 6d. 


Required : Eight sardines. 

For each sardine allow a thin 
slice of bacon and a finger- 
shaped piece" of buttered 

Half a lemon. 

The hard-boiled yolk of one 

A little coralline pepper. 
{Sufficient for four.) 

Skin the sardines care- 
fully, and cut off the tails. 
Cut the bacon into neat, 
thin strips. Roll each sar- 
dine in a slice of bacon, 
squeeze a few drops of lemon-juice on it, 
and dust very slightly with cayenne. 

Place the sardines on the finger-shaped 
pieces of hot buttered toast, and put them 
on a baking-tin in the oven till the bacon 
is a pale brown, which will probably take 
from eight to ten minutes. 

While these are cooking, rub the yolk of 
the egg through a sieve ; then, just before 
serving, decorate each sardine with a little 
of the pretty feathery-looking yolk, and 
sprinkle over each a little coralline pepper. 

Serve them as hot as possible, arranged on 
a fancy paper. 

Cost, lod. 


Required : Two bananas. 
Two ounces of butter. 
Eight finger-shaped pieces of bread. 
Coralline pepper. 
{Sufficient for about six.) 

Peel the bananas, cut each in halves 
lengthways, and then cut each piece in half so 
that there are four pieces from each banana. 
Melt the butter in a frying-pan, fry the 
pieces of bread a golden brown, and then 
drain them well on paper. Now put in the 
bananas, and fry them quickly, turning them 
once or twice. 

Place a portion of banana on each piece of 
bread, and dust it with coralline pepper. 
Arrange the croutes of bananas on a lace 
paper, and serve them hot. 

Cost, 5d. 


Required : One dozen oysters. 
Two ounces of suet. 
Six ounces of veal. 
Three ounces of breadcrumbs. 
Salt and pepper. 

A few grains of cayenne and nutmeg. 
One egg and one extra yolk. 
A little floiu:. 
{Sufficient for about six.) 

Beard and chop the oysters, saving any 
liquor that may come from them. Chop the 
suet and veal fine. Next mix together the 

oysters, suet, veal, and one and a half ounces 
of the breadcrumbs. Put these into a mortar 
with the oyster liquor, and pound them to 
a paste. Season this carefully with salt, 
pepper, cayenne, and nutmeg ; lastly, add 
the beaten yolk of egg, and mix all well 

Foie-gras in aspic. Set in tiny dariole moulds, this savoury is 
decorated with cut truffle and chillies 

Shape the mixture into small balls, and 
roll each ball in flour. Beat up the egg, and 
put the remaining crumbs into a piece of 
paper. Brush the balls over with beaten 
egg, and then cover them with crumbs. 

Have ready a pan of boiling fat, and when 
a faint bluish smoke rises from it put in 
some of the balls and fry them a golden 

Drain them on paper, and serve them 
piled up on a hot dish. Garnish them with 
fried parsley. 

Cost, IS. I id. 


Required : About half a pint of aspic jelly. 
A small pot of f oie-gras. 
One or two pickled chillies. 
A small truffle. 
{Sufficient for about six.) 

Rinse out some very tiny dariole moulds 
with cold water. Pour into them a little 
melted aspic jelly to coat the top of each 
mould to about the thickness of half-a- 
crown. Allow this jelly to set, using ice if 
time is of importance. 

Then decorate the tops with small, pretty 
shapes of cut trufiie and chilli, forming a 
pleasing design in red and black. Set this 
with a few drops of melted jelly, and when 
firm place in each a small, ball-shaped piece 
of the foie-gras, filling up the moulds 
.with more jelly. Leave them till set, and 
then dip them in warm water to loosen 

Arrange them on a pretty dish, with 
chopped aspic around it. 

Plovers' eggs, whole or cut, may be used 
in the place of the foie-gras, but for the 
former larger moulds must be used. 

These savouries, set in aspic, can be 
varied to almost any degree by using 
curried chickens' livers, asparagus' points, 
tiny fillets of cooked fish, neat pieces of 
lobster, olives, etc., etc. The decorations 
may be varied according to the artistic 
taste of the individual. 

Cost, about 2S. 6d. 

top of a 
glass, and 



Required : Six sardines. 

Four teaspoonfuls of grated Parmesan cheese. 
Four oysters. 
One hard-boiled egg. 
Chilli and tarragon vinegars. 
Half a stale tin loaf. 
Two ounces of butter. 
[Suficient for about six.) 

Cut slices from the bread i^ inches thick. 
Stamp these out in rounds the size of the 
with a 
smaller cutter re- 
move the centres, 
but not right 
through, so that a 
hollow case is left. 
Fry these cases in 
butter, drain them 
well, and keep them 

Skin and pound 
the sardines with 
the cheese, adding 
vinegar to flavour 
and moisten it. 
Beard and quarter 

the oysters, add them to the mixture, and 
season it highly. Stir it over the fire until 
very hot. 

Fill the cases with the mixture, and 
sprinkle the tops with powdered yolk of egg. 
Serve very hot on a lace paper. 
Cost, IS. 4d. 


Put the water and butter on to boil. 
Sieve the flour, add it to the water when it 
boils, draw the pan off the fire, and beat the 
contents well till smooth. Then cook it 
over a slow heat till the panada does not 
stick to the pan. Let the mixture cool a 
little, then beat in each egg and the extra 
yolk separately ; add the cheese and carefully 
season it. Turn it out on a plate, and let 
the mixture cool. Beard the oysters, and 


Required : Half a pint of boiling water. 
One ounce of butter. 

Three ounces of grated Parmesan cheese. 
Four ounces of Vienna flour. 
Two whole eggs and one extra yolk. 
One dozen oysters. 
Salt and cayenne. 
Half a lemon. 

Thin brown bread and butter. 
{Sufficient for about six.) 

Aspic is always nr.uch liked, and a great variety of savouries may be made with its aid. Cooked 
sweetbreads cut in large dice and a few peas, or foie-gras cut in blocks, arc perhaps two of the 
most popular. Coat some small moulds with melted aspic, arrange the sweetbread and peas in some, the 
foic'gras in others; fill up the moulds with aspic, leave them until set turn them out carefully on to a 
dish, and garnish it with heaps of chopped aspic 

season them with cayenne and lemon-juice. 
Have ready a deep pan of frying fat, from 
which a faint blue smoke must rise. Take a 
dessertspoon, dip it into the fat to grease it, 
and half fill it with the cheese mixture. Make 
a little hollow in it, lay in it an oyster, and 
cover it up with more of the mixture. Push 
the aigrette out of the spoon into the fat, 
and continue to make others till the -pan is 
full enough. Fry them slowly for about five 
minutes. The fat must barely smoke all the 

Then lift out, drain the aigrettes on paper, 
and serve them very quickly. Hand with 
them thin rolled brown bread and butter, 
cayenne, and lemon. 

Cost, IS. yd. 



What to Give an Invalid who Cannot Take Meat — The Curative Properties of Vegetable and Fruit 
Juices — The Liquid and Dry Systems oF Food — Conservative Cooking 

(and perhaps alcohol as well), and be fed 
chiefly on starchy and sloppy foods. 

The most advanced doctors and nurses 
now realise that the mind and the sensations 
help to cure the body, and, as a rule, invalids 
have bright, cheerful, and well-ventilated 
rooms, and their spirits are kept up by what- 
ever will make them happy and turn their 
attention from brooding over their ailments. 

So, too, invalids who do not wish to take 
meat in any form can now be given pure 
vegetable and fruit juices instead of beef -tea. 
It is also possible for them to be given 
digestible, pure, nourishing, and not neces- 
sarily unpleasant foods, in cases in which 
food is given at all. 

For to nourish the body without producing 
indigestion or congestion, and to cleanse the 
inside of the body by natural purifiers, such 

"yHERE seems to be little arrangement 
made, even in nursing homes and 
hospitals, for the invalid who may not, or 
cannot, eat fish, meat, or chicken, or take 
the inevitable beef-tea and chicken broth. 
What, then, is to be given in their place ? 

Although progress has been made in other 
directions, the ideas about invalid food are 
still somewhat old-fashioned. The invalid 
who does not take meat is looked upon as a 
faddist, and is often treated with impatience 
by both doctor and nurse. 

Formerly it was considered that invalids 
snould be kept in a dark room with the 
windows closed ; that they should not be 
allowed to read, or to have read to them, 
interesting books or papers ; that they should 
be given nauseous drugs at stated intervals, 
and that they should have plenty of beef -tea 



as fruit and vegetable juices, are most im- 
portant general principles in present day 

And if, in carrying out these principles, 
one can make the invalid thoroughly enjoy 
his or her meals, so much the better. 

The recipes that are offered here will not 
be unpleasant. Of course, special dishes 
would be required for special cases ; and all 
these recipes will not be good for all invalids. 
It is only possible to suggest recipes that 
would be useful in many — if not in most — 
cases. It is clear, for example, that the 
same recipe is unlikely to be equally suitable 
for the invalid who needs to be soothed as 
for the one who needs to be gently stimu- 
lated. Again, a drink like barley-water, 
that is soothing in some cases, may in others 
be quite the reverse. 

One of the most interesting points about 
invalid foods is that two absolutely opposite 
kinds have often been successful in cleansing 
the system. First, there is the liquid system ; 
then there is the dry, such as unsweetened 
rusks or some nourishing unsweetened bis- 
cuits, etc. 

As instances of the liquid, the hot water, 
fruit, and the vegetable -juice cures may be 
cited. The Schroth treatment by stale bread 
is an example of the dry system. This, with 
the occasional drink, has sometimes effected 

wonderful results, though the immediate 
symptoms may be far from hopeful. 

In practice it is often found best to com- 
bine the two treatments. In many cases the 
invalid can be given pure fruit juices in the 
early morning, pure vegetable juices the last 
thing at night, and at least one of the dry 
meals during the day, in order to compel 
mastication, and to arouse the action of that 
precious medicine the saliva. 

In these recipes the liquids for the invalid 
who perhaps may not have solid foods will 
be combined with some more solid dishes for 
those who cannot take too much liquid, and 
who cannot take very dry or solid foods. 

It is most important, when giving fruit 
juices to the invalid, not to make them too 
syrupy. Ripe fruit has its own pure sugar, 
which is very much more nourishing and 
healthy than the chemically prepared sugar 
that is generally considered necessary as an 
addition to stewed fruit. It is equally im- 
portant, in giving vegetable juices to the 
invalid, not to add table-salt to them; for 
vegetables have their own precious " salts " 
and curative properties, and need nothing 
added to them when taken in this form, or 
when cooked conservatively in the hot-air 

(See page 1254, Vol. 2, Every Wobian's 


Vermicelli and Vegetable Juice Soups— Stewed and Fresh Fruit Drinks— Rice Drink— Barley Water 

(two methods) 


Required : One quart of white vegetable stock, or 
good ordinary vegetable stock. (See page 
1371, Vol. 2.) 

Half an ounce of vermicelli. 

Two ounces of proteid food. 

One ounce of butter. 

One small onion. 

One bay-leaf. 

A little pepper and salt to taste, if condiments 
agree, though these are much better omitted. 
Wash the vermicelli in cold water, break 
it into small pieces, and throw it with the 
bay-leaf into the boiling stock. Pare and 
boil the onion for five minutes in boiling 
water, then take and chop finely. Now fry the 
onion in a little butter, but do not allow it 
to colour. Add this to the soup, and boil all 
together until the vermicelli is quite soft. 
Take out the onion and bay-leaf, and add 
the proteid food (previously dissolved in a 
little warm water or milk). Add the pepper 
and salt, if they agree ; or a grate of nutmeg 
would be a nice flavouring for this soup. 


Required : Two ounces of lettuce. 
Two ounces of cabbage. 
Two ounces of onions. 
Two ounces of carrots. 
One teaspoonful of parsley. 
One ounce of turnip. 
One sprig of watercress. 
One pint of water. 
Salt to taste. 
One tablespoonful of proteid food. 

Cut the vegetables into small pieces, and 
put them into a stewpan with one pint of 
water. Let these simmer until quite tender, 
then strain, pressing all the juices out from 
the vegetables with a wooden spoon. One 
tablespoonful of proteid food added to a 
breakfastcup of this soup makes it more 
nourishing as well as cleansing. 



Required : Pineapple. 

Peel the pineapple, melon, and oranges, 
take out the pips, and simmer in a very little 
water in an enamel pan or stone jar for half 
an hour, and strain. 


Required : Grapes and apples ; oranges and lemons. 

Oranges and lemons can be squeezed in an 
ordinary lemon-squeezer. 

Put the grapes and apples into a fruit- 
juice press. Turn the handle of the machine 
until all the juices are squeezed out. Add 
the orange and lemon juice. A little warm 
or cold water can be added to the juices. 
About a teacupf ul should be drunk at a time. 
These are cleansing drinks for the blood. 



Required : One ounce of ground rice. 
One ounce of proteid food. 
One pint of water. 
Half a teaspoonful of castor sugar. 
Juice of one lemon (or nutmeg to taste). 
Mix the ground rice and the proteid food 
together with the water. Cook in the double 
pan hot-air cooker, and bring it to the boil. 
Add the sugar, and, if too thick, add a little 
more water or milk. Now add the lemon- 
juice (or nutmeg), and serve hot. 
Required : One dessertspoonful of prepared barley. 
One quart of boiling water. 
Lemon or sugar to taste. 
Mix one dessertspoonful of barley with 
^a wineglassful of cold water into a sinooth 
paste. Pour this into a stewpan containing 
one quart of boiling water, and stir it over the 
fire for five minutes. Flavour it with lemon 
or sugar, or with both, according to taste. 
Allow the mixture to cool, and strain the 
barley sediment off. 

For invalids requiring nutriment a larger 
quantity of barley should be used, and the 
straining of sediment omitted, or not, as 
directed bv the doctor. 

For whole barley the quantity would be one 
dessertspoonful to half a pint of water, with 
the grated rind of half a lime and the juice 
of the lemon added. 

Required : Four ounces of pearl (or whole) barley. 

Four ounces of Carolina rice. 

Two heads of lettuce (or endive). 

Celery, or celery tops may be substituted when 
in season. 

Two or three sprays of parsley. 

Two ounces of proteid food. 

Three quarts of water. 
Soak the barley and rice overnight. Put 
them in a large saucepan with three quarts 
of water. Stir often for fear of burning. 
Bring to the boil, and then allow it to simmer 
gently until reduced to about one quart, then 
strain off. Boil the lettuce (or endive) and 
parsley in two quarts of water until reduced 
to one pint. Strain the vegetables, and mix 
the liquor of the vegetables with that of the 
barley and rice. Now add the proteid food 
and bring it to the boil, stirring all the time to 
get the powder dissolved , ^ 

This is a good drink at night, an hour before 

To be co7itinued. 







Mullet (red) 


Dutch salmon 


















Dublin prawns 

Canadian salmon Skate 
Scallops Shrimps 

Soles Lemon soles 

Turbot Whitebait 




Plovers (golden 
and grey) 
Ostend rabbits 

Buck venison 





Guinea fowls 


Grouse (till loth) Hares 

Partridges Pheasants 

Ptarmigan Rabbits (wild) 

Pintail ducks Wild ducks 



Game — continued 



Asparagus Artichokes (Globe and Jerusalem) 



Beans (French) 

Brussels sprouts Cabbages 

Red cabbages 

Cabbage greens 










Corn salad 









Spanish onions 







Scotch kale 











Rhubarb (forced) 





Poultry, etc. 



Ducklings . . 



Goslings . . . , ■ 


Pigeon (Bordeaux) 

„ (wood or tame) 
Rabbits (tame) 

„ lOsteud) .. 
Turkey (cock) 
Turkey (hen) 

Best and Cheapest. 

June to October , , 
September to October 
June and July . . 
June to November 
October and November 
June and July 
March to May 
All the year 

>> »> » 
October to February 

» » M 

November to February 

Average Price. 


2S. 3d. to 3s. 

3s. od. to 4s. 

2S. 6d. to 5s. 

2S. gd. to 4s. 

5s. od. to 8s. 

5s. od. to 7s. 

2S. gd. to 3s, 

IS, 6d. to IS. 8d. 
lod. to IS. 4d. 

IS. 3d, to 2s, od, 

IS. od. to IS. 6d. 
8Jd. per lb. 

7s. 6d, to 30s. 

5s. od, to los. od 







Legal terms and 1 
mystery surrounding 
simplest and clearest 
with regard to : 


egal language make the 

the subject, and in this 

language is used, so 

Money Matters 



". Uw a mystery to most people. Yet there need be no 
section of Every Woman's Encyclop/Edia only the 
that readers may understand every aspect of the law 

Employer's Liability Taxes 
Lodgers Wills 
Sanitation Wife's Debts, etc., etc. 


How Incomes arc Assessed for the Tax — Deductions Allowed on Life Insurance Policies — No 

Deductions on Allowances Paid by Husbands to Wives— Deductions on Children — The Incomes 

of Married Persons — Free Occupation of a House — ^Allowance for a Servant — Annuitants Pay 

Income Tax— The Occupation of a Police Station 

mium as a loan on the security of the policy, 
and credits the premium as paid, the person 
who is insured is not entitled to deduct 
such premium, as it is not " paid by him " 
within the meaning of the Act. 


TThe Income Tax Acts apply to the whole 
of the United Kingdom, but the original 
Act is so badly drawn that its meaning is 
often obscure, while none of the Acts contain 
the equivalent terms of Scots or Irish law, 
although they affect these countries. A 
person whose total annual net income from 
all sources does not exceed ;^i6o is exempt 
from duty, and when the total income 
exceeds ;^i6o but does not exceed ;^700, 
allowances by way of abatement are made 
by deducting a specified sum from the total 
income and charging the duty upon the 
balance only. Thus, from an income of 

;£400 a year ;^ 1 66 
;^6oo „ IY2.0 

is deductible, and 

the tax payable 


I £350 

Life Insurance 

Any person who has insured, or who has 
contracted for a deferred annuity upon his 
own or his wife's life, or who is liable to the 
payment of an annual sum or to have an 
annual sum deducted from his salary in 
order to secure a deferred annuity to his 
widow or provision for his children after 
his death, is entitled to deduct the amount 
of the annual premium paid by him or of 
the annual sum deducted from his salary, 
not exceeding in all one-eighth of his total 
taxable income. The deduction cannot be 
made so as to bring the iiicome below ;^i6o. 
But where the company advances the pre- 
D 27 


When an action for divorce was com- 
promised by a deed of separation, and where 
by a supplemental deed the husband agreed 
to pay to the wife ;^450 per annum, it was 
held that the husband might deduct income 
tax from the annuity. By an agreement for 
separation between husband and wife, the 
husband undertook to make his wife an 
annual allowance payable quarterly in 
advance " clear of all deductions," but it 
was held that the husband ^as entitled 
and bound to make, and the wife was 
bound to allow, a deduction of income 
tax in respect of each future instalment 
of the annuity. 

The Earl and the Countess 

A husband and wife agreed to live separate, 
and the husband agreed to allow her ;^4,ooo 
a year, clear of all deductions, which sum 
was subsequently reduced by agreement 
to ;^3,ooo a year. Then disputes arose 
as to how long the reduced allowance 
was to continue. The wife brought an 
action to recover arrears of the allowance, 
and a consent order was made that she was 
entitled to the ;^4,ooo a year as from a year 
before the action commenced. The husband 



had never deducted any income tax from any 
of the payments of the allowance, and he 
now claimed to deduct income tax in respect 
of all the payments made, and from the 
arrears. It was held that he might deduct 
income tax from the arrears, but not from 
the payments already made. 

The claim must be made within three 
years, and where the deduction has not 
been made the amount is repayable. The 
amount of a person's income is to be reckoned 
inclusive of any sum deductible in respect 
of premiums upon life insurance and an- 

The parent of living children under the 
age of sixteen, including stepchildren, 
whose income does not exceed ;^500 is 
entitled to an abatement of ;^io in respect 
of each child. An individual who claims 
and proves that his total income does not 
exceed ;^2,ooo, and that any part of that 
income is earned income, is entitled to 
relief to \he extent of taxing the earned 
portion of the income at the rate of gd. 
instead of is. 2d., and this is in addition to 
any other relief to which he may be entitled. 
The claim must be made before September 

A person whose total income exceeds ;^2,ooo 
but does not exceed ;^3,ooo is chargeable in 
respect of his earned income at the rate of 


Where a wife's profits are deemed to be 
profits of the husband, an individual as 
above includes either the husband or the 
wife. Upon incomes exceeding ;^5,ooo a 
super-tax is now imposed at the rate of 
6d. for every pound of the amount which 
exceeds ;£3,ooo. 

Husband and Wife 

The profits of a married woman living 
with her husband are to be deemed the 
profits of the husband, and charged in his 
name. The Income Tax Commissioners treat 
husband and wife as one, so that their joint 
income, if it exceeds ;^i6o, becomes chargeable 
to duty, although the income of each taken 
singly would not be chargeable. 

Where tke total joint income of the 
husband and wife does not exceed ;^500, 
and part of the income is derived frorn 
profits of a business carried on by means 
of the wife's personal labour and "the rest 
derived from another business carried on 
by the husband, a claim for relief is to be 
dealt with as if it were a claim in respect of 
the profits of the wife, and a separate claim 
on the part of the husband in respect of 
the rest of the total income. 

" Business " means a profession, trade, 
employment or vocation, office, or employ- 
ment of profit. 

When a wife is living separate from her 
husband, whether her husband is tem- 
porarily absent from her or from the United 
Kingdom or otherwise, and she receives 
any allowance or remittance from property 

out of the United Kingdom, she is to be 
charged as a single woman if entitled to the 
money in her own right, and as the agent 
of the husband if the money comes through 
him or on his credit. 

Free Occupation of House 

A person is chargeable for income tax 
not on what saves his pocket, but on what 
goes into his pocket. In the case of a bank 
agent whose income was under ;^400, ex- 
clusive of any estimate of the value of the 
part of the bank which he occupied as 
residence, and which he was not entitled 
to vacate or sublet, it was held that the 
value of the house was not to be taken into 
account, and that he was entitled to the 
abatement of ;£i20. 

Allowance for Servant 

Where a man and his wife were appointed 
master and mistress of a national school 
at a joint salary, and the man claimed aii 
allowance of £^0 in respect of the board and 
wages of a domestic servant whom it was 
necessary that he should employ in order 
that the duties of his household might be 
carried on whilst his wife was engaged pro- 
fessionally at the school, the deduction was 
not allowed. 


A testator gave to his wife an annuity 
or clear yearly rent charge, clear of all taxes 
and deductions, and it was held that the 
annuity was subject to property tax. The 
gift of an annuity, clear of legacy duty and 
every other deduction for legacy duty or 
otherwise, will not authorise th€ payment 
of the income tax out of the testator's 
estate. A bequest to pay a clear yearly 
sum, free from all deductions and abate- 
ments whatsoever, does not render the annuity 
payable free from income tax. 

If a testator by his will grants a rent 
charge to be paid free of income tax, the 
annuitant is entitled to have the full amount 
paid without deduction of the tax. When 
a testator directs an annuity to be paid 
out of his personal estate " without any 
deduction whatever," the income tax is 
payable by the person who receives the 

A testator by will directed his trustees 
to pay to his widow during her life the annual 
sum of ;^500, " free from legacy duty and 
other deductions," and it was held that the 
annuity was subject to income tax, to be 
paid out of the annuity itself. 

Occupation of Police Station 

A police superintendent who is obliged 
to live in a house within the boundary of 
the police station, but separated from it 
by a wall, he keeping the keys of it and 
furnishing it, and a deduction being made 
from his salary for its use, is not liable to 
pay income tax in respect of it. 

To be continued. 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclopaedia tells what woman has done and is doing in 

the artistic world ; how she may study, and how attain success there. Authoritative writers 

are contributing articles on : 




Art Educalio7i in England 

Musical Education 

Famoiis Books by Women 

Art Education Ab^-oad 

Strcdying Abroad 

Famous Poems by Women 

Scholarships. Exhibitions 

Musical Scholarships 

Tales from the Classics 

Modern Illustration 

Practical Notes on the Choice 

Stories of Famous Women 

The Amateur Artist 

of Instruments 


Decorative Art 

The Musical Education of 

The Lives of Women Poets, 

Applied Arts, etc. 

Children, etc. 

etc., etc. 




In the following article, Madame Blanche Marchesi, the 
famous daughter of a world-famous mother, advises girls 
who aspire to success in operatic singing. As Madame 
Marchesi began her career as a teacher at the age of 
fifteen, and has been before the public as a singer in every 
Continental capital, there can be no doubt as to her quali- 
fications. She was one of her mother s most brilliant 
pupils, and among the number of those pupils are included 
Ada Crossley, Melba, and innumerable other ''stars!' 

TThere was never a time, I think, when so 
^ many girls were anxious to go upon the 
operatic stage as now ; and, naturally, they 
all desire to succeed. 

For success as a singer a girl must have a 
certain look. I do not mean necessarily 
beauty. It is something in her face, some- 
thing in her manner, something in her general 
appearance. It is unmistakable. The 
moment I glance at a girl I can tell whether 
she has it or not. If, when I look at her, she 
appears to me to be a Madame Nobody or a 
Miss Nothing-at-all, I know how heavily 
handicapped she is. 

A Voice is Not All 

Still, I do not say right away that she will 
not succeed. I say to myself : " We will see 
if she has the other qualities developed on 
so colossal a scale that they will simply 
wipe out the disadvantage of lacking the 
all-important quality I have spoken of, and 
still compel the public admiration." 

The first of these qualities is the voice. 

Now, a voice is one thing, and ability to 
sing is another thing. Most people seem to 


think that the two things are one 
They are not. They are two things. 

I have known singers who sing without 
art, but their voice has been so magnificent, 
so wonderful, that they have carried their 
audience away with it. They have succeeded, 
even though they did not possess any of the 
other great qualities. 

Good Health a Necessity 

Another all-important factor is health. I 
can tell at a glance whether a girl is really 
healthy or not. If the first qualification for 
success as a singer is to please, the second 
undoubtedly is health. I have often had 
girls come to me who have had every 
qualification requisite to make a successful 
career but health. Those girls never could 
succeed. Health is the foundation on which a 
successful career in opera or on the platform 
must be built. A singer must not be in a state 
of collapse just when she has to give out all 
her strength and vitality. If you cannot sing 
when people want you to do so, they will 
soon l^ave off wanting you. Therefore, 
health is a vital necessity. 



Another important thing to which I always 
look is character. The moment you see a 
face — if you study these things — you can 
tell a great deal about the character. You 
will see evidences of inborn weakness if they 
are there. You cannot live and fight in the 
world if you have some of these faults. They 
are bound to be a hindrance to the career. 

When girls come to me I ask them a good 
many questions, such as : " Are you stub- 
born ? " "Do you find that you lack this or 
that or the other quality ? " 


I also notice their hands. Sometimes girls 
come to me with their nails ragged and ugly, 
showing that they bite them. Nail-biting 
betokens a lack of control of power. If 
girls cannot control their powers, they get no 
lessons from me. 

This lack of control may show itself in 
many different ways. I have only instanced 
one. People who cannot get over one diffi- 
culty, who have not steadfastness enough to 
conquer their faults, will alw;ays take the 
way of least resistance. They will always do 
the thing they want to do, the thing that 
pleases them, and the thing they ought not 
to do. Just as men who go in for a military 
career are drilled and drilled and drilled, 
until they are made to do what they ought 
to do, so a girl who wants to succeed as a 
singer must consent to be drilled and drilled 
and drilled, until she has developed strength 
of character. 

It is impossible to overrate the value of 
character as a factor in achieving success in 

When old Rossini was asked what qualities 
were necessary for a woman to win success 
as an opera singer, he answered : " There are 
three qualities. The first is voice, the second 
is voice, the third is voice." 

When the same question was put to my 
mother's great teacher, the famous Garcia, 
he, too, said : " Three things are necessary. 
The first is character, the second is character, 
and the third is character." 

If you ask me what things are necessary, I 
say: " Voice ai2^ character." 

If you asked me further whether a girl 
could succeed with a voice, but without 
character, I should say " No," unhesitatingly 
and emphatically. 

If you asked me if a girl could succeed 
with character and without a voice, I should 
say: "Sometimes, yes." 


It is character which makes and does 
everything. You can do nothing on the 
operatic stage without character. It enables 
you to make yourself liked. It enables you to 
adhere to your own line, not to waver first 
to this side and then to the other, but to 
keep straight on along the path you have 
mapped out for yourself, when you are once 
satisfied that you are going the right way. 
I have had girls working for me who seemed 
to be going to make a big success, when 

suddenly their characters failed and people 
have led them away. Their inherent weak- 
ness of character was traded upon, and they 

Such people always make me think of the 
famous fable of the man and his son and the 
ass. Most people know it. Still, I may 
recall it to the girl who wants to succeed. 

A man and his son were taking an ass, 
their only possession, to sell at the market, 
and were trudging by its side. 

Presently they met a man who said : 
" What fools those people are ! They are 
walking by an ass when they might be 

" That's true," said the father. So he 
mounted the ass and rode on. 

" Just look at that man ! " said the next 
one they passed. " He's a nice father ! He's 
riding the ass and taking it easily, while his 
young son has to tire himself trudging by his 

" That's true," said the father. So he 
dismounted, and put his son on the ass. 

They had only gone a little way when they 
met a third man, who exclaimed : 

" Well, I never ! There's that boy riding 
the ass while his father, who is so much older, 
has to walk. I never heard such a thing! " 

" Yes," said the father; " that man is right 
too." So he stopped the donkey and got up 
on it, with his son in front of him. 

They had not ridden very far when they 
met a fourth man. " What cruelty ! " he 
said. " Two people riding a donkey which 
they are better able to carry than the donkey 
is to carry them ! " 

A Story and Its Moral 

The old man stopped the donkey, got off, 
and made his son get off. Then they tied its 
legs together, slung it over a pole, and, putting 
the pole on their shoulders, trudged on, 
carrying the donkey. The donkey did not 
like it. It struggled to get free. As they 
were crossing a bridge, it did get free, and it 
fell over into the water and was drowned. 
So the man succeeded in pleasing no one, and 
lost his ass into the bargain. 

That is what I have seen happen in the 
case of girls over and over again. Everybody 
they meet has a word of advice to offer. And 
it is not always disinterested advice. The 
friends have some relation who is giving 
lessons, and they feel that if she could get the 
young singer, with her beautiful voice, as a 
pupil, it would make her fortune. These 
people notice the weakness of the girl's 
character, and begin to talk to her. 

I need not describe the way in which they 
talk. Anybody with the least imagination 
will guess the sort of talk. It is intended to 
lead up to the young singer asking what they 

" Well, if I were you, I'd take counsel with 
someone else beside your teacher. It's well 
to have a second opinion, and two heads are 
always better than one." 

Naturally the girl says; "Whom do you 
advise me to consult ? " 



" Well," replies the? disinterested friend, 
" I'll introduce you to a woman who, I think, 
is the ideal person to help you at the present 

In due course the introduction is made. 
The young singer is probably asked to meet 
the teacher at lunch or tea. They have a 
delightfully confidential chat. 

" Of course," says the teacher, when she 
hears the name of the person with whom the 
girl is working, 
" you're in good 
hands — splendid 
hands ; couldn't 
be in better ! " 

It would not do, 
of course, to run 
down the old 
teacher, as that 
might awaken sus- 
picion, and every 
effort of the new 
teacher is directed 
to disarm that. 

" Still, if you 
were to come to 
me, I think I could 
show you how to 
do this a little 
easier, or that a 
little better." 

Now, these two 
words " show j^ou " 
mean a lesson. 

The girl goes, 
and is shown. The 
new teacher lays 
herself out to be 
charming to the 
girl. She invites her 
to her house, pro- 
bably gives a little 
dinner or party for 
her, takes her out, 
and gradually in- 
duces her to leave 
the school at which 
she has learnt all 
she knows, in order 
to go on with the 
second teacher. 

In time, a third 
teacher does just 
the same as the 
second ; then a 
fourth does the 
same as the third, 
and a fifth gets her 
away from the 
fourth, and so it 
goes on. Phot(' 

Here you have the picture of the girl who 
disappears. Like the old man, she listens 
to every word that is spoken to her. She 
tries to do everything that everybody says. 
The result is that, like the old man, she loses 
the one thing she had in the world — her 
career — and is drowned in the stream of 
oblivion instead of crossing it safely by the 
bridge of success. 

On the other hand, if a girl falls into 
proper hands, has a really good teacher, 
abides by the advice given by that teacher, 
and never fails to take the things which offer, 
she is well started on the high-road to success. 

She will often have to accept work for the 
sake of her reputation, and seize the oppor- 
tunity of singing where she may be heard by 
the right people, even though there is no 
immediate financial return for it. In this 

world there are wheels within wheels ; and 
often, by setting one small wheel in motion, 
a larger and distant wheel may be made to 
go round. • 

Let the young singer who has come safely 
through her period of probation in the 
school remember that fact, and remember, 
in addition, that the chief agent in the world 
is the public. The public makes and the 

THE ARTS 3798 

public destroys a reputation ; the public 
decides, and the public creates a demand. 
The best way, therefore, for a young singer 
to win success is by appearing before the 
public and singing at concerts as often as 
it is possible. Very often, it is true, engage- 
ments are made through the agents, but the 
agents are of little use for making an artist's 
reputation. They are of great use in making 
their own business. 

The agents of olden days were really 
impresarios. Thev made an artist's reputa- 
tion, as Strakosch made Patti. To-day, how- 
ever, we have few, if any, such impresarios. 

If a girl desires to turn her success into 
money, she must be able to spend money. 
Many great artistic reputations have been 
made by money. Obviously, I cannot 
mention names. Still, it is a well-known fact 
that rich people have given so much money 
for the necessary advertising of a great artist, 
someone with undoubted talent. 

Points which Make for Success 

One must have talent. That goes without 
saying. No one can succeed in the long run 
without it, for the public knows instinctively 
what is good art, and the charlatan is bound 
to be found out, however much money may 
be spent. So I am afraid that the girl who 
wishes to succeed as an opera singer must 
have money behind her to pay for the 
necessary expenses of bringing her promi- 
nently forward. 

With all her training and with all her 
advantages, let the girl who wants to succeed 
avoid a " swollen head." Such a possession 
always makes its owner disagreeable to meet, 
and she will be avoided as far as possible. 
If, however, a girl is supremely gifted, she 
may succeed in spite of it ; but how few 
young singers are there in the world who are 
supremely ^reat ! 

The question of training is an entirely 
different matter. No real education can be 
completed under three or four years. To talk 

about a few finishing lessons with a fine 
teacher is a farce. Yet how often do girls 
come and ask for them ! 

'these three or four years that I have 
spoken about are only the rough work of the 
school. That time will be needed to acquire 
a repertoire of twelve operas, which is the 
least any girl ought to have who wants to 
succeed in her career. And when she 
knows those operas, she must know also 
exactly what she means to do and what 
she can do. 

Knowing One's Limitations 

It is no use, if you are a bird, wanting to be 
an elephant, and it is no good, if you are 
an elephant, wanting to be a bird, or trying, 
if you are one thing, to be the other. Here, 
again, character comes in by enabling a girl 
to do exactly what she is best fitted for, and 
by giving ballast to the mind. 

A very important point, which is not often 
understood by beginners, is never to sing 
when in bad form before anybody, but 
especially before agents or directors. 

Beginners think: " I must follow the call. 
I must not lose an opportunity." 

A mistake, a great mistake ! These busi- 
ness people whp hear singers are very tired 
creatures. They have no time to waste, and 
Tittle patience, and they only judge what is 
presented to them at the moment. A singer 
who begins by saying : " Excuse my being 
husky, but it is bad weather, and I have just 
had a cold, but last week I had a marvellous 
voice," will never be believed, even if she 
speaks the truth. 

Just as little will the public and the agents 
believe a singer if she has to disappoint at a 
concert on account of illness. Nobody thinks 
a singer is ever ill. 

Nevertheless, I give this further advice: 
whatever may be the consquences, never sing 
when you are ill. No one will be grateful for 
the sacrifice, and the singer may ruin her 
voice for life. 




Training in the Schools Entirely Free— Daylight and Evening Schools— The Art Library— Scholar- 
ships and Prizes — The Armitage Prizes — Instruction from Famous Artists 

TThe Royal Academy Schools offer every 
opportunity and advantage to the clever 
and ambitious student. 

A successful candidate having passed the 
necessary tests and examinations — in which 
the display of a considerable degree of excel- 
lence is required — is privileged to work under 
the immediate guidance of the greatest 
living exponents of British painting, sculp- 
ture, or architecture of the day, each one a 
Royal Academician or an Associate of the 
Royal Academy. 

Students are eligible also, if under a certain 
age, to compete for a large number of valur 
able scholarships, medals, and other prizes. 

There are no fees whatever to be paid, for 
all instruction at the Academy Schools is 
entirely free, students being merely required 
to provide their own paint, canvases, and 
drawing materials. 

The Royal Academy Schools were first 
opened on January 2, 1769— the year 
after the Royal Academy was founded — in 
rooms in Pall Mall, providing an occasion 
for the president. Sir Joshua Reynolds, to 
deliver one of the most famous of his 
renowned " Discourses." For nearly a 
hundred years the schools undertook the 
arduous duty of initiating young would-be 
artists into the theory and practice of the 



fine arts. No fewer than 
seventy-seven students 
entered during the first year, 
and since its inauguration 
over 5,000 have passed 
through the school, the 
attendance averaging from 
100 to 150 students annually. 

The schools began as 
" An Antique Academy and 
School for the Living 
Model." In 18 15, the 
School of Painting, was 
added ; but the special 
Schools of Sculpture and 
Architecture were not 
opened until 1871. 

The present school build- 
ings — which were erected in 
1866 upon what were once 
the gardens of Burlington 
House — are magnificent, 
and besides providing a 
large number of well-lighted studios for 
daylight work, the evening schools are fitted 
with a most up-to-date and elaborate 
installation of electric light. 

The schools have what is now probably 
the finest collection of antique casts in 
existence, and the walls of the studios and 
the passages are hung with beautiful re- 
productions of the Parthenon Frieze, and 
with many fragments of Greek bas-reliefs 
of rare beauty. Reproductions of the work 
of Michael Angelo and other great Italians 
are also at hand to provide still further 
inspiration for the young artist. 

The Library 

The splendid Art Library of the Royal 
Academy, containing no fewer than 7,000 
volumes, many of them extremely rare and 
valuable, is daily at the disposal of the 
students from two to six, and pictorial 
competitions, with set subjects that require 
considerable historical and literary research 
are special features of the school work. 

A time-honoured institution at the Royal Academy Schools ; 

bun boy 

le daily morning visit of ihe 

Although Angelica Kaufmann — whose 
mural paintings now adorn the entrance hall 
to Burlington House — and Mary Moser had 
the honour of being placed amongst the 
original thirty-six foundation members of the 
Royal Academy, no woman artist has since 
been elected an R.A., although Professor 
Herkomer only defeated Lady Butler, whose 
name came up for election the same year, by 
a single vote ; and it was not until- the year 
i860 that " the powers that be," after much 
deliberation, decided to open their doors to 
women students. 

At the present time (191 1) the numbers of 
men and women students are about equally 
balanced, while the feminine members of the 
Painting School carry off their full share of 
scholarships and prizes. Amongst the list of 
Gold Medallists in painting emblazoned upon 
the walls of the entrance to the schools, 
which includes the names of John Hoppner, 
John Everett Millais, Frank Dicksee, Harry 
La Thangue, and Ralph Peacock, are those 
of three women students, Louisa Starr, who 
won the Gold Medal 
and travelling 
studentship, the 
highest honour of 
the year, in 1867; 
Jessie Macgregor, 
who took it in 187 1 ; 
and Miss M. H. W. 
Robilliard, who 
gained it in 1909, 
each of them work- 
ing in open com- 
petition with the 
men students of the 

The Armitage 
Prize of £^0 and a 
bronze medal for a 
design for a figure- 
picture in mono- 
chrome on a set 
subject was recently 

A portrait'Dainting class in the Upper School, a branch of art in which women arc often peculiarly proficient WOn lOr three years 



A class of girl students of the Upper School workini from the costume model 

of whom 

running by women students — by Hilda 
Lennard, in 1907, for a design showing 
" The Angel Delivering St. Peter from 
Prison " ; by Amy G. Fry, in 1908, for 
" Elijah Raising the Widow's Son " ; by 
• Estella Cauziani, in 1909, for " The Angel 
Destroying the Assyrian Host." On another 
occasion the first prize was won b}^ May 
Dorothy Maltby, for " Joseph Interpreting 
Pharaoh's Dream." Exacting subjects, 
indeed, for a student to be required to 
portray from memory and imagination alone. 
A second Armitage Prize of ;^io is also 
awarded for the next best picture, and 
students who have qualified to compete for 
the Armitage Prizes are given three days in 
which to execute their designs at the schools. 
On the first day of the competition the 
students who are about to compete are shut 
up together in the gallery, each one armed 
with a packet of luncheon, in addition to 
painting materials. 
The subject is given 
out, and each com- 
petitor is required 
to leave a rough 
drawing of the 
exact arrangement 
of the figures with 
the keeper before 
leaving in the 
afternoon, and this 
arrangement must 
be rigidly adhered 
to during the two 
following days in 
working out the 
finished picture to 
be sent in for com- 

The sketch win- 
ning the first prize 
becomes the pro- 
perty of the Royal 
Academy, and is 
hung in a place of 
honour in the corri- 
dor of the school. 
In T910, Miss 

Lindsay Williams 
was the chief 
feminine winner of 
laurel wreaths, 
gaining the Cres- 
wick Prize of £^0, 
which is annually 
offered for a land- 
scape in oils, 
besides various 
other awards. 

The system of 
tuition at the 
schools remains 
that which was 
originally adopted 
In' the members of 
the Royal Academy 
— namely, educa- 
tion by a rotation 
of visitors, each 
turn of office last- 
that students, for* 

one 01 wnom takes a 

ing for a month, so 

instance, in the Painting School will have 

the privilege of receiving instruction from 

such men as Sir William Richmond, John 

Sargent, Henry Pegram, William Orpen, and 

George Henry, in the course of a single year 

Besides the visitors — four for architecture, 
ten for drawing, ten for painting, and five 
for sculpture, each year — there is a perma- 
nent keeper appointed to the schools, with 
two curators to assist him. 

Professors are also appointed to deliver a 
series of lectures on painting, sculpture, 
anatomy, chemistry, and perspective annu- 
ally, and students of painting are required to 
attend one course on each subject during their 
first year at the schools. 

The rules and regulations for the admission 
of students can be obtained at the office of 
the Royal Academy in Burlington House. 

Students in the Lower School drawing and painting from a cast. The collection of casts from the antique 
in the Royal Academy Schools is probably the finest in existence 



This section comprises articles showing how women may help in all branches of religious work. All 
the principal charities will be described, as well as home and foreign missions. The chief headings are : 

Woman's Work in Religion 

Zenana Missions 
Home Missions, etc. 
Great Leaders of Religious 


Ho7V to Work for Great 

Great Charity Organisations 
Local Charities, etc. 
The Women of the Bible 


How to Manage a Church 

What to Alake for Bazaars 
Garden Bazaars, etc. 
How to Manage a Sunday-School 



The Noble Daughter of a Noble Mother— Queen Mary's Practical Training in Christian Work— Her 
Mother's Favourite Quotation— What Her Majesty Says About Real Charitable Work— The Needle- 
work Guild— A Scheme of Great Utility — The Royal Children as Workers in the Cause of Charity — 
Interesting Incidents and Amusing Stories — Queen Mary's Great Field of Work 

"To those acquainted with the life and 
work of the late Duchess of Teck ; 
who have learned of the many beneficent 
schemes for the masses in which she was the 
prime mover ; who know that she spared 
no effort to lighten the burdens of the poor ; 
that her purse, her time, and her remarkable 
powers of organisation were dedicated to 
their service, it is scarcely surprising that 
her daughter, Queen Mary, who was her 
mother's constant companion and associate 
in charitable work, has become a leader 
among practical Christians. Quite recently 
(191 1) we have had a striking illustration of 
her Majesty's thought for others. It may 
be remembered that a cheque for nearly 
;^ 1 4, 000 was presented to the Queen as a 
Coronation gift from the nation's Marys. 

After carefully considering what she should 
do with the gift, her Majesty decided to 
devote the whole of the proceeds of the 
fund to charity. Yielding, however, to the 
wish of the committee, she decided to accept 
a personal gift of garter jewels and portraits, 
by an eminent artist, of the King and 
Prince of Wales, but stipulated that the 
balance of the money — ;^I2,500 — should be 
devoted to the establishment of a holiday 
home for working girls in connection with 
the London Girls' Club Union, of which Her 
Majesty is the Patroness. 

It was during her early days at Kensington 
Palace that Queen Mary was trained to take 

an interest in the sick and suffering. Her 
mother, among other things, did a great 
deal of good among the poor in the back 
streets near the palace. On one occasion, 
she intended to send a dinner to a destitute 
family, and, calling her young daughter 
to her, she said : " May, dear, I wish you to 
go with your governess to the house of these 
unfortunate but respectable people, so that 
you may learn what it means to have a meal 
when one has been starving." Many were 
the object lessons of this kind that Queen 
Mary learned in her childhood, and there are 
hundreds to-day who have cause to bless 
the names of the Duchess of Teck and her 
daughter for their kindly thoughts and 
gracious deeds. 

And many are the stories told at Richmond 
of the Queen's kindness of heart when a 
young girl to the people about White Lodge, 
Richmond Park. A poor lad dying of 
consumption in one of the cottages, found 
Princess May a daily visitor. She gave time 
and trouble to her self-imposed task, and 
frequently sat by the bed of the sick lad 
and talked to him. On the Sunday morning 
on which he died, she stooped and kissed him, 
and mingled her tears with those of the 
family around the bed. 

These, of course, are but small incidents 
in the life of her Majesty, but they tend to 
illustrate the training of the mind of the girl 
who was afterwards to become our Queen, 



and who, since her mother died, in 1894. 
has neglected no efforts to further the objects 
of the charitable movements m which the 
Duchess was so keenly interested. And her 
Majesty's success in this direction is due to 
the fact that she is a woman who takes 
a keen, practical interest in any movement 
with which her name is associated. lo 
take up charitable work, as some ladies 
do " she once remarked somewhat severely, 
" because they feel that they would like some 
new pastime and experience, is worse than 
giving charity indiscriminately. Charitable 
work is a very great and noble thing when 
done in a whole-hearted manner." And 
then her Majesty proceeded to quote her 
mother's favourite lines : 

If each man in his measure. 

Would do a brother's part. 
To cast a ray of sunlight 

Into a brother's heart : 
How changed would be our country ! 

How changed would be our poor ! 
And then might Merrie England 

Deserve her name once more. 

Many a ray of sunlight has penetrated 
the drab existence of the poor through the 
kindly efforts of Queen Mary. To quote from 
Sir Clement Kinloch-Cooke's book on the 
life of her Majesty : 

" The poor of this country never had a 
truer friend than Queen Mary, or one more 
desirous of doing all in her power to brighten 
their lives and help them in their difficulties. 
Her whole life speaks of kindly thoughts and 
kindly deeds ; it affords her pleasure to give 
pleasure to others." 

Some Beneficent Charities 

Reference has already been made to the 
fact that her Majesty has worked energetic- 
ally on behalf of the charities in which her 
mother was so deeply interested, and 
to-day we find Queen Mary sparing no 
efforts to increase the usefulness, of such 
movements as the London Needlework 
Guild, the Royal Cambridge Asylum for the 
Widows of Soldiers, the Princess Mary 
Adelaide Home for the Training of Young 
Servants, the Princess Mary Memorial 
Home for Working Women, the Rich- 
mond Royal Hospital, and the Village 
Homes at Addlestone, where children whose 
parents are in prison are kept. With regard 
to the latter institution, by the way, it might 
be mentioned that it was owing to her 
Majesty's business capabilities that these 
homes were placed on a sound financial basis. 
They were a dying concern when she resusci- 
tated them a few years ago, and placed in 
charge a matron who is regarded as the most 
able in this kind of work in the country. 

These, however, are but a few of the 
charitable movements in which her 
Majesty is interested. As a matter of fact, 
the public will never know how much time 
Queen Mary devotes to charity in various 
forms ; for she prefers to work quietly and 

One of the most important charities with 

which Queen Mary is connected is the 
Needlework Guild, in which her mother took 
the deepest interest. It was the late 
Lady Wolverton, one of the Duchess's most 
intimate friends, who founded the guild in 
1882. The guild is formed of " groups " of 
ladies, each group having a president, who 
in turn finds five vice-presidents, and these 
again must each have at least ten associates. 
Every one of these ladies undertakes to make 
or provide two useful items of wear for a 
man, woman, or child. The Queen herself 
is president of one group, which last year 
(1910) furnished no fewer than 15,333 articles 
of attire. The total number of garments sent 
in and exhibited at the Imperial Institute 
in November of that year was 54,070, which 
were duly distributed among not only 
institutions and hospitals, but also the poor 
of parishes throughout the country. The 
King himself gave fully a thousand things 
in warm flannel. 

How the Royal Children Help 

The Prince of Wales, too, made a very 
useful contribution in some dozens of pairs 
of stout socks for lads and men and cloth 
caps. There were also a number of woollen 
comforters made on frames by Prince George 
and Prince Henry, while Princess Mary, 
who, in 1 9 10, assumed the vice-presidency 
of a group largely composed of young ladies 
about her own age, was responsible for some 
700 articles of clothing for boys and girls. 
For, just as the Duchess of Teck secured 
the practical help of her daughter, so 
Queen Mary has enrolled Princess Mary 
among her helpers in order to increase the 
usefulness of* the guild. Some idea of the 
work accomplished by the Duchess and Queen 
Mary in the latter's early days may be 
gathered from a letter written by her Grace 
in 1887, wherein she speaks of two whole 
months being occupied in the work, and how 
the parcels filled the house. " May," she 
wrote, " knelt so long just at first over the 
huge parcels and bundles that she very 
nearly gave herself housemaid's knee. 
Indeed, she worked so energetically that she 
quite knocked herself up. May contributed 
461 articles. Very good for her first year aS 

The Queen was then twenty years of age, 
and since then, year after year, she has 
contributed many garments made with her 
own hands to the guild. In fact, it is said 
that she makes crochet woollen garments 
for poor children at the rate of sixty a 
year, and, on being asked how she could 
possibly make so large a number, replied : 

" I have always one of the little petticoats 
on hand in each of my sitting-rooms, and I 
take it up whenever I have a few minutes 
to spare ; then, in the evenings, my husband 
reads to me, and I work and get through a 
great deal." 

Apart from the actual giving of clothes, 
however, the guild fulfils another useful 
purpose. It has provided hundreds of poor 
mothers with admirable object lessons as to 



how children's clothes should be made. The 
simple patterns which the vice-presidents 
urge their associates to use can be easily 
copied, and in materials, work, and trimming 
the frock or pinafore or baby clothes are 
practical models that it should be within 
the powers of any woman, knowing how to 
use a needle and thread, to copy. Then it is 
possible to make up outfits for young girls 
going into service, or to provide a man whose 
clothes have got 
shabby while out of 
work with a suit 
or boots in which he 
can take up a new 

And here it might 
be mentioned, as an 
illustration of her 
Majesty's enthus- 
iasm, that she per- 
sonally attends the 
exhibition and classi- 
fication of the 
articles each year, 
and usually arrives 
at the Imperial In- 
stitute, where the 
work is generally 
carried out, early in 
the morning to begin 
her task. She does 
not even leave for 
luncheon, having 
that meal served in 
the building. Sir 
Clement Kinloch- 
Cooke, in his book, 
recalls an incident 
which shows how 
thoroughly Queen 
Mary works on be- 
half of the guild, 
and also the interest 
the late King Edward 
took in the work. 
Happening to be at 
the Imperial In- 
stitute on one of the 
days set apart for 
sorting and unpack- 
ing, he was informed 
that the Princess of 
Wales was in the 
room below. 

" I will go and see 
her," he said, and 
walked towards the 
door of the room. 

Gently pushing it open and looking in, King 
Edward saw his daughter-in-law, her dress 
covered with a neat apron, and in her hand a 
pair of scissors with which she was about to 
attack the formidable parcels in front of her. 
Her face was radiant with pleasure, proving 
that her heart was in the work. King Edward 
did not go in, but said in a voice of evident 
satisfaction : " Excellent, excellent ! " 

The same enthusiasm marks Queen Mary's 
efforts to alleviate distress in other directions. 

Years ago, before the many funds for 
sending children to the country and the sea- 
side had reached their present developments, 
her Majesty was active in promoting this 
movement, while for years past she has 
worked indefatigably on behalf of the 
Children's Happy Evenings Association. 
As Lady Grand President of the League of 
Mercy, too, she has performed duties of a 
kind particularly congenial to her nature, and 

Their Majesties King George and Queen Mary visiting the patients in the London Hospital. Her Majesty 

has been renowned from earliest girlhood for her whole-hearted devotion to and unflagging zeal in the 

sacred cause of charity. Wherever possible, she gives her invaluable personal service and patronage 

those who have attended the annual garden- 
parties at Marlborough House given to the 
league have noted the genuine pleasure 
which her Majesty has taken in promoting 
the welfare of that excellent organisation. 

As Princess of Wales. Her Majesty has more 
than once visited one of the centres and seen 
the children. She passed among them and 
entered into their enjoyments as do the ladies 
who so cheerfully give "their time to this work. 
To be continued. 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia gives instruction and practical information 

on every kind of recreation. 

The chief authorities on all such subjects have been consulted, and contribute exhaustive 

articles every fortnight, so that, when the Encyclopaedia is completed, the section will form a 

standard reference library on woman s recreation. 



Lawn Tennis 
Winter Sports 
Basket Ball 
J\ozvin,Q\ .etc. 



Chip Carving 

Bent Iron Work 

Painting on Satin 

Painting on Pottery 

Poker Work 


Cane Basket Work, etc. 


Card Gaines 


Fortune Telling by Cards 

Cycling, etc., etc. 



Second Prize Figure Skating Championship of the World, igo2, London ; Lady Figure Skating Champion 0/ the International 

Skating Union, igo6, Davos, igoy, Vienna ; Winner of the Ladies' Figure Skating Competition, Olympic Games, igo8, London '. 

Figure Skating Champion of Great Britain, igoj, igo4, London, etc.. etc. 

" A THIRD young lady said 

^^ and a fourth expressed 
it was swan-like.". — 
The Pickwick Papers. 

Figure skating as we 
know it to-day is the 
most modern of sports. 
A few decades ago, move- 
ments which we now class 
among the elements were 
the acme of experts. 

We have all heard the 
oft-told tale (the grand- 
father of the narrator 
usually being the apocry- 
phal person) of skaters 
who could write their 
names on the ice, and the 
early historians of the 
art with one accord set 
forth similar fictions. 

The fact is that no 
skater has ever been able 
to write his or her or 
anyone's name on the ice, 
or to do more than sug- 
gest in such attempts a 
faint resemblance to 
such letters as E, L, S, O, 
etc., and the performer 
and admiring or partial 
friends may, by making 
believe very much (like 
the Marchioness with 

it was elegant, the orange-peel), have professed to distin- 
her opinion that guish certain characters. 

— — — _- 1 As long ago as 1772, 

one Robert Jones 

described the edges, the 

gt forward change, the 8, 

W and the outside forward 

8 3. which he fancifully 

■ j^^^ designated the "Figure 

m. H^^ *^^ ^ Heart on one leg." 

^^^*^Jr It was not, however, 

^M^^^^ until about 1870 that 

^^^H^^^ Messrs. Vandervell and 

^^^V^^^ Witham, and later Messrs. 

^^^F ^^^^ Monier Williams and 

^^^^ ^^^ Pidgeon, evolved the 

J^^^k ^ sequence of turns which 

j^^^^^k we know as rockers, 

^^^^^B counters, brackets, loops, 

^^^^^^B During the last two 

^^^^^^B decades, owing to the 

^^^^^^^B introduction of artificial 

^^^^^^^B rinks London, 

^^^^^^^Hj^ Glasgow, and Manchester, 

^^^^^^^^^ a new generation of 

^Un skaters has arisen to 

1^2 carry the art still further, 

^ W and now the best of our 

lady skaters are fully 

equal to their sisters of 

any country. 

In skating, as in all 

Sycrs sports, progress is easier 

The two'foot pirouette, by Mr 

and more rapid if the learner is provided 
from the outset with the best possible 

For the international style the best skates 
are those which have a rounded toe, or 
prow, in which a row of small teeth is cut 
to enable toe spins ^nd pirouettes to be 
performed easily, and without damage to 
the ice. 

The radius of such skates should not be 
more than five feet, with acute-angled 
blades of a width of a quarter of an inch, 
tapering very slightly to the toe and heel. 

We have found 
that the skates 
made by Messrs. 
Deane, 104, 
London, are 
always to be 
relied on. They 
are rather ex- 
pensive — about 
two guineas a 
p a i r — b u t it 
must be remem- 
bered that good 
skates last a 

These skates 
are screwed to 
the boots. The 
old system of 
strapping, so 
effective in the 
production of 
cold feet and 
chilblains, is now 
obsolete. For 
English style 
skating a differ- 
ent type is used. 
The best are 
known as the 
Mount Charles. 
These also are 
screwed on, and 
have right- 
angled blades with a radius of six or seven feet. 
Next in importance to the skates are the boots 
to be used with them ; and here an apparent 
extravagance appears, for one should have 
a pair of boots for skating and nothing 
else. These must on no account be thick 
or clumsy. They should fit closely, ,and 
reach to about the swell of the calf, and 
be made of ordinary, never of patent, 
leather. The heels should be flat, and not 
more than an inch in height. 

Another important item is the choice of 
an appropriate costume. Nothing should 
be worn which restricts the movements. 
Every true sportswoman knows that in 
choosing such a costume it is impossible 
to follow the fashions. For skating, wear 
a skirt of fairly heavy material, weighted 
at the hem with a band of some close fur. 
It should be about two and a half yards 
wide, and long enough to cover the top of 
the boot. With it can be worn a loose 


coat ; and to complete a suitable costume, 
wear a close-fitting soft fur hat. 

A long skirt is sure to be the cause of a 
fall, and a dangerous one, if the wearer is 
skating backwards. 

And now as to the first steps. Beginners 
in skating, as in other matters, should work 
out their own salvation, and bravely go 
alone almost from the first, remembering 
that tumbles must be endured, and that 
they very rarely result in 'more than 
a momentary loss of dignity, except — and 
here a most important note oif warning — to 

those learners 
who are 
enough to wear 
tight or heavily 
boned corsets. 

If such im- 
pediments to all 
effective move- 
ment are worn, 
skating can 

Pair'skating— Mr. and Mrs E. Syers 

never be 
acquired. In 
this sport it is 
necessary for 
the body to be 
quite free and 
lissom, and for 
the back and 
waist muscles to 
have entire 

The reason 
why many girls 
fall so as to 
bring the back 
of the head in 
contact with the 
ice is that they 
wear tight 
corsets. The 
body, when so 
encased, cannot 
be bent or the 
back rounded in the instinctively protective 
attitude which we see our unembarrassed 
male companions adopt. For the first few 
days the novice will do little more than 
shuffle ; and at this stage the almost invari- 
able lament concerning weak ankles will be 
heard, and a consequent demand for the 
artificial support of straps. 

Remember that the ankles are not weak, 
but that the muscles which are being used 
are at other times more or less quiescent, 
and that they cannot at once respond to 
the unaccustomed demands made upon 

Do not be discouraged if at first your 
feet double under you in a feeble and discon- 
certing manner. Rejoice rather that your 
muscles are sufficiently supple and flexible 
to permit of this, as those whose ankles are 
stiff and unyielding rarely learn to skate well. 
Never use straps or artificial supports of 
any kind, but persevere. The writer walked 



on the sides of her feet for several weeks 
before the previously little-used muscles 

were able to 

When the pre- 
liminary shuffling 
period is passed, the 
learner will be 
anxious to acquire 
the rudiments of the 
art, to learn the 
equivalents of finger 
exercises and scales 
which are to lead to 
mastery of rockers, 
counters, loops, etc., 
and so on to the con- 
certed movements 
which are known as 
" free skating." 

The sequence of 
the elements and 
figures in their order 
of relative difficulty 
is as follows : First 
come the edges and 
changes ; then the 
■ 3's, the loops, the 
brackets, the rockers 
and counters ; then 
follow the changes of 
edge in combination 
with the foregoing 
turns. This list com- 
prises all the so-called 
"school figures." 
When the learner has 
mastered these, 
everything is possible 
to her. 

It may be said 
that very few skaters 
of either sex in any 
country ever learn 
all the school figures. 
To have achieved 
these is to be a skater 
of the first class, and 
such are few. 

Before directions 
are given as to the 
method of skating 
the different figures, 
a few words as to 
the several styles of 
skating are necessary. 
There are two 
schools, the prin- 
ciples and practice of 
which are entirely 
different. The one 
is . adhered to by a 
proportion of English 
skaters, and the 
other, known as the 
international style, is 
followed by every 
other country where 
skating is practised, 
and is that in which 

R— right 

L— left. 

f — forwards. 

Figure. No. 

RK— Rockfir. 
C— Cotnter. 









b— backwards, I T— Three, 
o— outside. I LP— Loop, 

i— inside. I B— Bracket. 


Rfo— Lfc/ . 
Rfi— Lfi . 
Rbo — Lbo 
Rbi— Lbi , 

Rfoi— Lfio 
Lfoi— Rfio 
Rboi — Lbio 
Lboi — Rboo 

RfoTbi— LfoTbi 
RfoTbi— LbiTfo 
LfoTbi— RbiTfo 
RfiTbo— LboTfi 
LfiTbo— RboTfi 

RfoTbiTfo— LfoTbiTfo 
RfiTboTfi— LfiTboTfi 
RboTf iTbo— LboTfiTbo 
RbiTfoTbi— LbiTboTbi 

RfoLPfo— LfoLPfo . 
RboLPbo— LboLPbo 
RbiLPbi— LbiLPbi . 

RfoBbi— LbiBfo 
LfoBbi— RbiBfo 
RfiBbo— LboBfi 
LfiBbo— KboBfi 


RfoiBbo— LboiBfo . 
LboiBbo— RboiBfo . 
RfioBbi— LbioBfi 
LfioBbi— RbioBfi 

RfoTbioTfi— LfiTboiTfo . 
LfoTbioTfi— RfiTboiTfo . 
RboTfioTbi— LbiTfoiTbo . 
LboTfioTbi— RbiTfoiTbo . 


6 a RfoTbiTfoiTboTfi— LfiTboTfioTbiTfo 
b LfoTbiTfoiTboTfi— RfiTboTfioTbiTfo 

7 a RboTfiTboiTfoTbi— LbiTfoTbioTfiTbo 
b LboTfiTboiTfoTbi— RbiTfoTbioTfiTbo 

80 RfoLPfoiLPfi— LfiLPfioLPfo . 

b LfoLPfoiLPfi— RfiLPfioLKo '. 
9 a RboLPbpiLPbi— LbiLPbioLPbo 

6 LboLPboiLPbi— RbiLPbioLPbo 

0« RfoBbioBfi— LfiBboiBfo . 

h LfoBbioBfi— RfiBboiBfo . 
1 a RboBfioBbi— LbiBfoiBbo . 

b LboBfioBbi— RbiBfoiBbo . 




all international competitions and champion- 
ships are 'held. C.English style skating is of 
comparatively recent 
growth. Until about 
1855 English skating, 
as described and 
figured by all con- 
temporary writers 
and artists, was 
almost indistinguish- 
able as regards style 
and position from the 
international style of 

The old books are 
full of accounts of 
gentlemen and ladies 
dancing minuets, 
etc., on skates; and 
the following frag- 
ment from a poem in 
that once fashionable 
periodical H e a t h^s 
" Book of Beauty " 
tells us what was in 
vogue on the Ser- 
pentine in 1835 : 

Say, who were the leaders, 

the gaze of the miUion, 

Who spanned the wide 

channel on iron-bound 


What light unapproach- 
able swam a cotillon 
(In this Anno Domini 
dubbed a quadrille) ? 

What Jersey, looked after 
by mothers and 
What Bligh,what Argyle, 
the e/iie of the set, 

Like Pope's young 
Camilla, fled over the 
waters ? 
What Caulfield spun 
round in a brisk 
pirouette ? 

And we all remember 
the account of the 
celebrated reel ex- 
ecuted by old Wardle, 
Benjamin Allen, and 
Bob Sawyer which 
excited such enthusi- 
asm among the on- 

It appears, how- 
ever, that about 1 855 
a school of skaters 
arose which insisted 
that the arms must 
be kept to the sides, 
the elbows turned in, 
the knees straight, 
legs and feet touch- 
ing. Dancing was 
no more mentioned, 
and even such figures 
as loops and cross- 
cuts were frowned 
upon as " likely to 
place the learner in 
positions which 





No. 1. 

The forward outside eight. This is the figure to be conterri' 
plated by the pupil 

would lead him into- bad habits." The 
principles of the international style are 
briefly : 

" Carriage upright, but not stiff ; the 
body not bent at the waist ; the head up- 
right ; the tracing leg should always be 
somewhat bent to give command of action 
for raising or lowering the body ; the knee 
and toe of the free leg turned outwards, 
the toe always down, the knee slightly 
bent. The arms to swing freely, assisting 
the movement." 

The opinion of the writer on the relative 
merits of the several styles may perhaps 
be accepted as given by one who has a 
thorough and practical experience of both. 

The writer unhesitatingly approves of 
the international style, as being a far 
better physical exercise, giving as it does 
full and free play to all the limbs. The 
English style certainly has its merits ; 
there is great enjoyment in a good com- 
bined figure ; also, in skating the big edges 
and turns at top speed, but in no way can 
it be compared to free skating, to a good 
band, flying, dancing, pirouetting, with 
the blood racing and all the muscles in 

One is not restricted by any set figures, 
and can flit here, there, and everywhere, 
and the delight of all this can hardly be 

From the spectators' point of view, 
doubtless, the international style is the 
more attractive, for though to the per- 
former good English combined skating is 

cxhilatating, and replete with the sense of 
difficulties overcome, it appears somewhat 
monotonous to the onlooker. All the turns 
seem to be equally easy or difficult, ap- 
pearing as mere incidents in a procession 
of gigantic curves. 

On the other hand, really brilliant and 
graceful free skating is an appeal to the 
artistic and emotional perceptions of many 
people ; and the often heard exclamation, 
" How easy it looks ! " is perhaps the 
highest compliment which can be paid to 
the skater in cither style. 

And now, after these digressions, to the 
practical consideration of the elements, 
briefly as regards English style skating, 
more fully as regards the international. 

The first rule of English skating is that 
the employed leg must be kept absolutely 
straight, no bend of the knee is allowed, 
whether the skater is on an edge or making 
a turn. The beginner must also remember 
that the unemployed leg must touch the 
employed, and that the body and head 
must be erect. At first the unemployed 
leg will show a strong tendency to swing. 
This must be overcome. The best way 
to attain the correct position is to rest 
the side of the unemployed foot against 
the heel of the employed, the calves of 
the legs slightly touching. This position 
will keep the employed skate just clear of 
the ice, especially if the toe is turned 
slightly outwards and upwards, and at 
right angles to the employed foot. 

The arms should hang by the side of the 
body, the elbows turned in. All turns in 
the English style are made by the twist of 
the shoulders, the arms moving with them. 
On no Account should the turns be made with 

No. 2. The forward inside eight. The swing of the free foot must be 
perfectly easy 


the spasmodic jerk of 
the arms so often seen. 
To make a clean turn, 
the skater must first 
revolve the shoulders, 
and with them the 
upper part of the body; 
then with a rapid move- 
ment of the foot assume 
the correct position for 
the succeeding edge. 
In most of the forward 
turns the fact of re- 
volving the shoulders 
strongly will bring the 
foot to its new edge 
without a conscious 
effort, but in the back 
turns an effort must be 
made, and the foot 
turned sharply from the 

After the skater has 
mastered all the more 
difficult figures, such 
as rockers, counters, 
and brackets, then 
comes the desire for further fields to conquer, 
and the English skater turns to combined 
figures, the international to free or pair 

We will now proceed to consider the so- 
called compulsory figures of the international 

The first figure to be attempted is the 
forward outside eight. This, and the suc- 
ceeding figures up to and including No. 9, 
are to be regarded as the elements, and unless 
these are thoroughly mastered, all further 
progress is at an end. 

No. I. The Forward 
Outside Eight 

To commence 
this figure the 
learner must stand 
firmly and easily 
on the inside edge 
of the left skate, 
and strike off in the 
direction of the first 
curve. (The foot 
which is on the ice 
is known as the 
tracing foot, that off 
the ice as the free 
foot.) The right 
shoulder must be 
well in front, and 
the whole body in a 
sideways position — 
vide photograph. 

Towards the end 
of the curve, and 
as the centre of 
the figure is ap- 
proached, the left 
shoulder is slowly 
brought to the 
front, and the left 
leg swung quietly 

The inside spiral, a graceful but not a difficult movement 

No. 3. The back outside eight. This mov«^ment requires much practice, 
in order that the pupil may acquire confidence to lean well over 

and easily forward, in 
order that it may be 
ready to take up the 
stroke for the second 
half of the figure. The 
second half is similarly 
skated on the left foot. 

No. 2. Inside Eight 

When skating this 
figure, the contrary 
shoulder to the tracing 
foot is brought for- 
ward, until rather 
more than half the 
first edge is completed, 
the right shoulder is 
then brought forward, 
and the free leg swung 
to the front ready for 
the next edge. 

Similarly skated on 
the left foot. ' 

The swing of the 
free leg must always 
be easy, the free foot 
in its progress to the 
front passing close by the tracing foot. 

No. 3. The Back Outside Eight 

The back outside edge is one which requires 
much practice in order that the learner may 
acquire the necessary confidence to lean 
weU over ; this leaning must not be from the 
waist, but the whole of the body and legs 
must be inclined, and a sideways position 
maintained throughout the figure. 

The free foot must be held in front until half 
the circle is completed ; it is then swung back 
into the position shown in the photograph. 

The foregoing 
edg e s are the 
groundwork of all 
skating, and she 
who has mastered 
the simple edges 
will learn the more 
difficult figures 
more easily and 
speedily than one 
who hastens to 
threes and loops 
when unable to 
skate a plain edge 
well. A beginner 
usually falls into the 
error of practising 
too long; one and 
a half or two hours 
a day is ample, 
and it is better 
to divide such 
practice between 
the morning and 
afternoon. In this 
way the muscles 
are not fatigued, 
and the brain does 
not become dull. 
To be continued. 



This section gives information on gardening topics which will be of value to all women — the 
woman who lives in town, the woman who lives in the country, irrespective of whether she has a large 
or small purse at her disposal. The range of subjects is very wide and includes : 

Practical Articles on Horticul- 
Flower Growing for ProHt 
Violet Farms 
French Gardens 

The Vegetable Garden 

Nature Gardens 

Water Gardens 

The Window Garden 

Famous Gardens of England 

Bell Glasses 
Vineries, etc.^ etc. 

Author of ^^ Small Holdings for Women,'' ^^ Flower Culture for Profit," etc. 

Continued from pa^e 36SJ, Part 30 

Danger of Overcrowding— Some Useful **Don*ts'' — How to Fell a Tree — Fruits that 
Growing — Grapes — Nectarines — Nuts — Walnuts— Quinces —Peaches 


(^NE of the principal points upon which 
fruit growers should set particular care is 
that of allowing their trees plenty of room 
in which to flourish. Overcrowding is a fault 
coo frequently found in present-day orchards, 
and though it may be profitable for a few 
seasons to have the young trees jostling 
cheek by jowl there will come a time when 
the penalty will have to be paid in weak, 
undersized fruit. 

Pyramid and bush trees should be planted 
twelve feet apart ; standard plums and dam- 
sons, fifteen feet apart ; standard apples and 
pears, twenty feet apart. In cases where 
both a bottom crop and a top crop is ex- 
pected — i.e., where other subjects are grown 
beneath the fruit trees — the distances should 
be slightly increased, and it must be borne in 
mind that apples and pears throw a heavier 
shade than plums. 

Grass ought not to be allowed to grow 
round young fruit-trees till the third summer 
has passed. At first glance it would appear 
that the presence of turf could not seriously 
affect the growth of fruit-trees ; as a matter 
of fact, the grass forms an impenetrable pad 
through which rain can percolate only with 
difficulty, and in a dry summer the tree 
suffers seriously from lack of moisture. 

Don't overprune, don't neglect to prune. 
Don't put much manure on the land for 
ordinary hardy fruits ; don't expect good 
fruit from stony, hungry land without a 
little manure. Don't grow any but market 
varieties of proven value ; don't rush after 
novelties till their selling value is known. 
Don't rieglect packing precautions ; don't 

D 23 

store fruit in a damp place. Don't let a 
newly planted tree bear more than a 
" taster " or two the first season. When 
planting, don't retain any jagged, splintered 
roots ; trim them off at the point where 

How to Fell a Tree 

In all fruit gardens there must frequently 
be occasion to fell an aged, decrepit tree that 
has been condemned because it has ceased to 
be profitable. Now, candidly, the felling 
of trees is not a lady's task, and it will be 
highly advisable to call in the assistance of 
the local handyman. In the majority of 
villages half-a-crown is the accepted charge 
for felling an average fruit-tree, the awkward, 
laborious cases being thrown into the balance 
with the simple ones. Thus, a man may have 
to work for six hours for his half-a-crown, 
or he may get up a tree with one heave of his 
shoulders. Where there are several trees to 
be " thrown," this is quite a fair arrangement, 
■ but when there are only one or two an 
equitable wage would be 6d. per hour. 

As in everything else, there is a right way 
and a wrong way for bringing down an aged 
fruit-tree. The most apparent method is to 
take a saw and cut off the trunk near the 
ground, the tree falling automatically as the 
last fibres are severed. It is certainly a 
speedy plan for tree-felling, but unfortu- 
nately it overlooks the little matter of the 
stump, which is exceedingly difficult to dig 
out when minus the " upper storey." 

The proper way of performing this mourn- 
ful task is to use a spade and mattock, and 



also to call in the aid of a length of rope m 
severe cases. The mattock is a tool akm 
to the pickaxe, but with a cutting edge to one 
of its wings. 

The condemned tree should be approached 
first with a spade. Round the bole a circle 
should be cut, and the earth removed with 
the spade. The circle need be no more than 
four feet in diameter, and its depth will 
depend entirely upon the individual nature 
of the tree. As the spade eats down into the 
soil, roots will be encountered, and these 
must be severed and broken away with the 
aid of the mattock. Work round and round 
the tree, chopping through the roots, and 
excavating the soil till the tree sways at a 
pull of the arms and then attach a length 
of rope at a point fairly high in the trunk. 

Now, taking the end 
of the rope, the work- 
man should tug slowly 
but strongly, aiming 
to " swing " the tree 
backwards and for- 
wards pendulum-like. 
If the tree does not 
give easily, more dig- 
ging will be necessary, 
but it is more than 
probable that if the 
main surface roots 
have been broken it 
will come easily as 
the rope tightens and 

The whole point of 
this correct method is 
that the top hamper 
of the tree is used to 
drag the stump from 
the ground. It is 
another case of lever- 
age coming to the 
rescue, and the stump 
itself may be easily 
removed from the 
trunk when once it is 
out of the ground. As 
for the hole that is 
left, a couple of wheel- 
barrows' full of soil 
should fill the cavity. 

For the benefit of 
the beginner it may be well to mention that 
it is not advisable to plant a fruit-tree on 
the site vacated by a worn-out specimen, 
unless, of course, the soil can be made up 
with good rich loam, lime, and a little 
manure to freshen up the staple. 


Continued from f^at^e 36S7, Part 30 

Grape. The grape is beyond the scope 
of this series, requiring as it does extensive 
glass, experienced handling, and a certain 
market. As a profitable hobby for an 
amateur gardener, the grape vine is 
excellent, but it would not prove remu- 
nerative to a lady commencing a fruit- 
farming business. 

Fruit-trees that are to be felled should not be sawn through. A 

spade and mattock should be employed, so that the stump is dragged 

from the ground by the falling tree- 

Medlar. — There is no large demand for 
medlars, as comparatively few people care 
for this fruit. At the same time, a few 
standard trees may be grown. They cost 
IS. 6d. apiece. 

Nectarine. This beautiful, juicy fruit 
is a ready seller and is by no means difficult 
to cultivate. Quite a separate fruit, it 
follows closely on the lines of the peach, and 
requires practically similar treatment. Cer- 
tainly it succeeds best when grown as a wall- 
fruit, and fan-trained trees are usually the 
most profitable. 

Early Rivers, Rivers' Orange, and Victoria 
are the three leading varieties of nectarine, 
and fan-trained trees for walls may be bought 
for 3s. 6d. each from any nurseryman. Nectar- 
ines should be grown on a wall facing south, 

but the later varieties 

may be planted 
in a westerly aspect. 
A pailful of broken 
mortar rubble should 
be dug into the soil ^t 
the time of planting. 
Nuts. When one 
considers that good 
home-grown filberts 
and walnuts sell retail 
at 8d. per lb., it is a 
wonder that they are 
not more cultivated. 
Even cob nuts com- 
mand a ready sale, 
and are not to be 
despised by any 
means as a remuner- 
ative side line. 

About 6s. per dozen 
is the average price 
for young nut-bushes, 
and Red and White 
Filbert, Kentish Cob, 
Cosford Cob, and Pro- 
lific Cob are leading 
varieties. The bushes 
should be planted 
in rows six or eight 
feet apart, and the 
roots should be kept 
free from grass and 
weeds till the bushes 
are well established. 
Contrary to general opinion, nut-bushes 
respond readily to pruning. Certainly, all 
coarse suckers and in-growing shoots should 
be removed, and the strong young shoots 
should be shortened, much as one would 
treat a fruit-tree. As the majority of folks 
know, the long, furry catkins — pussy-cats' 
tails, we called them as children — are the 
male blossoms. The pollen from them is 
scattered on to the tiny red tufts that 
appear on the wood itself, which are the 
female or nut-bearing buds. Care must be 
taken, therefore, that in shortening one does 
not cut away these tufts. 

Walnuts are slow-growers, and to plant 
them is to benefit one's sons or successors. 
Still, no fruit garden is complete without one 



or two, and the sooner they are planted the 

The varieties that bear large nuts with chin 
shells are naturally the best, and nurserymen 
sell standard trees at about half-a-crown 
each. They form ideal trees for a bold corner, 
and naturally require an immense amount 
of room. In days gone by it was con- 
sidered a disgrace if the son of the house did 
not make his gun-stock from walnut grown 
at home, and the size of one of these trees in 
its prime is enormous. 

It is practically impossible to prune such 
a large tree as the walnut, but it is benefited 
if a little lime is scattered round it every two 
or three seasons. The old theory that one 
should " bash " a walnut-tree with a long 
pole to make it fruitful has never been 
countenanced by the experts. 

Quinces. In many parts of the country, 
especially in East Anglia, the quince is in 
evidence in every garden, and there is a 
limited demand for the fruit in most of jour 

The Portugal quince is the leading variety, 
and the tree succeeds best in a spot that is 
slightly damp. It is usually grown as a 
standard, in which form it costs about 

Quince jelly is much sought after, and the 
fruit is made into a preserve by old- 
fashioned housewives. It is also used largely 
for flavouring purposes. 

Peach. In the South of England the 
peach may be grown out of doors in a 
kindly situation with considerable success, 

but north of the Trent it is more certain 
when raised under glass, and excellent fruit 
is produced from small bushes grown in 
pots in cool greenhouses, the pots being 
placed out of doors in the late summer, 
so that the wood may ripen naturally and 

Peaches are ideal subjects for wall culti- 
vation in a southerly aspect, and are best 
when grown as fan-trained specimens. 
Mortar rubble should be mixed with the 
soil when planting, and the leaders should be 
pruned back for the first couple of seasons, 
so that strong side shoots may be formed. 
As all lovers of fruit-trees will have noticed, 
the peach is usually grown so that as much 
fruit-bearing wood as possible is crowded into 
the space on the wall allotted to the particular 

When the fruiting season has passed, the 
rank growth should be shortened by pinching 
out between the finger and thumb, and dis- 
budding is frequently practised on a tree 
that is too vigorous. During the stoning 
period — i.e., the time when the stones are 
forming in the fruit — water must be given 

Bushes in pots, for cultivation in an 
unheated greenhouse, cost from 5s. upwards, 
and fan-trained trees for walls from 3s. 6d. 
each. Among the leading varieties may be 
mentioned Crimson Galande (mid-season), 
Duke of York (very early), Hale's Early (an 
old-fashioned variety of great merit), and 
Sea Eagle (late). 

To he contintied. 

Continued from page . 

Part so 


Diplovia 0/ the Royal Botanic Society 

Climbers for New Gardens — Quick Growing Sorts — How to Cover Trellises — ^Vegetable Marrows 
and Gourds — Sweet-peas and other Annuals — How to Make a Basket- bed 

|\/[osT frequently the owner of a new house 
is troubled by the bare appearance of 
the garden, and wishes to see it clothed the 
first year in summer beauty, such as is most 
likely the case in gardens near by. 

But every practical woman will know that 
these effects are the results of years of growth 
and training. Most likely she begins by 
planting roses and permanent climbers, such 
as have already been dealt with (page 3684, 
vol. 4), but she knows that these will hardly 
make any show for a long time, and she 
longs for some effect in the immediate 

Easily Orown Climbers 

There are really some annual climbing 
and trailing plants which provide a quick 
effect of beauty in the garden. Foremost 
among these are the homely climbing 
nasturtium and the rather more dignified 
tropaeolums. If the garden already has 
arches, see that there is a small bed of soil 
at the foot of them, but do not trouble to 
have good soil for nasturtiums, as they will 

not need it, and are inclined to run to leaf if 
overfed. The seeds of tall nasturtiums 
should not be sown before April, but they 
will grow rapidly, and from June onwards 
will be covered with bloom. Tropaeolums, 
fireball, and lobbianum, are climbers allied 
to the nasturtiums, and can be bought in 
pots in May for threepence or fourpence 
apiece. Where there is a greenhouse they 
are, of course, easily raised from seed sown 
"in March. 

The same may be said of cobaea scandens, 
the cup and saucer flower, though this is 
really a perennial. It will not survive the 
cold weather, but planted out in April or 
May it will cover an arch or fence in an open 
position with its pretty pale green and purple 
flowers, which are followed in autumn by 
handsome fruits. 

The Chilian glory flower (Eccremocarpus 
scaber) can also be treated as an annual, and 
planted in a southerly position; and the 
mina lobata and thunbergia alata, which are 
other half-hardy annucils. 



The Canary Creeper 

■ But perhaps the most satisfactory tem- 
porary climber of the above class, where it 
thrives, is the canary creeper (tropa?olum 
canariense) . It should be planted out m May, 
and when once established will contmue to 
put forth its pretty little shoots, which recall 
a bird's foot in shape, and entwine its growth 
round every object within reach, spreading 
a mass of golden flowers to the sun. This 
climber is especially suitable for allowing to 
ramble over wire arches, or it can be arranged 
to screen an ugly brick wall 
or fence. Treated in this 
way, it will continue to 
flourish profusely until cut 
down by frost. 

It must be borne in mind 
that many creepers, like the 
above, will not come to their 
best unless planted in a 
sunny, open situation, such 
as will be often the condition 
where a house is surrounded 
by newly planted trees which 
have not yet had time to 
form a screen. In just such 
a position the large and 
small flowered convolvuluses 
can be planted, also clian- 
thus Dampieri ; and seeds of 
these should be sown in 
April when all fear of frost 
is over. Another way of 
obtaining quick effects for 
the late summer and autumn 
is to sow in April or May a 
packet of seeds of ornamental 
gourds, or, if possessed of a 
greenhouse, to raise the seeds 
earlier and plant out in May. 
Ornamental Gourds 

Gourds can be grown 
effectively as twiners round 
a tripod of poles arranged 
for the purpose, or they can 
be allowed to cover a sunny 
bank. The mention of thcs( 
fruits calls to mind the 
vegetable marrow, and it is 
worth a reminder that there 
is no better way of utilising 
a corner in a waste part of 
the garden, provided it is not 
devoid of sunshine, than by 
making up a mound of richly 
manured soil, putting in two 
or three marrow plants, and 
allowing them to cover the 
neighbouring ground with their vigorous 

Among climbing plants which are suitable 
for covering trellises to shut out an ugly 
view, common and variegated hops can be 
planted, and these will make plenty of 
growth the first year. 

Sweet-peas are, of course, the most 
charming among climbers, andean be grown 
either on a trellis or against pea-sticks, or 




1 V 














Cocculus helery styllus. This handsome ivy- 

leaved climber will rapidly cover a pillar or 

pergola, reaching twelve to eighteen feet in 

one season 

Copyright, James Veitch &• Sons 

bamboos and string — a form of training, 
indeed, which can be adapted to many 
annual climbers. Ordinary trelliswork of 
painted laths, horizontal or diagonal in 
form, can be bought very cheaply, but more 
attractive trellises and arches can be formed 
of unstripped larch or fir, or made of willow 

Different Designs for Training: Climbers 

There are other designs in the form of 
umbrellas, balloons, baskets, and so on, 
which can be made pleasing features in a 
garden, and it may be wished 
to cover some of these with 
quick-growing annual climb- 
ers, or with plants which 
can be grown out of doors in 
summer and brought indoors 
for the winter. Tropaeolum 
ball of fire can be used in this 
way, canariensis,thunbergia, 
and aristolochia (the Dutch- 
man's pipe) . Trailing plants 
are required for baskets, a^d 
ivy-leaved geraniums will 
give great beauty here, as 
some can be trained upright 
in the basket, and others 
allowed to hang down at the 
sides. Others, again, may be 
pegged down in the soil, to 
form a carpet for the taller 
plants. Besides climbing 
geraniums, asparagus spren- 
geri can be used, trades- 
cantia, campanula-isophylla 
(the little campanula in white 
or blue which is seen to 
perfection in the hanging 
baskets of a cottager's par- 
lour-window), and verbenas 
for pegging down, besides 
creeping jenny, periwinkles, 
ivy-leaved toad-flax, and 
other permanent climbers. 
Making: a Basket Bed 
To make a basket bed for 
a lawn, the design should be 
traced out first, either round 
or oval, and larch or spruce 
rods be driven in the requisite 
height from the ground. 
Bent rods of the same wood 
may be twisted in and out of 
the framework, or osiers can 
be used . Baskets can also be 
wholly constructed of stout 
wire. The bed inside the 
framework should be made 
up of well-enriched soil. 

Hollowed tree-stumps can be planted with 
attractive climbers. Where a rich, moist, 
peaty soil is available, the flame-flower may 
be persuaded to grow with some success. 

A word must be said, before concluding, 
in favour of the homely but useful scarlet- 
runner bean, which may be trained on stakes 
or strings, and will form a screen almost any- 
where, covering a large space of ground with 

even encouraged to climb up a framework of its handsome scarlet flowers. 



This section of Every Woman's ENCYCLOPi«:DiA will prove of great interest to women, con- 

raining as it does practical and authoritative articles on : 

Prize Dogs ' Cats : Good and Bad Points 


Lap Dogs 

Cat Fanciers 

Children's Pets 

Dogs' Points 

Small Cage Birds 

Uncommon Pets 

Dogs' Clothes 


Food for Pets 

Storting Doqs 

The Diseases of Pets 

How to Teach Tricks 

Hozv to Exhibit Dogs 


Gold Fish ^ etc.y etc. 


Breeder and Exhibitor 
A French Dog Now Naturalised in England — How the Breed Came to this Country — Its 
Official Recognition by the Kennel Club — Points of a Good Specimen — How to Rear the Puppies- 
Character of the French Bulldog — Some Owners and their Dogs 


HThe subject of this article is one of the 
most charming of the smaller breeds of 
dog, and yields to none in intelligence and 
fidelity. That he is not so well known as, for 
instance, the fox terrier, is due to the fact 
that he is one of the aristocrats of the canine 

As a puppy he is more difficult to rear, 
but as an adult he does not require more 
care than any other breed. But he is in no 
sense a lapdog, quite the reverse, and once 
known he is always loved. 

The best authorities on this breed, amongst 
whom should be reckoned Mr. F. W, Cousens, 
M.R.C.V.S., to whose valuable advice and 
kind assistance the writer is deeply in- 
debted, agree unanimously that the French 
bulldog is a French breed and of French 
origin, though of late years a crossing of 
English bulldog blood has somewhat 
modified the original French type. 

The late Mr. George Krehl, indeed, who 
was one of the earliest of English authorities 
on the breed, went even further, and de- 
ducted, with much plausibility, its possible 
Spanish origin. His own purpose in intro- 
ducing these dogs into England was to 
obtain by their help a small specimen of the 
national bulldog. In any case, the French- 
man has come to stay, and has established 
his claim to be a separate breed, distinct 
from the miniature British bulldog, and is 
now recognised as such by the kennel clubs 
of Europe. 

His official history dates from July, 1902, 
when a meeting was held at Mr. Cousens' 
house to consider the advisability of forming 
a- club for the breed as distinct from the 
Toy Bulldog Club, thus avoiding the con- 
fusion of the French bulldog with the purely 
British bantamised specimens, whose weight 
of twenty pounds, by the way, scarcely 
justified the epithet of toy. Hence origin- 
ated the French Bulldog Club of England, 
under the presidency of Lady Lewis, and 
the official recognition of the breed by the 
Kennel Club of England as the houledogue 

The club's first show was held in 1903, with 
fifty-one pure bred French specimens ; and 
since then the breed has never looked back, 
and the British variety has most sensibly 
received the name ol the miniature bulldog, 
with a weight allowance of twenty-two 
pounds, and a different and characteristic 
type of its own, one as essentially British 
as the subject of this memoir should be 
essentially French. 

So much for the somewhat troubled 
waters over which the club has sailed to its 
present secure anchorage. Now, it will be of 
interest to the novice or intending pur- 
chaser to show what manner of dog the gay 
little Frenchman should be. Herewith are 
summarised his chief essential points as 
laid down in the club's book, published in 
1903. There is such a thing as an eye for a 
dog as truly as for a horse, and it is a most 

PETS 3814 

valuable possession ; it may be explained by 
saying that the possessor has a true eye for 
type, and is not misled by separate points. 
In the breed in question, the salient point is 
that the dog should be French in character, 
not merely a British bulldog that looks, as 
Lady Kathleen Pilkington observes of the 
miniature bulldog, " like the larger variety 
seen through the wrong end of a telescope." 


The French bulldog should be a cobby, 
muscular, heavy-boned dog, yet extremely 
active and intelligent. He should have a large 
and square head, with a flat top to it and a 
rounded forehead, deep stop, and well- 
developed, but not prominent cheek muscles. 
The skin on the head should not be tight, and 
the forehead should be nicely wrinkled. The 
muzzle should be very deep, short, and broad, 
with the lower jaw" projecting slightly in 

quarters. The hocks should be well let 
down. The feet should be strong and com- 
pact. The coat should be of medium density ; 
black is an undesirable colour, brindle being 
the most popular. 

In weight the dogs range from under 
twenty pounds up to twenty-eight pounds. 

As regards the rearing of puppies — in this 
breed a difficult task — the invaluable advice 
of Mr. Cousens is again quoted. As a rule, 
it is best to have a foster mother, unless the 
bitch has proved herself a good mother. 
Should the pups have to be hand-fed, then 
plasmon and milk, with a teaspoonful of 
cream to every half-pint, is the exact chemical 
substitute for natural bitches' milk. Warmth 
is essential, and a hot water bottle and 
blankets must be supplied if the weather 
demands. At weaning time, raw scraped 
meat should be given, as well as one of the 
patent milk foods made with milk, and the 
pups should be fed 
every two or three 
hours at first. At 
four months ol(f, 
three meals a day 
will suffice, of 
puppy biscuits dry 
and broken up, 
good gravy or soup 
over stale bread- 
crumbs, and a 
meal of lean raw 
meat. A large 
bone that cannot 
be eaten should be 
given to help denti- 


In character the 
French bulldog is 

Mr. F. W. Cousens' famous French bulldog, "Napoleon Bonaparte, 

fashionable breed 
Photo, T. Fall 

front of the upper, and turning up, though 
not so as to show the teeth. 

The eyes should be dark and moderate in 
size, placed wide apart and low down ; they 
should not show the white when looking 
straight in front. 

The nose should be large and quite black. 

The ears should be of medium size, rounded 
at the tips, carried straight, and set high on 
the skull. They should be large at the base, 
have their orifice looking forward, and be 
fine and soft in texture. 

The neck should be thick, short, and well 

The body should be short and muscular ; 
the chest wide and well between the legs ; 
the back should be broad at the shoulder, 
tapering towards the loins, and well roached. 

The tail should be set on low, be short, 
thick at the root, tapering towards a point, 
and not be carried above the level of the 

The forelegs should be short, straight, 
and muscular ; the hindquarters strong, 
though lighter in proportion to the fore- 

a most typical example of this affectionate, lively, 
and admirably 
adapted to a house 
or flat. Though not exactly a sporting dog, 
he is neither a coward nor a fool, and his 
admirers are deservedly many. 

He is not the poor man's dog, any more 
than the thoroughbred is the poor man's 
steed, and a fairly high price, from ^j 7s. 
upwards for a young puppy, according to 
pedigree and appearance, will have to be 
paid for a well-bred specimen. But, when the 
difficulty of rearing and the high fees 
demanded for the sires are considered, this 
will not be thought excessive, and the owner 
will be the first to admit that his choice is 
worth his cost, and, indeed, much more. 

Amongst present-day owners are Lady 
Lewis, Mr. C. Pelham-Clinton, Mrs. Charles 
Waterlow, Mrs. Townsend Green, Mrs. 
Romilly, and Mrs. Lesmoir Gordon. 

And amongst famous French bulldogs and 
bench heroes and heroines should certainly 
be included the late King Edward VI I. 's 
Peter, who, although he was on the large side, 
was a dog of very considerable merit ; while 
Queen Alexandra had a great favourite 
named Paul. 




By F. J. S. CHATTERTON, Gold, Silver, and Bronze 
Medallist, Paris, 1910-11 

specialist Breezier and ^ud^e of Poultry, Pigeons f'"^ ,9^1' ^j'/'^s ; Jiuke at tht Grand Inttruational Show. Crystal Pula.e ; .\U,„brt 
Societt des AvicHltenrs Fraucais ; Vice-Presidint Poultry Lltib ; Hon. Sec. Voiohama Club; on the Committee o/ Middlesex ColumberUin Society. 

Indian Game Club, etc. ■" 

The Himalayan Rabbit -Its Original Habitat— A Pretty and Docile Pet— How It Obtained 

Its Name— The Appearance of a Good Specimen— How to Feed and Treat Himalayan Rabbits— The 

Flemish Giant a Good Utility Breed— Its Points— The Requisite Care of the Breed 

A MONGST the many different breeds of 
^^ fancy rabbits seen at shows, the little 
Himalayan rabbit receives a very big share 
of attention and praise, especially from 
lady visitors, on account of its neat and 
stylish appearance. 

It is generally supposed that these rabbits 
originally came from the region of the 
Himalayan Mountains, hence their name. 

The animal was also known as the Chinese 
rabbit, as the breed is kept very largely in 
China, and was imported into England 
from that country. 

The marking on the nose, ears, feet, and 
tail should be as dark as possible, and the 
nearer it is to jet black in colour the better. 

This point of colour is most difficult to 
get perfect ; it is harder to obtain a good 
dark colour on the feet than on the nose 
and ears, for they are very often of a lightish 
brown colour, a fault more pronounced 
in the colour of the hind feet, which in some 
specimens are of a grey colour. 

These faults, besides spoiling the animal 
for exhibition purposes, prevent it looking 
nearly as pretty as a rabbit with sound 
dark-coloured ears, nose, feet, and tail 
all of a uniform colour. 

The white fur should be of a pure snowy 
whiteness, thus forming a pretty contrast 
to the black markings and making the little 

Himalayan a very attractive subject for 
a woman's pet. 

In colour the eyes of the Himalayan 
rabbit are a beautiful pink, and this also 
adds to the beauty of the animal. These 
rabbits are hardy in constitution, of an 
affectionate disposition, and breed very 
true to shape and marking. 

The does are very good mothers, being 
attentive to their young, which number 
from five to as many as eight at a birth. 
They are jealous of their young ones, and 
do not like anyone to interfere with them. 
They breed very freely, but should not be 
allowed to have more than two litters in 
a year. 

The young ones should be left with their 
mother until they are about two months 
old. At this age they have very little of the 
dark marking noticeable, and have the 
appearance of being white rabbits ; but 
the markings will soon begin to show, at 
first faintly, but gradually getting stronger, 
until the young ones are the same colour 
as their parents. This happens at about 
six to nine months old, some specimens 
taking longer to mature than others. 

Himalayans are, as stated, of a hardy 
constitution and seldom suffer from any 
complaints. They should, however, be kept 
out of draughts, and their hutches should 

The Himalayan rabbit, formerly known as the Chinese rabbit, from the fact that it was impcrt«d into this country from Chin*. 
This pretty httle black and white rabbit makes an admirable pet, being both docile and hardy 



This illustration shows the relative sizes of the Flemish giant and the Himalayan rabbit 

be protected during the winter. It is also 
advisable to keep them out of the sun. 

The usual weight of a good Himalayan 
rabbit is from about four to six pounds. 

The Flemish giant rabbit is the largest 
breed of fancy rabbits in this country. 

It was originally imported into this country 
from Flanders, and from its size is known as 
the Flemish giant rabbit. 

Full-grown specimens weigh as much as 
twelve pounds, and occasionally one meets 
an extra large specimen weighing fourteen 
pounds and over. These rabbits are a very 
fine variety to keep as a utility breed, as the 
flesh is of good quality and flavour. 

The colour of the fur should be iron-grey, 
with a brownish tint, except on the under- 
parts, which are white. The dark fur is 
marked with black, known as " ticking," 
which gives it a very nice appearance. 
It should be quite free from any warmish 
sandy colour, such as that on a Belgian hare 
rabbit, neither must there be any white fur 
on the head or, in fact, any part that ought 
to be of the pure dark colour. at night-time. 

In shape this rabbit is 

a long and broad animal, 

with a heavy dewlap — 

viz., the fulness in the 

throat and chest — 

which other breeds of 

rabbits should not have. 

The illustration given 

on this page was drawn 

from a doe, or female. 

The head should be 

large, with big, bright 

eyes ; ears fairly long 

and carried upright ; 

body large and long. 

The legs and feet should 

be strong and straight. 

These rabbits 

naturally require larger hutches and a more 

liberal diet than the smaller varieties. The 

breeding-hutch for does should be about 5 ft. 

long, 2 ft. wide, and 18 in. or 24 in. high. One 

end should be partitioned off for the sleeping 

compartment. ^ 

The hutches for the bucks need not be so 

long, but should be of the same height ; 

lower hutches are apt to spoil the carriage 

of the ears. 

The animals should be kept well supplied 
with sweet, fresh hay, and the floor of the 
hutches kept clean and dry. Three meals a 
day will not be too many for these rabbits. 
For breakfast they should have soft food, 
consisting of barley meal, ground oats, and 
middlings, well mixed and then scalded 
with boiling water. In the middle of the 
day they should have a meal of greenstuff 
or roots, swedes being a very good food 
in the winter-time. 

The night feed should consist of some 
good, sound, heavy oats. Some breeders 
give them a feed of warm brcad-and-milk 

The Flemish giant rabbit, so called from Flanders, its original home. This species of rabbit is the largest known in this country. 



This section of Every Woman 

's Encyci.oi'^-DIA forms a practical and lucid guide to the many 

branches of needlework. It is 

fully illustrated by diagrams and photographs, and, as in other 

sections of this book, the directions given are put to a practical test before they are printed. Among | 

the subjects dealt with are : 




Darning with a Sewing 

Embroidered Collars and 





What can be done with 

Lace Work 

Art Patchwork 


Draivn Thread Work 

Plain Needlework 

German Appliq7i^. Work 



JMonogram Designs^ 


Seiving Machiiies 

etc., etc. 


A Decorative Embellishment in Eastern Style for Clothes — How One Sheet of Designs May be 
Utilised in Various Ways — As a Trimming for a Tailor-made Coat— Children's Frocks and Lingerie 
A STRIP of Eastern embroidery shows the European fashion, we may decorate our 

skill and patience of the Oriental, and 
is proving its charm as an embellish- 
ment for smart chiffons, for from it 
one can take many ideas. 

The ladies of the Court of a native 
prince wile away many hours over 
their frame of brilliant embroidery. 
It is as gay as a butterfly's wing, 
scintillating with gold and silver 
thread, beads and jewels. 

The Englishwoman who is fortunate 
enough to gain an audience with a 
native princess is surprised at two 
things. First, as a rule, at the 
excellent English she speaks ; and, 
secondly, at the curious complexity 
of a nature which, in spite of modern 
education, is still absolutely Oriental. 
The wit, charm, and culture of the 
secluded woman is irresistible ; but 
it is said " the purdah," the curtain 
which is placed between the native 
and the European, grows thinner 
each year. 

The Eastern woman decorates her 
" sari " according to her rank with 
gold thread and gorgeous silks, 
and as she places a sweet-scented 
garland around the shoulders of the 
European visitor, one instinctively 
admires the attractiveness of the 
supple figure draped by the graceful 
" sari." 

Although we follow the dictates of 

clothes with touches of Oriental embroidery 

Fjg. I. The whole design of Durbar embroidery would be most effective 

on a blouse or the end of a sash. This design would maki an exquisite 

trimming for an evening gown 

D 28 



Fig. 2. The flower of the Durbar embroidery design arranged in V shape to form an 
attractive trimming for an evening gown, or a beautiful Vandyke edge to a collar or fichu 

which will prove marvellously effective trim- 
mings at little cost — if manipulated at home. 

On the next page is a quaint design in 
outline. This is eminently suitable for 
embroidering clothes in soft coloured silks 
with touches of gold and silver thread. 

The Durbar embroidery design may be 
used in numerous ways. It can, if preferred, 

be made a still more durable 
embroidery sheet by dupli- 
cating it on to a piece of 
tracing cloth. Place the 
tracing cloth over the page, 
and, with a pencil, or pen 
dipped in Indian ink, follow 
the lines of the design. 

The following is a simple 
and satisfactory method of 
tracing the design on to the 
fabric : Place a sheet of red 
carbon paper on the material, 
cover it with the traced de- 
sign, and outline the portion 
required with the blunt point 
of a lead pencil, or a slender- 
pointed bone crochet hook. 
Anything firm and hard 
which will not scratch 
through the design is 

It will be seen on this 
page there is one conven- 
tional Oriental design. From 
this all kinds of smaller 
decorative designs can be 
made ; the circles and moons 
make a design, the flowers 
and leaves another, and so on. The em- 
broideress has only got to select either 
the whole or any portion of the pattern to 
use in any way she desires. 

How to Utilise the Design 

Around the central design several of these 
smaller patterns are given. These again may 
be arranged in various ways by the embroi- 
deress. She has simply to place the design 

Fig. 3. The duplication of this pattern makes a charming dress Fig. 4. A portion of the Durbar embroidery, worked in strips, to be 
trimming. In white, it can be used to adorn lingerie used on a cloth or velvet costume 



A sheet of designs for Durbar embroidery; each pattern can be used separately and dupHcated by placing upon it a piece of tracing 
cloth and following the lines of the pattern with a pencil, or a pen dipped in Indian ink 



Fig. 5. A portion of the Durbar embroidery design suitable for 
the lapel of a coat, to be worked in gold thread 

sheet at the angle she requires, and she 
can trace these patterns in innumerable 
ways on many articles. 

If the central design of the " Durbar 
Embroidery Sheet" is traced on to muslin, 
silk, satin, or velvet, it will make a 
charming embellishment for a blouse 
(Fig. 1). The flower may be embroidered 
in fine gold thread, using satin stitch. 
The half-moons are worked alternately in 
gold thread and rose silk, using the open 
chain stitch. The circles are filled in 
closely in rose silk, using satin stitch. The 
Stems and leaves ma^^ be simply outlined 
in dull green silk, and veined with gold, or 
the leaves may be entirely filled in with 
satin stitch. 

Another method of using a coarse gold 
thread is to embroider the design in soft 
Oriental colours — blue, rose, primrose, 
dull gold, or any delicate shade which 
suits the material that is to be beautified. 
Simply outline the entire design after- 
wards in gold thread. If it is too coarse 
to be drawn through the material, it is 
stitched around the design with fine silk. 

This is called " couching," an ancient em- 
broidery method. 

Fig. 2 shows the flower of the Durbar 
design arranged in a festoon or V. This 
arrangement is easily manipulated. Simply 
trace the -flower only in any design or shape to 
suit any gown or style. It would make an 
attractive adornment for an evening gown of 
Oriental satin worked in soft blue, dull green, 
and primrose, and outlined in gold, or it 
could be worked entirely in gold or silver. 
The centres of the flowers may be enriched 
by a scintillating sequin or a pearl bead. 
This motif would also form a beautiful 
Vandyke edge to a collar or fichu. It would 
also make a smart trimming for a white 
cloth gown. 

Motifs as a Border 

No. 3 shows another portion of the design 
duplicated to decorate an entire gown, a 
crossover blouse, cuffs, or a flounce. It 
would also look well worked in rose, dull 
green, primrose, and dull blue and silver on 
the cuffs and collar of a Navy blue tailor- 
made coat and skirt. The entire design is 
worked in satin stitch, the half-moons in 
silver thread. A pretty finish for a collar and 
cuffs would be a border in buttonhole stitch 
in silk or silver thread. 

Fig. 4 shows still another portion of the 
design, the half-moons embroidered as a 
border parallel one with the other. The 
moons may also be embroidered in a slanting 
position one above the other. They are 
effective embroidered on pale blue cloth or 

Fig. 6. This design in appropriate colouring would form a beautiful em* 
bellishmcnt for a tunic of white cloth, if worked solidly in satin stitch 


an evening cloak. Anything which suggests 
the Oriental is particularly effective at night. 
The soft glow of candles or shaded lights 
catches the gleaming threads of gold, and 
intensifies their beauty. 

Fig. 6 shows yet another idea worked out 
from the central design. This is effective on 
the sleeves and collar of a coat, a crossover 
blouse, or on strips of material as the sole 
trimming of a dress. It is worked solidly in 
satin stitch in soft shades of blue and green. 
The lower leaf is veined with French knots 
in gold. A pretty edging is made to this 
design by using buttonhole stitch for festoons 
at the bottom of the design, worked in soft 
shades of blue. 

All the designs given could enhance the 
charms of many articles of feminine attire. 
Any would look well on velvet, and yet would 
be equally effective on muslin. The field for 
the use of the Durbar design is truly a wide 
one, and must particularly appeal to all who 
appreciate the beauty of dainty clothes. 

If worked in white flourishing thread, the 
small designs would make a delightful 
embellishment for dainty lingerie. 

The sheet of designs is a little treasure 
trove which the embroideress may draw 
upon again and again to use in countless 
useful and artistic ways. 

Blouse on the front of which the full design of Durbar 
embroidery is shown 

serge, in silver thread outlined alter- 
nately in rose and dull green; the circles 
filled in with rose silk and gold. An 
effective border may be made by using 
open chain stitch in dull green. Strips 
of cloth, velvet, or satin which have 
been previously cut out by the tailor would. 
look well round the fashionable sailor 
collar of a coat or round the bottom of 
the coat, the cuffs and sides of the skirt 
worked in Oriental colourings or black 
filoselle. This idea makes a charming 
embellishment for Navy blue clothes. 

Fig. 5 shov/s the leaves and moons of 
the design worked entirely in gold 
thread. One portion of the leaf is 
worked in open chain stitch, which 
gives a charming, lacelike appearance. 
This gold embroidery is most costly to 
buy, but it need not be so when 
worked at home. Embroidered on 
white cloth, it makes a beautiful lapel 
for the coat of white cloth tailor-made 
clothes. Cuffs may be embroidered en 
suite . Embroidered on strips of white 
Oriental satin, this design, worked in 
gold thread, would make exquisite 
trimming for an evening gown. Gold 
lace embroidery would also look well on 

A suggestion for a border trimming formed from the Durbar design 





Continued from page 3587, Part 30 


Cross Stitch. Plait Stitch, Tent Stitch, Gobelin Stitch, Irish, Florentine, or Cushion Stitch— Two- 
sided Italian, and Holbein Stitches 

EMBROIDERY on canvas is one of the oldest 
fomis of decorative needlework. It was 
known in the thirteenth century as opus 
pulvinarium, or cushion work, probably 
because this kind of work is specially suited 
to domestic uses, such as the coverings for 
cushions, chairs, and hangings. 

It possesses a special character and charm 
of its own, imparted by the rather rigid 
designs imposed by the squared material on 
which it is worked. 

Canvas embroidery is often spoken of as 
tapestry, but, strictly 
speaking, the latter is 
always a woven fabric. 
But the tent stitch 
pictures, which have 
been revived of late, 
have the appearance of 
tapestry, though, of 
course, on a small 

Canvas embroidery 
can be carried out 
either in the hand or 
on a frame. For large 
pieces of work a frame 
is advisable. The 
stitches in use are very 
numerous, a selection 
from which are de- 
scribed in the present 

The commonest stitch, which has given 
its name to a whole class of canvas work, is 
the cross stitch. This, as its name implies, is a 
stitch crossing over two or more squares of 
canvas. It is usually worked on a double-ply 
canvas, as the crossing puts a strain on the 
material, which should therefore be a firm 

Two Effective Stitches 

Cross stitch is shown in Fig. A of Diagram 
I, and the correct way to work it is to bring 
up the needle and thread at the upper left- 
hand hole of four spaces, inserting it diagon- 
ally into the lower right-hand hole, and 
then crossing the stitch by bringing out the 
needle at the upper right-hand hole, and 
inserting it at the lower left-hand one. Each 
stitch should be worked separately, except 
in grounding a design, when a row should be 
first worked along in one direction, and then 
crossed on the return journey. 

Plait stitch is in appearance much like 
basket stitch, described in Article IV., p. 

3405. It is also best worked on double-ply 
canvas. The first stitch covers three holes in 
the canvas diagonally, and the needle is 
then made to take a perpendicular stitch 
behind the canvas, bringing it out three 
holes immediately below the point in which 
it was last inserted, as shown in Fig. b of 

the diagram. 

The next three 
Gobelin, and Irish, 
stitch, are usually 

stitches, tent stitch, 
Florentine or cushion 
worked on single-ply 

Diagram I. A. Cross stitch. 
Plait stitch. A pretty 

each stitch worked separately, 
variation for canvas work 

Tent stitch is the 
finest of all the canvas 
stitches, and is best 
suited to pictorial 
work showing a good 
deal of detail. The petit 
point pictures of the 
sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries were 
worked in this stitch. 

A fine example, re- 
presenting the story of 
Daphne, is now in the 
Victoria and Albert 
Museum, and may be 
studied with advan- 
tage to show the best 
method of treating a 
needlework picture, 
and how to escape 
from the faults of 
much modern work of the same kind. It is 
embroidery of never-ending variety and 
interest, but is extremely slow in execution, 
and should only be attempted by an en- 

A Hard Wearing: Stitch 

Tent stitch is a simple one, as may be seen 
in Fig. A of Diagram 2. a i shows the 
work on the right side, and a 2 on the 
reverse side. The stitch covers two rows of 
canvas diagonally. The needle is brought up, 
when working a row from left to right, at 
the upper right-hand hole, and taken 
diagonally to the lower left-hand hole, thus 
making, when the stitch is repeated, a 
longer stitch on the wrong side than on the 
right. On the return journey the needle is 
inserted at the lower left-hand hole and 
brought out at the upper right-hand hole. 
When the stitch is carried out correctly over 
the entire piece of embroidery, a very firm, 
almost woven substance results, which will 
stand a great deal of hard wear. Indeed, 



this lasting quality is one special advantage 
of canvas embroidery. 

In this kind oi work the canvas should be 
completely hidden by the wool, silk, or thread 
in which it is worked, and care should be 
taken to choose a suitable thickness of either 
material to exactly fill the holes of the 
canvas. As a rule, needlework pictures are 
carried out in wool, but small designs can be 
very beautifully worked out entirely in silks. 

Another Form of Tent 5titch 

Gobelin stitch is a useful variety of tent 
stitch, worked as shown in Fig. b. Diagram 2, 
over two rows of canvas in height and one in 
width. It is often used as a raised stitch, 
over padding laid across the canvas. The 
(iobelin stitch is then worked over it, so as 
to show the padding through. This should be 
of some material like gold thread or braid, 
which gleams through with advantage to the 
appearance of the work. 

Irish stitch, or Florentine stitch, also 
called cushion stitch, takes one of its names 
from much well-known work that may be 
found specially in Italy. In Florence, for 
example, is a famous set of chairs in the 
Borgello Museum showing the stitch worked 
in zigzags in bands of different colours. It is 
also effectively used on smaller articles, 
such as book-covers, card-cases, etc. 

To work it, four holes of canvas are 
usually covered with perpendicular stitches, 
as shown in the diagram. Fig. c. To make a 
straight line at the top and bottom the 
stitches are shortened, where necessary, to 
cover three or two holes. The stitches are 
often also worked in sets of two, three, or 
four stitches side by side, of equal height. 
The method of working is sufficiently indi- 
cated in the diagram. 

Choice of Materials 

Besides canvas as groundwork, these 
stitches can also be worked on any material, 
such as coarse linen, where the threads are 
easily seen, crossing at right angles. Much 
of the sampler work so much in vogue in the 
eighteenth century was carried out on coarse 
linen, as well as fine canvas. It is often 
possible to work the stitches so as to pull the 
material slightly, and so form an openwork 
appearance over it. 

Two stitches of this kind, called two- 

Diagram 2. Three stitches usually worked on single^ply canvas, 
A. Tent stitch. B. Gobelin stitch. C. Florentine stitch 

sided Italian and Holbein stitch respectively, 
are given in Diagram 3, but the stitches 
that can be used are really innumerable, 
and they can be combined in great variety 
according to the fancy of the embroidress. 

Two-sided Italian stitch (see Fig. a) is 
so called because when worked the stitch is 
the same on both sides. When pulled rather 
tightly it produces a set of slightly open 
squares. The colour may be varied, using one 
colour for the crossed stitches and another 
for the four stitches surrounding them. 

Holbein stitch (Fig. b) forms a light 
tracery, and when repeated all over the 
surface makes an even diapering. The 
resulting spaces can be filled in \vith other 

77? de continued. 

Diagram 3. A. Two-sided Italian stitch 

Holbein stiich 




A Much Appreciated Fruit— A Panel for Wood^Carving-The Beauty of a Natural Design— The 
Conventional Apple Design-Curtain^Holders— An Afternoon Teacloth-Finishing off the Work 

*^w.%^mxw-^*«w«f easily made to look most effective, 

'''" '"~" ' especially if the apples are worked 

in different shades ot colour. Curtain- 

liolders look extremely well if thus 


A handsome design is shown in 
the teacloth. The trees at each 
corner are connected by a trellis 
border worked in green silk. This 
design is best carried out in mallard 
silks on fine linen, the colour of the 
fruit being shown in shadings of orange. 
Satin, embroidery, or crewel stitches 
may be used to advantage in the 
working out of all the designs enumer- 
ated. Keep the stitches small and 

The apple design, as applied to a sofa'Cushion. Much of the success of the 
work will depend upon the shading of leaves and fruit 

An apple-branch drawn from Nature when 
the trees are laden with fruit makes a 
capital design for either fancy-work or wood- 
carving on a panel. 

This can be conventionalised in many 

The first illustration depicts the corner 
of a sofa - cushion ; it can be 
carried out with silk, crewels, or 
lustrine, on either satin, canvas, 
linen, or any other coarse ma- 
terial. Care should be taken to 
shade the leaves and fruit artisti- 
cally. When possible, the worker 
should keep " the real thing " in 
front of her. Imagination is not a 
safe guide, although drawing from 
memory is very good practice. 

Another illustrates a worked 
d'oyley. Nothing makes a more 
attractive present than a set of 
dessert d'oyleys, each one worked 
with a different fruit or flower. 
Take pains to do the French knots 
evenly. It is by attending to all 
these small but important points 
that a good workwoman is known. 

Apples make a very satisfactory - _, , ^, ^ ^ j , , 

border. The bold pattern can be Study of apples and fol.age from Nature^^A^good for fancy-work or for 







An effective pattern 
for a border. The 
apples should be 
worked in different 
shades of colour 

even, and do not 
draw them too tightly. 
This especially refers 
to the solidly worked 
apples, leaves, etc. A 
great improvement to 
their appearance is to 
outline them in brown 
or black. These out- 
lines should be ex- 
ecuted in silk a degree 
finer than that used 
in the rest of the 
pattern, otherwise the 
outline is apt to look 
too heavy. Sometimes 
ordinary sewing cot- 
ton produces a good 

A great point in 
bringing all kinds of 
fancy-work to a satis- 
factory finish is to 
iron it well with a 
really hot iron. Do 
not iron the back of 
the work directly ; 
place between the 
iron and the material 
a damp cloth, first 
carefully wringing it 

Then a last word 
as to the making up. Designs, 
however well worked, look 
poor if the linings are 
" skimped," or uneven. It 
is a poor 
economy to 
think" a 
cheap lining 
is a saving. 
In reality it 
is a big mis- 
take, and 
mars the 
value and 
beauty of 
the outside. 
Also use 
pretty cords 
and laces to 
border your 

The des- 
sert d'oyley 
on this page 
is worthy of 
a superior 
edging of 
lace. Real 
V a 1 e n c i - 
ennes may 
be bought 
quite reason- 
a b 1 y in 
England, al- 
though, if 
one has the 
good fortune 

An original and artistic treatment of the conventionalised apple-tree, 
design would look well on each corner of an afternoon teacloih 


to visit a lace factory in Belgium, it can 
be obtained still more cheaply. 

A sofa-cushion usually looks well with a 
frilled border of silk. 

A charming set of dessert d'oylcys can be made by using a bold apple design with evenly 
worked French knots 



In this important section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia every aspect of dress is being dealt 

with by practical and experienced writers. The history of dress from earliest times is told, and 

practical and useful information g 

ven m : j 

Home Dressmaking 


How to Cut Paiter-ns 

Home Tailoring 

Lessons in Hat Trimming 

Methods of Self-measure- 

Representative Fashions 

How to Make a Shape 


Fancy Dress 

How to Curl Feathers 

Colour Contrasts 

Alteration of Clothes, etc. 

Flowers, Hatpins, Colours, etc. 

Boots and Shoes 






How to Keep in Good Condition 

Hoxv to Preserve, etc. 

Cleaning, etc. 

How to Soften Leather., etc. 

How to Detect Frauds 

Jewellery, etc. 


The Comfort of the Tea-gown or Rest Robe— An Opportunity for Individual Choice of Designs — 

Easy Fastenings the Essential Point — A Corset-beh— A Neutral Scheme of Nun-like Grey — Materials 

of which to Make the Tea-gown — Period or Kcitional Costumes — Points to Remember 


HThe main and absolutely 
^ essential element the 
tea-gown must possess is 
comfort. It is a garment 
unworthy the name if it be 
agly, but if it lack the 
,icme of ease it is simply 
iio tea-gown at all. Yet it 
ueed not, and should not, 
look sloppy. 

Many people, 
among them are 
Royalties, give 
the charming 
frock the title of 
rest-gown, and 
that, at its best, 
it most certainly 
is, and to such an end was 

It is an English inven- 
tion, and shares with the 
tailor-made costume that 
distinction, proving that 
our designers understand 
not only the requirements 
of women for their hours of 
strenuous sport, but also 
what they need when the 
moment of leisure arrives. 

The French have bor- 
rowed both vogues, and 
both names, holding dear 
amongst their most 
cherished and exquisite 

A gown for boudoir wear should be simple and fit 

easily. Lacc'cdged handkerchiefs may be used for 

lapels and cuffs 

habiliments their tailor- 
mades and tea-gowns. 

It is futile to lay down 
the law to the extent of 
sketching dictatorially a 
tea-gown scheme for all to 
admire. There are tastes 
and tastes, and it is because 
each individual can with 
perfect propriety consult her 
own idiosyncrasies and 
make, or cause her tea- 
gown to be carried out in 
deference to them, that 
another virtue is added to 
that most delightful of gar- 

One woman, weary of the 
intricacies of the modem 
everyday toilette, sought 
her dressmaker, and asked 
her to design for her a tea- 
gown with one fastening 
only ! In due course the 
dress appeared — a perfect 
success — capable of being 
slipped on with the utmost 
ease, and fastened with just 
the single hook and eye pre- 
scribed at one side of the 
waist, holding the draperies 
of the corsage and the hidden 
placket-hole of the skirt in 
its grip. 

It was a velvet frock, 



with a frill of old lace at the neck, and 
ruffles to match at the wrists. Its owner 
wore with it interesting jewellery that looked 
as if it had a history — one night an Etruscan 
charm and pendant and a clasp to match 
(above the steadfast hook), and on another a 
set of " lump " turquoises, comprising a belt 
of the gems in a barbaric gold framework, 
a mascot on a slender chain, and earrings 
composed of the turquoise in its matrix form. 

Old lace has just been mentioned as a tea- 
gown embellishment, and it will have been 
noticed that the use of it was suggested with 
restraint. The reason is obvious. Precious 
lace is not for the tea-gown of ordinary 
life, except in a very modified form. It 
would be a desecration to use it upon a robe 
in which to garb oneself for restful hours upon 
the sofa, or even to decorate the tea-gown 
that is worn as a dinner frock in the intimacy 
of home life. Lace such as this should play 
a regal part upon the full-dress evening 
toilette of ceremony. 

But odds and ends of real lace beautify 
a tea-gown as no other decoration will, and 
if there is an old-fashioned lace coat it may 
be relied upon, with a few clever alterations, 
to add diversity to a tea-gown scheme. 

Many women have in their possession 
lace-edged handkerchiefs for which they have 
no use ; if they were to arrange them in 
fots, or take the corners to 
make lapels and cuff em- 
bellishments, the handker- 
chiefs would be serving a 
good purpose instead of 
lying by in a drawer to 

The choice of a tea-gown 
material should be made 
carefully, because this type 
of dress is not one that is 
renewed often in the average 
wardrobe. A woman gets 
fond of her tea-gown, and 
likes to wear it the winter 
through, keeping it as a 
stand-by after its first fresh- 
ness has departed for soli- 
tary evenings, or for rest 
hours in the retirement of 
her bedroom. It is worth 
while, therefore, to buy a 
good fabric, but not one 
that will become wearisome 
to the eye by reason of its 
colour or its pattern. 

There is great wisdom in a certain smart 
woman's plan for having, at any rate, one 
tea-gown in her wardrobe, made of grey 
crepe-de-Chine, with black Chantilly lace 
trimmings, bands of silver lace insertion, 
and a chemisette to match. With this 
she can wear a sash girdle of any colour 
that suits her fancy, with a bandeau for her 
hair, also jewels of various tints and types, 
to add splashes of brilliancy to the nun-like 

Woollen batiste, which is clinging and 
cosy, is an excellent material to use for a 

tea-gown lining in the winter, and cleverly 
inserted upon the waist-line should be a 
corset-band, by the aid of which the wearer 
of the gown will be enabled to discard her 
stays when she desires so to do. 

A potent reason of the success the rest-gown 
has gained amongst women is that the corset 
can be abandoned. When it is worn, it 
will be found, nevertheless, not only becom- 
ing to the appearance, but a real comfort 
to have the corset-belt just mentioned. 
It is the kind of belt that the best tailors 
provide with their corselet skirts, and while 
it does not constrict the waist, it prevents 
the pressure of the tea-gown from being 

A velvet frock with a frill 
of old lace at the neck 
and ruffles to the sleeves. 
Fastened with a single 
hook and eye at one side 
of the waist, it is quickly 
donned. Barbaric jewellery 
may be worn with a 
gown of this description 

felt, and adds symmetry to the figure. 
Cashmere-de-soie makes a delightful tea- 
gown, and one that will wear right well. 
The ordinary cashmere, which costs about 
two shillings a yard, is an excellent stand-by, 
and can be purchased in every new and 
pretty colour. 

More ethereal gowns for warm weather 
wear the thin silks will provide, as well as 
crepe-de-Chine. In satin a woman has an 
enormous choice, for the wool-backed type 
can be used in the winter, and the thinner 
variety in the summer. 

DRESS 3828 

To exhaust the list of materials suitable 
for the purpose would demand a large area 
of precious printing space. Suffice it to 
say, then, that every fabric suitable for 
the day or evening toilette, with the excep- 
tion of those used for cloth tailor-mades, 
is available for the purpose, from the simple 
delaine to the luxurious brocade. But a 
line of demarcation should be drawn between 

A tea^gown that can be worn as a dinner frock in the 
intimacy of home life is a most useful possession. The 
above could be made of grey crepe'de'Ciiine, with sleeves 
and trimmings of black Chantiliy lace. Bands of silver 
insertiorv and a sash girdle of any preferred colour should 
be added. 

the material ordered for the tea-gown 
and that required for the dressing- 
gown, unless the tea-gown is to serve 
the purpose of a rest -robe only, and 
never appear before the public eye in 
the dining or drawing room. 

Those delightful fabrics, zenana cloth, 
ripple cloth, moUeton, lambswool, and 

the large family of flannels, also the quilted 
and wadded satins and silks, should be 
jealously guarded for the purpose of manipu- 
lating the dressing-gown proper, leaving the 
very large range of materials that remain 
for the manifestation of the tea-gown. 

But there are more interesting possibilities 
still to suggest respecting the toilette under 
consideration. In no other detail of dress 

can a woman as- 
sert her individu- 
ality, or indulge 
her love of inven- 
tion more easily 
or more legiti- 
mately , than in the 
design she chooses 
for her tea-gown. 
She can herself 
contribute the 
idea for an artistic 
scheme ; can re- 
veal her own 
spirit, as it were,^ 
in what she wears. 
She can perpet- 
uate the fashions 
of old times, can 
materialise the 
moonlight and the 
sunlight, and, in 
short, invest her 
gown with the 
romance which is 
lacking in her 
other toilettes. 

Say she is fend 
of old styles, all 
she has to do is to 
visit the National 
Gallery, or some 
other great col- 
lection of paint- 
ings, and pick out 
for herself the par- 
ticular "school" 
of dress that she 
most admires. 
She can appear as 
a lady of the 
Court of Charles 
I. ; can re- 
present the 
salient fea- 
tures of the 
period ; can 
be a medi- 
aeval prin- 
cess of his- 
torical re- 
nown, can 
be French, 
H u ngarian, 
Swiss, or 
vian, ac- 
cording to 
her fancy. 



Numbers of women amuse themselves by 
designing their own tea-gowns, using for 
the purpose of their materiaUsation stuffs 
they have brought from abroad, from India, 
Egypt, the Mediterranean, Japan, China, 
and so forth. Some actually weave their 
own materials, a very domesticated and 
delightful pastime. 

Two of the loveliest tea-gowns I have ever 
seen were made of Chinese and Japanese 
stuifs, superbly embroidered ; and when their 
wearers had dressed their hair after the 
manner of the countries from whence their 
tea-gowns came, and had adorned them- 
selves with jewels en suite, the ieffect pro- 
duced was charming. 

Swiss and Scandinavian tea-gowns will 
be echoes of the peasant dresses of those 
lands, and the flowing robes of Egypt 
represented in fabrics from the country of 
the Pharaohs make very restful and im- 
posing habiliments. 

Every little detail must be thought out 
when the place or picture tea-gown is being 
constructed. Not only must the trimmings 
of the gown be in keeping with the fabrics 

and styles thereof, but the feet must be shod 
suitably, and the hair must be dressed with 
some hint of reciprocity to the design. 

Collecting inexpensive ornaments to deco- 
rate the tea-gown toilette forms one of 
many shopping amusements the traveller 
to foreign parts may enjoy. From Egypt 
she will bring strange scarabs and beads, 
and from Venice the spoils of the necklace 
dealers to add to her store of interesting 

Then, when the tea-gown is on, the mind 
can be given a rest by picturing the places 
in which the materials and jewels were 
bought. Happy hours holiday-making can 
be brought back and lived over again, and 
the fret and worry of ordinary existence 
will be forgotten in the meditations that will 
soothe the wearer of the robe. 

Points to Remember: 

The tea-gown must be comfortable. 

The tea-gown must not be sloppy-looking. 

It may be a copy of an old picture frock, 
or may resemble the national dresses of 
foreign parts. 


Suitability— Choice of Colours — ^Indoor Gowns — Coats — Evening Cloaks— Millinery — Motor Veils — 
Gloves — Underclothing — Dress in "Windy Weather — Raincoats 

•npHE well-dressed woman is always suitably 
clad. Dress may be beautiful, costly, and 
becoming, but if it is not suited to the 
particular occasion or season in which it is 
worn it has not fulfilled its chief requirement. 

A trailing gown of velvet and lace is not 
adapted for shopping or travelling, any 
more than a tweed skirt and flannel blouse is 
appropriate to an afternoon reception. 

Many people, however give considerable 
thought to their dress for morning or 
evening wear, yet will not trouble as to its 
suitability to the diflerent seasons. They do 
not, perhaps, feel heat or cold very acutely, 
and will, therefore, wear heavy serges in 
summer, or thin, flimsy garments in winter, 
quite regardless of the effect of their appear- 
ance on other people. 

Our changeable climate may be respon- 
sible for this. We make preparations for a 
hot summer which never comes, or for a cold 
winter which turns out mild and foggy, yet 
there is a style of dress suitable for each 
season which need not involve our being 
either baked or frozen. 

Choice of Colours 

Much may be done by a careful choice of 

Warm browns and various shades of red 
are, of course, particularly adapted to 
winter wear, but there are many whom these 
colours do not suit. They should choose 
instead warm shades of different colours — 
dark blue, inclining to purple rather than 
indigo ; greys, with a tone of heliotrope in 

them ; or mole colour, which inclines to 
pink or brown rather than green. Colour 
has a much greater effect on our feelings 
than we always realise, and in cold, cheerless 
weather to wear cold shades of colour is to 
affect everyone with a disagreeable sensation 
of chilliness. 

For a long time white was not considered 
winter wear, but it has become much more 
general. Though not warm-looking in itself, 
it does not absorb the light, and therefore 
has always a cheerful appearance. But it 
should be a warm, creamy white, not a blue- 
white ; and the material should be a warm 
one, such as velvet, wool, or fur. 

Sometimes a cold-coloured costume can 
be made to look warm and suitable for winter 
by the judicious admixture of warm colours 
in the trimming ; a waistcoat or blouse of 
some brilliant tint can be worn with it, or a 
touch of warm colour in the hat. Many 
charming combinations can be obtained in 
this way. 


The materials of which winter clothes 
are made should be light as well as warm, as 
heavy clothing impedes the circulation. 
All wool materials are the lightest, and wear 
the best ; they keep their colour, and do not 
look shabby so soon as those made of a 
mixture of wool and cotton. 

Serges and tweeds should be employed 
for coats and skirts for hard wear. A good 
Harris tweed, tailor-made, is practically 
everlasting, and for the country and hard 



wear is excellent. When something a little smarter is 
required, vicuna, Venetian, or faced cloth can be worn ; 
also velveteen, plain or corduroy. This last has a delight- 
ful appearance, particularly when worn with good furs. 

Velvet is an ideal material for winter wear, and is 
both warm and becoming. Bands of fur as a trimming 
for velvet are both charming and appropriate. 

Indoor Dresses 

Whole dresses for indoor wear, made in velveteen, 
embroidered cashmere, etc., can be bought ready made 
quite reasonably, and often very little alteration is needed 
to adapt them to the individual wearer. 

The wearing of transparent lace yokes and collars to 
such gowns is a pretty and practical fashion that is not 
likely to fall into disuse, but in very cold weather such 
wear is decidedly chilly. There are, however, under- 
bodices to be had, made of palest pink or cream silk and 

wool, which do not 

A winter costume 
which is both smart 
and sensible. The 
touches of braiding 
and the use of fur 
are additions which 
lend the costume its 
distinctive appear- 

show when worn 
under the lace, and 
yet are quite cap- 
able of keeping off 
the sudden chill 
which is so apt to 
eventuate in pneu- 

For morn ing 
wear, shirt blouses 
of coloured flannels, 
washing silk, and 
nuns'-veiling are 
pretty, comfort- 
able, and good style. 
The custom o 
\vearing old after- 
noon dresses in the 
morning should be 
banned by every 
woman. A well-cut 
shirt, with - collar 
and tie, and a 
tailor-made skirt of 
tweed or serge is an 

deal morning 
costume, for an 
Englishwoman, at. , , 

ii" -.„j-„ A useful yet modish coat, which can be worn 

-L- J cither open or closed over the chest. This coat is 

Thick tweed or admirably suited for travelling 

serge skirts do not require a lining, but a skirt of 
thinner material may be made much warmer by the 
addition of a lining of silk or silkette. 


The tweed or frieze cloth coat which 
is required for really cold weather should 
always be lined, either with silk, satin, or 
sateen. However thick the frieze or tweed 
may be, the wind has power to pierce 
through it, but the lining will prevent its 
reaching the wearer. Man}^ of these coats 
are made so that they can be worn either 
open or closed over the chest, and with a 
turned-down or stand-up collar. (See 

Tong fur coats and fur-lined cloaks 
should not be worn for walking ; their 
weight makes them quite unsuitable, 
though they are excellent for motoring 


and driving. Short fur coats are less weighty, 
but are apt to make the wearer very sus- 
ceptible to cold. It is far healthier to wear 
a moderately warm coat, with a stole or 
pelerine of fur, which can be easily thrown 
off on entering a warm atmosphere. 

It is not a good plan to wear fur close up 
round the throat, as it makes the throat 
delicate, and is extremely difficult to discard 
without taking cold. 

Knitted wool coats are delightfully warm 
and light, and are very useful as an extra 
wrap after rinking or other exercise. 

Narrow skirts are not adapted to the 
sportswoman, but, if worn, additional width 
and freedom can be obtained by the addition 
of pleats each side of the skirt, which allow 
full play to the limbs, and yet preserve the 
smart appearance. 

Eveninji: Coats 

Englishwomen's dress has in most cases 
a note of restraint, but there is one depart- 
ment in which this is not conspicuous, and 
that is in evening cloaks. 

Rich brocades and satins of Oriental 
colourings, gold tinsel and priceless lace, are 
lavished on these exquisite creations. Women 


apparently make 
up for the sober- 
ness of their other 
attire by the almost 
barbaric splendour 
of their evening 

But these costly 

garments can only 

be worn by the 

woman who owns 

a motor or carriage, 

and for the woman 

who has perhaps 

to travel up by 

train to the theatre 

or concert a less 

conspicuous coat 

is desirable. 

Our illustra- 
tion not only 
gives a design 

The coat worn open, 
showing a pretty lace 
iabot. which gives a 
lighter effect to the 

A prcttv coat in faced cloth, suitable for theatre wear or for travelling 
in the daytime 

for a coat suitable for wear on these 
occasions, but it could also be used 
for a travelling cloak. It is fashioned 
with a deep cape-like collar, and should 
be carried out in faced cloth. 

The bands of trimming in the design 
are of plush, either a darker shade of 
the colour of the cloth or contrasting. 

They would look equally well in 
embroidery or fur. The colour of the 
bands should be introduced into the 
embroidery and tassels. The coat 
should be lined with cream satin or silk 
if intended for (evening wear. 

If fashion allows, the winter hat 
should be smaller in size than the 

DRESS 3^32 

summer one. Velvet, plush, felts— both hard 
and soft— are all appropriate to the season and 
wonderfully becoming to the wearer's face. 

Wings are preferable to ostrich feathers, 
as they do not get out of order so quickly. 
Fur hats are rather hot and heavy, but 
trimmings of fur in millinery have a very 
pleasant. effect. Feather hats are light and 
warm, and when well made last very well. 
Creamy white felt and plush hats are pretty 
and soft, especially with black trimmings. 

Hat Trimmings 

Ribbons as trimmings are very suitable 
for bad weather ; flowers are admissible 
for winter hats, but are not used extensively. 

Touches of embroidery are also very 
effective, as also gold and silver tinsel, but 
the last-named 
tarnishes very 
quickly. Fruit has 
been largely used of 
late years, and goes 
well with velvet. 

The same rule ap- 
plies to millinery as 
to the other items of 
dress, that it should 
look warm and 
seasonable as well as 
feel so. 


For cold weather 
the wearing of lined 
leather gloves is not 
advisable. A pair of 
woollen gloves worn 
over kid ones are 
much warmer and 
better in every way, 
and they can be 
easily removed if the 
hands get too hot. 

Those who suffer 
from cold hands 
should see that their 
gloves are long 
enough to cover the 
wrists, as it is most 
important to keep 
them .warm. 

Gloves should 
never be tight ; nothing makes the hands 
cold more quickly. 

For evening wear it is as well to have a 
pair of long white woollen gloves to wear 
over the kid ones while going to and fro to 
the theatre or dance ; they keep the hands 
and arms warm and the evening gloves free 
from soil. 


There are many little accessories to be 
had now for giving additional warmth to 
the costume. The shaped mufflers in silk 
and fine wool are excellent for wearing with 
open coats, and some are made with up- 
standing collars to protect the throat. 

There are also knitted waistcoats for 

A suitable hat for windy days in winter. The motor veil is adjusted so 
as to keep the hat in place and afford a pleasant warmth round the throat 

wearing under coats which are rather too 
thin for very cold weather, and many other 
little contrivances, so that there is no excuse 
either for catching cold or for muffling up 
in ugly and unbecoming wraps. 

Dress for Windy Weather 

One of the fashions which motoring has 
introduced is that of the motor veil. It is 
a very convenient fashion, but the veil needs 
careful adjustment, or the effect will be the 
reverse of becoming. 

Veils are to be bought very cheaply. A 
length of chiffon may be made into a motor 
veil with little trouble. A two- yard length 
of chiffon, gauze, or ninon should be cut in 
two, one length a few inches longer than the 
other. Then hem one end of each length, 
and run through both 
hems a piece of 
millinery wire, about 
4 inches long. Join 
the ends of the wire 
into a ring. Ne^t 
cut out a round of 
cardboard the size of 
the ring, cover it 
with a piece of the 
gauze, and then stitch 
it on to the ring ; 
this covers the wire 
and makes it neat. 
Then hem the other 
ends of the gauze, 
either with plain 
hemming or hem- 
stitching, which gives 
a pretty finish. 

If the two lengths 
of chiffon are joined 
for a few inches down 
from the circular 
crown on one side, 
complete protection 
is afforded for the 
back of the head. 

The veil is then 
ready to put on. 
The circular part is 
pinned on to the hat, 
and the ends drawn 
down and tied under 
the chin, taking care 
to have the longer end on the right hand, if 
it is desired to have the ends of the bow even. 
If a motor veil is not cared for, a close- 
fitting hat of the description given in the 
illustration is a very comfortable style for 
windy days. To this hat chiffon strings 
coming from the sides are added, which 
help to keep the hat in place and give a 
pleasant warmth round the throat. These 
strings could, if desired, be taken round the 
back of the neck and then brought round 
to tie under the chin or at one side, giving 
additional warmth and security. 

For windy weather all the garments 
should be as close-fitting as possible. Hang- 
ing sleeves and loose draperies should be 

Gauntlet gloves are useful ; they prevent 
the wind from blowing up the sleeves. 

For serviceable skirts it is not a bad plan 
to have the hem lined up inside with leather 
about four inches deep. It helps to weight 
the skirt and keep it down, and in wet 
weather if the hem gets muddy it can be 
easily sponged and dried. 

Boots are the best wear for winter ; if 
shoes are worn, gaiters should be added for 
the sake of warmth and dryness. Raincoats 
of waterproofed cloth are preferred to 
mackintoshes by many ; they are healthier 
in wear and have no smell, and will resist 
any ordinary rain. 


For winter wear all-wool undergarments 
are decidedly the best. However thin, if 
they are of pure wool they are a great safe- 
guard against chills. But some skins are 
too sensitive for woollen underwear ; for 

3833 DRESS 

these a mixture of silk and wool is more 
comfortable and almost as warm. 

Divided skirt knickers of a really warm, 
light material will be found a very conifortable 
substitute for the usual petticoat for everyday 
wear with shore dresses; for a long dress, of 
course, an underskirt is indispensable. 

Stockings should be of wool or silk. The 
latter are the pleasantest wear ; spun silk 
ones are not expensive and wear very well. 

Nightdresses of flannel or nuns'-veiling 
are warm and cosy for winter nights. There 
are also woven woollen nightdresses in 
cream, or natural shade, trimmed with lace, 
which are both cheap and pretty. 

In fact, the provision of raiment for a 
woman's comfort and well-being in cold 
winter days is very extensive ; comfort and 
beauty are so combined that if she is not 
suitably, warmly, and prettily clad it must 
be in great measure her own fault. 


The Button as a Decorative Item in Dress — The Button to Denote Official Rank — A Substitute 
for a Buckle — Buttons for Use as Well as Ornament — The Renovation of a Muff — To Decorate a 

Bodice or Skirt-panel 

HThe word button 
may sound curi- 
ously unattractive 
and dull ; in reality, 
it stands for quite a 
fascinating adorn- 
ment for a woman's 

When buttons 
were first made they 
were simply em- 
ployed f ordccorative 
purposes ; in the 
fifteenth century 
they were used as 
fasteninps. Buttons 
are also used as a 
mark of rank or to 
denote an order. 
The Chinese man- 
darin has the choice 
of nine different 
kinds of buttons to 
designate his grade 
or rank. He wears 
his button in his 
official cap or hat — 
beautiful and artistic 
buttons they are, 
too. The first grade 
button is made of a 
transparent red 
stone, then comes a 
red coral button, 
then one of sapphire, 
a blue stone, and 
the next of crystal. 
A button of white 
shell, plain gold, em- 
bellished gold, and, 

D 26 

Buttons made of silk and thickly sewn with beads are a distinctive note 

on an evening bodice. Two may be connected by loops of silk cord or 

strings of beads 

for the ninth grade, 
a silver button. 

Any one of these 
ideas could suggest 
delightful possibili- 
ties for buttons 
which we may adapt 
to our own use. The 
button may present 
the one distinctive 
touch of colouring to 
a gown or hat or 
cloak. There was a 
time when each 
button had to be 
fashioned by an 
artist in his craft. 
Some were made of 
needlework, others 
of brass, and even 
iron. Exquisite gold 
buttons, set with 
jewels, others of 
ivory or delicate 
filagree work. Some 
of paper, porcelain, 
and even the casein 
of milk. 

There was an im- 
mense vogue for gilt 
buttons as trim- 
mings in 1767, and 
exquisite steel 
buttons with glitter- 
ing facets were art 
productions of the 

Then came the 
commercial progres- 
sion. Buttons were 


An otherwise plain costume 

have a smart appearance if trimmed with buttons on skirt and bodice, 
would be to set the buttons in groups of twos and threes 

An alternative arrangement 

stamped in dies. Pearl buttons were made 
from oyster shells, and polished by machinery. 
Beautiful glass and porcelain buttons followed 
from Bohemia, and now to-day buttons of all 

sizes, shapes, and materials are poured forth 

into the mercantile stream in their millions. 

For our clothes and millinery buttons may 

prove truly friends in need, especially if they 

are chosen for their quaintness and beauty, 
and never — when required for decorative 
purposes — for their utiUty. 

A plain hat may be smartened up con- 
siderably by one handsome button. We will 
suppose the hat is of black velvet, and we 
have a feather, but it requires something 
to finish off the stem of the feather, and 
suddenly we remember an old paste button. 
It looks a trifle dull, so we polish it care- 
fully with a piece of tissue paper, place the 
feather at a becoming angle, and then 
add the glittering button, and it is sur- 
prising what a smart touch it will give. 

A Frenchwoman will 
do wonders with a 
button and a twist of 
ribbon. There may be 
one smart bow at the 
side of a hat. Then 
treat the button as a 
buckle. Perhaps it is a 
hat which requires a 
touch of colour — let the 
button give that vivid 

If we cannot find a 
button to suit our gown, 
cut out a large round 
of velvet, and em- 
broider little circles in 
filoselle silk in any 
desired colour. Cover 
a button-mould with 
this, and we have a 
pretty finish for the 
bow of the hat. Such 
a button would also 
make an artistic note 
on a hat which is 
swathed in lace, silk, 
or fur. An embroidered 
button placed on a hat 
entirely composed of 
fur would be uncommon 
and attractive. 

Two large buttons 
made of silk cord look 
well on a long coat of 
velvet, silk, or fur ; 
they may be further 
embellished with 
French knots in gold 
thread. By adding an 

odd dull gold bead or An old paste button may gather 

two, such buttons may . *^ ^^" ^^ 

assume quite a barbaric appearance. These • 
buttons are also handsome when embroidered 
in gold or silver cord, with French • knots 
worked in pretty pastel shades of mallard 

Sometimes one may pick up quaint 
polished or beaten copper buttons at out-of- 
the-way shops. One of these dull orange- 
copper buttons makes a most picturesque 
adornment for the burnous-like evening 
cloak of soft silk. In this case the button 
can be permitted to become useful as well 
as ornamental, and may fasten the cloak 
around the shoulders by passing it through 

3835 DRESS 

a loop which has been made of silk cord for 
its reception. 

The same kind of button may loop up one 
of the wide silken scarfs edged with fur or 
swansdown which many women affect for 
evening wear. When used for this purpose 
the button should be placed in a suitable 
position, so that it would rest on the shoulder 
when passed through the silk loop. 

There are those who may be fortunate 

enough to have a set of old paste buttons. 

At the same time, they may also possess a 

fur muff which is rather worn in places. The 

fur may be arranged carefully in strips, 

with strips of velvet 

between each strip of 

fur. The old paste 

buttons will look 

charming on the two 

strips of velvet, which 

could be finished off 

with silk tassels. This 

is an artistic way of 

renovating or enlarging 

a muff at little cost. 

Nothing looks better 
on a rough turquoise 
or rose-coloured frieze 
coat than a set of the 
beautiful shaded porce- 
lain buttons which can 
be bought at art depots. 
They are made in most 
exquisite colourings, 
some of rose, others of 
gold ; others, again, re- 
mind one of the fires of 
the opal, whilst another 
may possess the be- 
witching colourings of 
the autumn leaf . These 
buttons need not be 
placed in a straight line, 
but can be arranged 
on the coat in twos or 
threes, and so present 
a more artistic effect. 
The skirt which belongs 
to such a coat may be 
cut up each side to 
show a panel of the 
same material, or one 
of velvet or silk to 
match the collar of the 

\ scarf together, and prove useful COat. Three of these 

decorative artistic buttous make a 

pretty embellishment for this panel. 

For the girl who admires the uncommon, 
two large buttons made of silk and thickly 
sewn with beads will appeal irresistibly. 
Coral and steel or white beads make an 
excellent combination. They are placed on 
the bust of the blouse, and between each 
button there are loops of silk cord finished 
off with silk tassels. 

For an evening bodice, cover the button- 
moulds with silk embroidered with pearl, 
crystal, or gold beads; the loops between 
each may be made of strings of beads 
to match. 


This section forms a complete guide to the art of preserving and 

acquiring beauty. How wide is 

its scope can be seen from the following summary of its contents : 

Beautiful Women in History 

The Beatitiful Baby 

Beauty Secrets Mothers ought to 

Treatment of the Hair 

The Beautiful Child 

Teach their Daughters 

The Beauty of Motherhood and 

Health and Beauty 

The Complexion 

Old Aq-e 

Physical Culture 

The Teeth 

The Efect of Diet on Beauty 

Hozv the Housewife may Preserve 

The Eyes 

Freckles, Sunburn 

Her Good Looks 

The Ideal of Beauty 

Beauty Baths 

Beauty Foods 

The Ideal Figtire, 


etc., etc. 




In the long gallery of the beautiful and 
famous women of England, none 
occupies so peculiar a position as Lady Hester 
Stanhope, who at various periods in her 
existence led the life of a milkmaid, was 
official hostess to William Pitt, and died in 
Syria in the belief that Fate intended her to 
be Queen of Jerusalem. 

This amazing woman was the eldest 
daughter of the third Earl of Stanhope, and 
her mother was the clever sister of William 
Fitt, the great Prime Minister. She was born 
at Chevening, Kent, on March 12, 1776. Her 
mother possessed great charm, and impressed 
all by her equable temperament and pru- 
dence. She died when her eldest daughter 
was but four years old, leaving her to the 
educational experiments of her father — an 
eccentric of the first order. His individu- 
ality of outlook made him a violent Jacobin 
during the French Revolution. He wore his 
hair unpowdered, and styled himself Citizen 
Stanhope. Determined "himself to forgo the 
rights and luxuries of his birth and position, 
he saw to it that his children also led the 
lives of the poor and uneducated. 

William Pitt's Housekeeper 

One of his sons he apprenticed to a black- 
smith, and his daughter Hester was regularly 
sent to mind turkeys on a common. She had 
but a very rambling education, and if she by 
any chance managed to obtain a gown which 
became her, it was taken from her. The con- 
ditions of her home she soon found intolerable, 
and in 1800 she left it. 

In spite of her upbringing, she grew to be 
a brilliant woman, invincibly cheerful and 
astonishingly independent. By sheer force 

of character she rescued her brothers from the 
educational eccentricities of her father, and 
her skill in so doing attracted the notice of her 
uncle, William Pitt, who asked her, in 1803, 
to keep house for him. 

She was then twenty-seven, and in every 
way a majestic being. She was very tall and 
well built ; her eyes were a greyish-blue, her 
nose rather large, and her skin almost dead- 
white. Intellectually, she suffered from 
impetuosity of temper, and her frequent use 
of a sharp tongue and nimble wit did not 
make her beloved as the dispenser of the 
Prime Minister's official hospitality. She was 
dazzlingly indiscreet, and Pitt, when ques- 
tioned as to his attitude towards his niece, 
said : 

" I let her do as she pleases, for if she were 
resolved to cheat the devil, she could do it." 

The Hero of Corunna 

Pitt left her a pension of ;^i,2oo a year, and 
she first of all set up house in Montagu Square. 
Pitt had declared that she would never 
marry, and, indeed, she lived to fulfil his 
ptophecy. The only touch of love romance 
in her history was the affection she formed for 
the hero of Corunna, upon whose staff were 
both her brothers. She was never regularly 
engaged to him, but there is little doubt that 
their friendship was great. The last letter 
Sir John Moore wrote to her before Corunna 
was : " Farewell, my dear Lady Hester. If 
I can beat the French, I shall return to you 
with satisfaction ; but if not, it will be 
better that I shall never quit Spain." 

The bringer of the news of Sir John Moore's 
magnificent retreat across rugged Galicia, 
and his glorious end on the hills behind 



Corunna, bore a double load of sorrow to 
Lady Hester, for in the same battle fell her 
favourite brother. For a time she was 
inconsolable, and to her death she treasured 
some relics of the hero of Corunna — some 
sleeve-links containing a lock of his hair, and, 
it was said, a blood-stained glove which he 
had worn, and upon which she would gaze 
when she believed herself to be alone. 

In Male Attire 

After a short and rather ridiculous sojourn 
in Wales, where she played at a bucolic 
existence, she finally became quite intolerant 
of the restrictions of ordinary society, and 
determined to travel. She left for the Levant 
in 1810, and never again saw her native 
land. Travel in those days was rather an 
adventure, and Lady Hester started with a 
suite which grew as she travelled east. Her 
brother, who was on his way to rejoin his 
regiment, accompanied her as far as Gibraltar. 
She did not stay long there. The beauties of 
the Rock were for her spoilt utterly by the 
presence of too mucti society, and she went 
on in the Cerberus to Malta, Corinth, and 
Athens. As they passed the breakwater at 
the entrance to Piraeus, a man was seen diving 
into the sea. It proved to be Lord Byron, 
who afterwards joined the party for a time, 
when he had to bear a pressing attack from 
Lady Hester Stanhope on the low idea he 
possessed of female intellect. 

From Athens she moved on to Constanti- 
nople, where she at once struck that note of 
courage and initiative which gained for her 
the respect and protection of the lawless 
tribes she afterwards visited. She vowed 
that, in spite of tradition, she would witness 
the Sultan's procession to the mosque. She 
rode to it, side-saddle, and the mere fact 
that she escaped insult or injury on the day 
is a good proof of her character. Leaving 
Constantinople, her party got shipwrecked 
off Rhodes, and Lady Hester, having lost all 
her clothes, joyfully accepted the oppor- 
tunity of donning male attire. She wore a 
silk and cotton shirt, striped waistcoat, short 
cloth jacket without sleeves, and a volumin- 
ous pair of breeches, with a sash bristling 
with pistols and knives, reinforced by a belt 
for powder and shot. She found some 
difficulty in arranging her hair under her 
turban, so eventually she shaved her head. 

Lady Hester in tlie East 

Everywhere in her journeyings in the ' 
Levant — then practically unknown territory 
— she was preceded by rumours as to her 
importance, and the strangest fables as to 
the objects of her journey gained for her a 
renown which fact would not have conferred. 
At Cairo she was received in state by the 
Pasha. He sent richly caparisoned horses 
to convey her and her suite to his establish- 
ment, whither she was preceded by officials . 
bearing silver wands. She was apparently 
well worth receiving in this state. Picture a 
woman nearly six foot tall, of commanding 
features and considerable beauty, attired in 

rich purple breeches and cloak heavily velvet 
embroidered, which had cost her ;^30o. She 
was conducted to the garden of the Pasha's 
harem, and served with coffee in porcelain 
cups held in jewelled gold stands. Her 
host presented her with two Arab chargers, 
one of which she sent to the Duke of 
York, and the other to Viscount Ebrington. 
After many perilous adventures with the 
fanatical Bedouins, she set off on a stately 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. She found a 
final resting-place in the shadow of Mount 
Lebanon. She obtained from the Pasha of 
Acre the ruins of a village and a convent 
on the summit of a mount peopled by 
Druses. She there built herself a home, 
consisting of several houses surrounded by a 
garden, and protected by an outer wall. 

Queen of Palmyra 

From the picturesque point of view, her 
retreat in this lonely spot was almost worthy 
of her picturesque history. In the garden 
trellises covered with vines led to kiosks and 
sculptured arabesques interlaced with jas- 
mine. The alleys were planted with fruit- 
trees, the lawns with flowering shrubs, and 
here and there marble basins in the shade 
gave the touch of water needed in nearly 
every garden worth the name. 

Here she intrigued against the British con- 
suls in the district, induced the Druses to 
rise against Ibrahim Pasha, and endeavoured 
to strengthen the waning authority of the 
Sultan . She acquired almost despotic power 
over the district, and was venerated by all 
the natives, upon whom she showered charity. 
She gradually adopted Eastern manners and 
customs, and surrounded herself with a horde 
of slaves and servants, who were not expected 
to smile or be anything except obsequious 
machines. She enforced her authority with 
much strong language and blows from a 
mace, but not with much success. The 
household slaves became impossible. They 
were filthy and dishonest, but so long as 
they were humble and Oriental she was 

The stories in Europe regarding this 
extraordinary woman aroused enormous 
interest, and all distinguished travellers in 
the East endeavoured to have an interview 
with the Queen of Palmyra. I-amartine was 
among these visitors. He was not greatly 
impressed by her, and describes her religious 
belief as being an ingenious but muddled 
mixture of the different religions of those 
around her. Kinglake and Prince !Max of 
Bavaria also called upon her. 

A Strange Belief 

She loved to talk at people, and did so to 
excess. She liked her listener to stand while 
slaves filled the pipes or knelt around the 
room. She then imagined that she was an 
Eastern princess. " I have known her," says 
her faithful Dr. Mer^'on, " lie for two hours 
at a time with her pipe in her mouth (from 
which the sparks fell and burnt the counter- 
pane into innumerable holes) when she was 



ring humour, and go on 
discourse like a parson 



m a lect 

dne English visitor succumbed to the flow 
of her conversation, and fainted, and to the 
servants who came to attend to him, she 
said that he had been overpowered by 
shame in listening to the state of disgrace 
to which his country was reduced by its 
Ministers. Dr. 
Meryon was the 
chief sufferer. He 
was completely de- 
voted to her, and 
became almost in- 

Lady Hester 
Stanhope, in her 
mixture of religions, 
found room for the 
theory of the trans- 
migration of souls, 
and kept a large 
number of cats, dogs , 
horses, in great 
comfort. For her 
horses she arranged 
a sort of superannu- 
ation scheme. It has 

been said that 

among the natives 

she inspired a feeling 

of veneration. This 

sentiment was 

largely mingled with 

superstition, and 

among the fables 

which Lady Hester 

loved to encourage, 

and finally ended in 

believing herself, 

was one to the effect 

that she was fated to 

enter Jerusalem as 

Queen of the Jews, 

at the coming of the 

Messiah. In the 

legend the Messiah 

is to enter the Holy 

City on a mare 

which shall be born 

saddled, and in the 

stables Lady Hester 

Stanhope kept a 

mare with a broad, 

deep cavity behind 

her shoulders, ex- 

debt. She was robbed right and left. She 
got deep in the books of Levantine usurers, 
and, finally, Lord Palmerston had to appro- 
priate the bulk of her pension for the satis- 
faction of these claims. 

In that year she shut herself up in her 
house with five servants. The gate was 
built up, and none admitted. She died in 
all the armour of her pride and in the cold- 

me led the life 

actly injthe form of The beautiful and fascinating Lady Hester Stanhope, a remarkable woman, who at one 

a Turkish saddle °^ * milkmaid, but who died in Syria in the firm belief that Fate intended her to be Queen of Jerusalem 

rT-i • * From the drawing 1 

Ihis mare none was 


allowed to ride. She was always attended by 
two Arabs. Also in the stables was a silver- 
grey mare, with the sacred mission of carrying 
the Lady Hester as Queen of Jerusalem by 
the side of the Messiah into her city. 

As the years went on, what Lord Rosebery 
has described as her " fierce eccentricity " 
became more and more pronounced. Her 
health gave way. Her charity ran her into 

ness of complete isolation from friends. 
Immediately the breath left her body she was 
forsaken by her servants, who stole ever^-- 
thing they could carry, respecting only the 
ornaments upon her person. The place was 
found deserted by the British consul at 
Beirout and Mr. Thomson, an American mis- 
sionary, who came at once to the deathbed. 
They buried her at midnight in the garden . 





Continued front f>a^e 3S97> -^ar^ 30 



Diploma of Honour at the Paris lixhibition. Coiffeur by Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen 

The Value of Waving — How to "Wave on Steel or Tortoiszshell Pins — The Origin of Marcel 
Waving — How to Marcel Wave at Home 

HTo the woman who desires a really attrac- 
tive, well-dressed head, waving is in- 
dispensable. By that I do not mean to lay 
down a hard and fast rule that every woman, 
without exception, should always 
appear with her hair waved. By no 
means. There are certain types of 
beauty and mouldings of feature 
and figure that demand straight hair 
for the perfection of the tout 
ensemble. The statuesque, rather 
cold beauty that can stand a 
coiffure a la Vierge, or a severe 
Grecian dressing, looks grotesque 
with fluffy, waved tresses, or with 
a lot of curls and puffs. It needs 
coils and smooth brushing. 

Waving, in addition to other 
matters, needs discrimination. And 

two kinds — ^the ordinary straight hairpin, 
rather long; and the tortoiseshell or horn 
pins, manufactured for this purpose, which 
can be bought quite inexpensively at any 
good hairdresser's. 

The method of waving differs 
slightly on the different pins. 
First, let us suppose an ordinary 
hairpin is to be used. Divide the 
front hair into moderate strands 
(the more hair in each strand, the 
wider the wave). Take one strand, 
and place the hairpin, with the 
prongs well divided, at the roots 
of the strand of hair, with the 
loop of the pin nearest the scalp, 
and the hair between the prongs. 
Hold the pin firmly with the left 
hand, and take the strand in the 

the woman with classical features An effective and simple right. Twist it over each prong in 

J I _ . J i_ 1 _•„ ...V _ J :_„ x_ method of waving hair on j j i.- x- 1 Tx- a..-_x. 

and heavy, dark hair, who tries to 

fluff it and wave it, instead of letting 

it follow its own simple and severe lines, is 

worse than foolish. 

Waving is for the woman who wants to 
look smart, or the woman who wants to look 
dainty and fluffy, but not for the woman who 
makes a cult of the statuesque. Waving 
adapts itself equally well to the smart, 
brushed-up coiffure of the woman who is 
chic, or to the careless, fascinating fluffiness 
of the girl with simple frocks and dimples. 
It can lend a head that indescribable air of 
" chicness " that is so enviable in a certain 
type of woman ; or it can add charm to the 
negligee lines and curves affected by an 
ingenue. If a classical, statuesque woman 
possesses heavy, smooth hair, let her leave it 
as Nature intended it to look, and 
she will achieve perfection. Bat if 
a woman of the more ordinary, 
everyday type is the possessor of 
straight, lifeless hair, let her do all 
in her power to give it that waved 
fluffiness which will transform her 
appearance from mediocrity to 

Waving is not all of the Marcel 
type ; indeed, it is practically im- 
possible for a woman to Marcel wave 
her own hair. But there are other 
ways of securing an excellent wave 
on the front and side hair ; a wave 
which looks pretty and natural, and 
gives the hair just that support 

method ot waving 
an ordinary hairpin 

turn, taking particular care to twist 
it towards the face the first 
time. If this is not done, the wave goes the 
wrong way. Continue twisting over and over 
each prong until the strand covers the pin in 
a sort of plait. (See illustration.) When all 
the hair has been used up take the two ends 
of the pin, and bend the left one towards the 
right, and the right towards the left. This 
crossing of the ends prevents the hair on the 
pin from loosening or escaping. 

This method produces a flatter wave than 
that done on a horn or shell pin, but either 
of these waves are more crinkly than a 
Marcel wave. If the hair is left on the pin 
all night, or some hours, no heat is necessary ; 
and when the pin is removed the wave will 
appear. But if the hair is to be dressed im- 
mediately, some flat pincher-shaped 
irons — as used for curls en papillote 
— should be thoroughly heated, and 
the hair pressed firmly between 
them. The pin can then be removed, 
and the wave is equally good. 

To wave on horn or steel pins 
divide the hair as before, and place 
the pin, with the hair between its 
prongs, and the loop nearest the 
head. The hair is then taken in the 
right hand, and wound round and 
round the prongs. Again, care must 
be taken to twist it, the first time, 
towards the face. If this is done, 
it will be found that, as it is wound 
round the pin, the hair twists itself. 

and substance which makes waving ^^°^ [;;;;^^^ sreeYmn'' ^"* ^^ ^* ^^ turned away, it remams 

such a help in hairdressing. Every /Tn elastic band, slipped flat When the hair is covermg the 

woman can wave her hair, if she across the pin, when the pi;-i^ in smooth rings, an elastic band 

wants to, on piws. These pins are of kee" aifrposilL"" Axed at the end of one prong is 

BEAUT IT 3840 

slipped across, and keeps the hair in position. 
This wave may also be left in all night, or 
pinched with hot irons, when it will be ready 
for use in under five minutes. 

These two methods of waving the hair are 
both quick and effective. They only mean 
ten minutes' work overnight, or the same 
extra time spent on the coiffure in the morn- 
ing. And the result is a prettily waved head, 
which takes half the time to dress, and,besides 
looking softer and more attractive, remains 
in position and shape considerably longer 
than straight, flabby hair. Four pins should 
serve to wave the front and sides, and the 
back can be done in the same way if desired. 
I do not want ladies to think that this pro- 
cess — which needs no helper or maid — will 
give them the same appearance as a Marcel 
wave. It will not. But it will wave their hair. 

How to achieve the Marcel wave. The comb must remain in 

the hair, for at the same time that the iron is pressing upwards, the 

comb draws the hair beyond downwards 

instead of crimping it — the result of curling- 
pins and amateurish attempts with tongs. 
Let me warn ladies to beware of tongs. 
More harm is done to hair by injudiciously 
used tongs than would be beheved. These 
pins, if used in the manner described, cannot 
possibly harm the hair ; and they will 
produce a far more natural, wavy result 
than badly manipulated tongs or so-called 
" wavers." Indeed, they offer the nearest 
home-made approach to a Marcel wave. 

The Marcel Wave 

Marcel waving is the next thing to natur- 
ally wavy hair. Before M. Marcel made his 
name and fortune by inventing it, waving, 
of a natural kind, had been done by means 
of a comb and water. A comb, thoroughly 
damp, was passed through the hair a short 

way, and then the finger was placed along 
the damp strand, drawing it up — following 
the lines of the comb. The comb was then 
drawn down, and the finger again followed it. 
This up-and-down process was repeated as 
much as necessary, and the hair remained 
in the rising and dipping waves indicated by 
the comb and finger. Of course, this method 
was both troublesome and difficult, and the 
waves also " came out " rather quickly. 

How the Wave was Invented 

M. Marcel, a Parisian hairdresser, one day 
wondered why the natural waves thus pro- 
duced should not be accentuated with hot 
irons. This experiment he tried, and found it 
wonderfully effective. For some time he 
made his wave first with water, and then 
followed the same lines with the irons. And 
at last he adapted the up-and-down move- 
ment of the comb, finger, and water to the 
comb and hot irons alone, and achieved the 
Marcel wave. 

When this enterprising coiffeur first 
opened his doors for Marcel waving, the 
competition was enormous. People waited 
hours for him to wave their hair, and actresses 
and society women bid against each other for 
first place. Many a lady, having offered 
20 francs for the next turn, would arrive to 
find her place taken by somebody who had 
bid 30 francs. And so the game went on, 
and Marcel waving became the rage. At first, 
M, Marcel did not teach ; but when he found 
that other hairdressers, having sent their 
wives, daughters, or assistants to be waved, 
were learning his secrets, he began giving 
lessons. Marcel waving has now become 
universal, and is practised by most hair- 
dressers with — more or less — success. 

To Marcel Wave at Home 

Now, a good Marcel wave is very difficult 
to make, and can really only be done by a 
second person, standing over the hair in 
question. However, in case any ladies are 
anxious to try for themselves, or to get a 
friend to try for them (a wiser experiment 
this), I will give a few directions regarding 
the chief rules for Marcel waving. But 1 
should like it to be understood that this 
desirable wave is only achieved, in perfection, 
after much practice, which is best done on a 
wig placed on a block, so that the operator 
can stand in front of it. The irons must not 
be too hot, and should always be tested on 
a piece of white paper. If they discolour it, 
they are too warm, and should be swung 
round in the hand or left to cool. 

Place the irons in the hair quite near the 
centre or side parting, first running a comb, 
held in the left hand, through the hair, and 
lifting it slightly. Turn the hair half round 
the iron, pulling from the parting and pushing 
upwards with the iron. The comb remains in 
the hair, and at the same time that the 
iron is pressing upwards the comb draws the 
hair beyond downwards. This movement is 
reversed every time ; and so, when the iron 
presses downwards, the comb draws the hair 


upwards. This is th3 whole secret of Marcel 
waving, and gives a waved wave instead of 
a straight wave. The iron is then turned over 
to the further side of the hair it holds, which 
is then pressed towards the parting. This 
forms the raised wave. The iron then moves 
along a short distance — the wave may be 
large or small, as required — and repeats the 
same process, the comb always following and 
reversing the movement of the iron. 

Waving the Side Hair 

The wave must be carefully continued at 
the sides, in the same line as the front pieces. 


The irons must not start an entirely fresh 
undulation, but continue the other right 
round the head. 

For a Pompadour dressing the hair 
is brushed back and waved straight across 
the forehead in exactly the same manner. 

Success in home-made Marcel waving 
is difficult to secure ; but if it is re- 
membered that the comb is almost as 
important as the irons, and that a slightly 
agitated or nervous movement must be 
made with the fingers on the iron-handle, 
quite a successful Marcel wave should 


iWJi^ff--i.g>iuii>JUi^- y » *' nJiiMijgjiiiJi^ ! 


A waved coiffure, distinguished for its admirable taste and adaptability to the physiognomy of the wearer 
Designs by David Nicol, jo. Hay market, 5. ly. 



This is one of the most important sections of Every Woman's Encyclopaedia. 
written by leading authorities, and deals, among other things, with : 

It is 

The House 

Choosing a House Heating, Plumbing, etc. 

Building a House The Rent-ptirchase System 

Improving a House How to Plan a House 

Wallpapers Tests for Dampness 

Lighting Tests for Sanitation, etc. 





Home-made Furniture 


Nursery, etc. 



Household Recipes 
Hozv to Clean Silver 
Hozv to Clean Marble 
Labotir-saving Sziggestiojis, etc. 



Registry Offices 
Giving Characters 
Lady Helps 
Servants' Duties, etc. 


Plain Laundrywork 

Fine Lauridrywork 



Ironing, etc. 

FOM ^flOO 

See Frontispiece 

How to Secure Individuality in Furnishing — Following a Scheme or Period Throughout the Flat — 
The Hall — Dining or Living Room — Drawing-room— Bedrooms — Kitchen — Allowance for Sundries 

HThere are many ways of furnishing a Blinds can generally be dispensed with 

1 11 ar.i. +1,^ oi^^i^o^- ^^„^o« K«,-^rv when casement curtains are used, but, in 

view of the fact that flat windows often 
face other windows rather intimately, these 
should be chosen of some opaque material, 

HERE are many ways of furnishing a 
small flat — the simplest course being 
to pay a visit to one of the large furnishing 
establishments, with the requisite sum of 
money, and to leave the matter entirely in 
the hands of the furnishers. The result 
cannot fail to be quite satisfactory, and all 
trouble and worry is saved, but, although 
the furniture may be good, and the general 
effect dainty and artistic, there will be 
little to indicate the individuality of the 
occupier. And individuality counts as much 
in furnishing as in dressing and all forms 
of decoration. 

The model flats and houses are charmingly 
planned and arranged, but it must be 
remembered that the scheme of furnishing 
which is perfect in its right setting is not 
always adaptable to the fiat or house where 
it is to be transferred. Take, for instance, 
window schemes. Dainty lattice windows, 
with graceful muslin hangings, are ideal for 
country cottages, but not altogether suitable 
for the small suburban house or flat.\ The 
windows of these are generally much of a 
pattern — the uninteresting " bow," or the 
flat window with wide centre-pane and 
two smaller side windows. For the latter 
casement curtains are alwa^^s suitable, but 
for bow windows long lace curtains are 
more in keeping. 

such as casement cloth, preferably light in 
colour. A dark blind can always be added 
in the sleeping-rooms. Small brise-bise net 
curtains close to the lower sash of the 
windows are a further necessity in the bed- 

There is plenty of scope for individuality 
in furnishing a flat, for, although the land- 
lord provides for the necessary papering and 
painting in the agreement, the choice of 
colour and design is left to the discretion of 
the tenant. This is a matter which requires 
very careful consideration and thought, for 
a successful background is half the battle, 
and paper and paint should be chosen to 
harmonise with the furniture. Pattern 
papers are best with plain floor coverings 
and curtains, and vice versa. The choosing 
of colours is largely a matter of individual 
taste. It would be well, however, to observe 
the following excellent rule : always select 
warm tints for rooms with a northern aspect, 
and light, unfadeable colours in the sunnier 
south rooms. 

Avoid overcrowding small rooms — it is 
better to have too little furniture — the more 



Space there is in a room, the better the effect. hght, cheerful tone, and the woodwork 

In these days of clever reproductions, it is painted white. If the entry be well lit, a 
not difficult even for a comparatively small few simply framed etchings, photographs, or 
sum to follow some scheme of period decora- engravings hung at eye height at regular 
tion, and, indeed, it is often possible to intervals add interest, and it is also some- 
procure bargains in genuine antique pieces times convenient to have a curtain screen 
of furniture. Papers and textiles are cheap half-way down such a corridor, and to make 
also, and in these are reproduced old patterns privacy when the front door is open, 
to harmonise with the complete scheme of Flats are designed to economise space 
period furnishing. The revival in Queen and labour, and there is no room for lumber, 
Anne bedrooms just now has introduced a and nothing is more trying than to be 
very moderately priced Queen Anne chintz dodging furniture wherever one moves, 
and wallpaper, which is an exact copy of Comfort and service should be the main 
an old floral chintz of bygone days, and idea of the furnisher, 
entirely in harmony with the graceful Dining ^r Living Room 
designs in walnut furniture which came mto Supposing the dining-room walls are hung 
fashion in the reign of Wilham and Mary. ^i^h a plain silk fibre or a coarse linen canvas 

A Jacobean dming-room might be arranged p^per in a light buff shade, having a frieze 

very successfully and inexpensively, for ^i inches deep above the picture-rail, dark 

reproductions in old oak are quite reason- ^^k paint would be an attractive finish, and 

ably priced, and a Jacobean wallpaper may ^ brown linoleum surround to an Indian 

be purchased for about half-a-crown a piece. tapestry carpet in dull fawn and red would 

In a fiat where there is only one reception- i^^^ q^ite admirable with oak furniture, 

room, it would be quite a good idea to adopt ^he casement curtain might be in.the light ^ 

a Jacobean scheme of furnishing, which can ^uff tone of the wallpaper 

be carried out for about ^^30 The approximate cost of furnishing such 

In considering the furnishing of a five- ^ room would be as follows : 

roomed flat, for which the sum of £100 is / s d. 

available, it will be better to select a simple Tapestry carpet '200 

scheme of modern furnishing, as period Linoleum surround 012 o 

decoration would entail a little more trouble Oak dresser and sideboard combined .. 7 18 6 

and expense, and the necessity of econo- Gate-leg table (oak) 210 o 

mising on some of the rooms. Two oak rush-seated chairs in o 

Roughly, this gives an average of ;{20 a Easy-chair, tapestry covered . . . . 219 6 

room, from which must be deducted a J^^°^^^ armchairs, rush-seated . . ..250 

sum for furnishing hall and bathroom. Small table .... . . 086 

Two pairs casement curtains with loops o 10 6 
Purnishin;; a Flat Kerb o 7 6 

Small flats are for the most part designed ^rcauldron" i! i! i! i! ! ! o ^ 6 

upon one of two plans — either with a hall Hearthruty . . o lo 6 

upon which the outer door and all other * 

doors open, or with a corridor leading along 22 i o 

the entire depth, with rooms off upon one side. 

In either case there is generally more One or two prints or photographs in dark 
entrance space than m a house of the same frames are all that will be needed for this 
accommodation, and as the entire traffic ^oom, and for ornaments old blue china 
must pass all doors, it is better, in the case .^ould be in harmony. An oak dwarf book- 
of a long passage, to have a quietening floor- case, at a guinea or thirty shillings, should 
cloth, or hnoleum with a mat for a square be included in the dining-room furniture, 
hall. A good, coloured cocoa matting, _ , ^° 
or one of the many hempen floorcloths which , "^T "^ i"*" I "^^ • 
are made to sustain wear and to look warm ^ grey and pink drawing-room is quite 
and comfortable, makes an excellent begin- ^^?. °^ the most charming colour combi- 
ning, and the colour scheme can be further nations. The paper might be grey-striped 
enhanced by a plain paper of harmonising with a rose-crown frieze, and the woodwork 
shade, and good white or light paint upon Pamted m ivory colour. The grey carpet, to 
the woodwork. Soft green is a very good harmonise, should be rose-bordered, and 
hall colour for paper and floor-covering. the curtains should be also of soft grey 
This might be plain, or in some small. apphqued with roses. A Chesterfield and 
conventional pattern for the paper, and ^^^, ^^J?^, armchair, covered in a grey and 
a plain cord carpet for the passage pink chintz, and a few pieces of Sheraton are 

Very httle furniture is needed for this part ^^^^^^ furniture needed for this room, 

of the fiat— a simple oak piece which , ^^"^ ^^^^ °^ furnishing works out as 

combines hat-rack, hall table; and umbrella- follows : 

stand, is useful, or, if there is a recess out of a • 4. 4- t s. d. 

sight, a hanging place can be made the^ ^^^SS^^^^rcn^n. ' V. /. V. Ill o 

and a chest with seat top looks we 1. and Two pairs rose-appliqued curtains .. 115 

comes in handy for storage of odd things. chair with loose cover 330 

If the entry be dark, as is sometimes the Chesterfield with loose cover . . . . 550 

case, the walls should be papered in a Sheraton inlaid centre table 250 




Sheraton writing table 2 

Two Sheraton inlaid small chairs 

tapestry covered i 

Hearthrug o 

Sheraton cabinet i 

Black kerb o 

One set black-and-brass fireirons . . o 

Coal cauldron o 

24 7 3 

s. d. 

First Bedroom 

In this, the larger bedroom, the paper- 
ing might be in an old floral chintz pattern, 
and the paint white. Linoleum is quite the 
most sanitary form of floor covering. This 
might be a plain green, or the Japanese 
matting hnoleum, which is light and effec- 
tive. Cream-toned casement curtains will 
be found the most serviceable if this room 
is at all sunny, and fumed oak furniture is 
more durable than white in a town flat. 

About twelve yards of linoleum, at 

IS. 6d. a yard, would cost o 

Pair of casement curtains o 

Two rugs, at 6s. 6d. each o 

Five-piece toilet set o 

Wicker chair o 

Fumed oak bedroom suite, comprising 
wardrobe, washstand, dressing-chest, 

and two chairs 9 

4 ft. 6 in. bedstead 2 

Wire mattress i 

Wool mattress 2 

Two pillows o 

Bolster o 

Linen basket o 

Small table o 

Kerb » o 






















Second Bedroom 

A green room is always restful. With a 
Japanese paper, having a green cherry- 
blossom pattern on a grey-white ground, 
and a plain green linoleum and casement 
curtains of cream, this would form an 
effective setting for fumed oak or white or 
green-painted furniture. It would be 
economy to select the same linoleum for 
both bedrooms. Cream casement curtains 
(or white-grey) , to tone with the wallpaper, 
might be chosen. 

I s. d. 
A green-painted bedroom suite of 

wardrobe, dressing-chest, marble-top 

washstand, with towel-rail, and two 

cane-seated chairs would cost . . 
3 ft. green iron bedstead 

3 ft. wool mattress 

3 ft. bolster \^ O 5 

Pillow o 4 

Linoleum 012 

One pair curtains o 7 

Small table o 5 

Kerb o 5 

Soiled linen basket o 5 

Toilet set 07 

7 5 
I 12 
o 17 

12 5 9 

A box-ottoman will cost about a guinea. 

Most modern flats are fitted with bath- 
rooms. A blue-and-white tiled paper is 
cool and clean for this room. Curtains are 
seldom needed, as the window-glass is 
opaque. The bath-room is always small, 
so about los. should be sufficient to spend 
on a cork carpet covering, and perhaps 
5s. for a towel-rail, small mirror, and bath- 
mat. Total, 15s. 


Ten shillings also might be estimated as 
the cost of covering a small square hall with 
brown parquet linoleum : 

Linoleum o 

Cocoa mat o 

Three door-mats o 

Fumed oak hat-and-coat rail . . . . o 

Umbrella-stand o 

s. d. 

:o o 

5 6 
:o o 

6 9 
5 3 

I 17 6 


We are now left with the kitchen, the 
equipping of which will need a longer bill than 
most people anticipate, but a good deal can 
be saved by avoiding services and buying the 
necessary cups, plates, and dishes for a small 
party only. A table and two chairs are 
about all the furniture needed, for dressers 
are always fixtures. A good light sanitary 
paper should cover the walls, and black-and- 
white-tiled linoleum the floor, 

£ s. d. 
Allowing say, 14 yards of linoleum, at 

IS. 6d., the cost would be i 10 

4 ft. table 013 6 

Two chairs o 5 8 

Fender .. o 5 6 

Cretonne curtains o 5 6 

An additional sum of £$ must be allowed 
for utensils, as it is a bad policy to economise 
on these. The small scullery is generally 
fitted with a plate-rail, and a dust-bin is 
also provided. 


£ s. d. 

Dining-room 22 i o 

Drawing-room 24 7 3 

First bedroom 20 o o 

Guest's room 12 5 9 

Bathroom 015 o 

Hall I 17 6 

Kitchen .. .. 2 11 2 

Kitchen utensils 5 o o 

88 17 8 
Box ottoman and bookcase at £1 is. 

each, if purchased 2 2 o 

90 19 8 

It will be seen that quite a good little 
flat can be got together, furnished for a 
little over £go, leaving a comfortable margin 
towards household linen, china, glass, and 





Brains the Best Ingredients to Use in Work— The Importance of having a Comfortable Bed— Dangers 
that Lurk in Cheap Bedding— The Elaborate Processes of Mattress Making— White Bedding v. Black 
—Bolsters and Pillows— An Expanding Bedstead— Hangings and Coverlets— The Continental Care 

of Bedding and Its Advantages 

" VY/hat do you mix your paints with, Sir 
Joshua?" inquired a friend of the 
famous artist. 

" Brains, sir," was the laconic reply. 
And there can be no doubt that most things 
would be better made if, in the making, 
they were mixed with the same precious 

Certainly the above doctrine applies with 
much force to the all-important subject of 
beds, bedding, and bed-furniture. 

Some wiseacres declare that we spend too 
much time in bed, and write of the golden 
hours that many of us waste in uncon- 
sciousness. This may be so, but in our 
strenuous age a good night's rest is one of the 
first necessities of existence. And most of us 
will agree that the comfort of one's couch has 
much to do with securing this same. To 
obtain it we must acquire a certain know- 
ledge, and be ready to spend time, trouble, 
and money on the enterprise. 

According to my wont, I have been the 
round of the shops, and can give my readers 
the best results of my peregrinations. 

Danj^ers of Cheap Bedding; 

First, we will take a look at what should 
be avoided. Even when economy is an 
object, there can be no doubt that a so- 
called cheap article is, in the long run, the 
most expensive. If one buys " cheap " 
bedding one may save a few shillings, but one 
stands to lose in both comfort and safety. 

By the use of a smart-looking cover, the 
poorest and commonest articles can be made 
to seem the equal of the best and finest 
productions. In this lies the danger of low- 
priced bedding. For it must be remembered 
that the old term, " buying a pig in a poke," 
applies with much aptness to the purchase of 
beds, mattresses, and pillows. For instance, 
a cheap mattress is a menace to health as 
well as a source of discomfort. Few of us 
think of the inside of our mattresses. Their 
composition is quite unknown. 

Unless one goes to a good shop and buys a 
reliable article, one must not shut one's • 
eyes to dangers of a most unpleasant 
description. Common bedding is filled with 
" hair " or flock. The hair is often composed 
largely of vegetable fibres, stiffened by a 
certain amount of pig's hair, the whole 
mixture being dyed of a dense blackness. 
This mixture, instead of being " carded," is 
rendered short and lifeless by machinery. 

But now comes the most deadly danger. 
Cheap flock is made from rags — any sort of 
rags — picked up anywhere, which are put into 
the flock mill just as they are received, with- 
out disinfecting, and, more often than not. 

without even washing ! In an examination 
of samples taken from one of several thou- 
sands of beds in use in a certain big city it 
was found that nearly five-sixths were filled 
with flock that was teeming with microbes. 
The results of a chemical analysis of the 
material are indescribable. 

The Perfect Mattress 

A perfect mattress is a work of art, and its 
making a most intricate matter. The hair 
used undergoes a severe preparation. It is 
first scientifically steriHsed, and its fats and 
impurities are most carefully removed. An 
exceptional springiness is' the result of 
an elaborate process of " curling," and 
wonderful softness is obtained by finger 
manipulation of the hair after the above- 
mentioned cleaning has been completed. 

The hygienically treated hair is stranded 
into long cables when moist and pliant, a 
permanent " curl " being obtained by 
prolonged heating and preserved by careful 
" carding." When unravelled, the hair so 
treated resembles minute watch-springs, and 
has the same marvellous property of recoil. 
This quality makes the finished bedding soft 
to the touch and so responsive. 

The wool for good bedding is as vigorously 
treated. It is cleaned by special pro- 
cesses, "masticated," as it is called, by 
special machinery, and " carded " into a 
fleecy softness. Long white wool is used for 
the best mattresses — natural white wool, not 
rendered dull and lifeless by bleaching, as is 
the common custom. 

Coverinsfs of Beds 

But it is not enough to have the best 
quality of materials. The right use of them 
demands care, thought, and experience. It 
is quite possible to have " too much of a good 
thing " — even good wool or horsehair in 
bedding. And the coverings of beds and 
mattresses need much care in the making. 
For instance, ticking from which the 
materials escape is a feature of poor work- 
manship. And the stitching — upon which 
hangs the life of a bed— depends upon the 
conscience of the worker. 

In a word, time, thought, and trouble are 
what the buyer pays for ; and the watch- 
word of all good trade is as follows : 
" Principle in manufacture and the manu- 
facturer." The best bedding in the world 
can be secured in London. 

Box-spring mattresses can " give points 
and a beating " to the wire-spring articles of 
former days. The price of a good mattress 
for a single bed of three feet six inches would 
be about £3 los. 


There is another first-class invention. 
This is a patent form of box-spring mattress, 
made in three parts for the sake of cleanh- 
ness and portabiUty. It has no top stuffing 
to afford a nest for moths— another strong 
point in its favour. This is also somewhat 
expensive, but those to whom economy is an 
object can procure a good box-spring mattress 
of the ordinary sort for two guineas. 
Beddins: de Luxe 
White bedding is the bedding de luxe, and 
consists of white horsehair, white wool, and 
white eiderdown. 

The horsehair used should be fine, long, and 
carefully curled and "carded." At the time 
of writing the price of the best hair is 
about gs. a pound. 

White bedding is the rule, but there seems 
to be a difference of opinion as regards the 
use of white instead of black horsehair. An 
expert says that for his own part he 
would prefer a mattress made of the best 
black horsehair. And for the following 
reasons. As already stated, in cleaning the 
hair every particle of animal fat has to be 
removed with strict care, and if the hair is 
dyed black, the dyeing process makes an 
extra safeguard in this direction. 

Black hair, owing to being in less demand 
than white, is much cheaper, and can be had 
from 3s. 6d. a pound. 

White wool only should be used in bed- 
making, and should be of the best quality 
obtainable. It ought to be the natural 
white wool, and not have been rendered 
dull and lifeless by bleaching. The price 
of the finest wool is about 7s. 6d. a pound ; 
and in Paris, where the fancy for choice 
bedding is perhaps carried to an excess, the 
best wool runs from 8s. to los. a pound. But 
a good quality can be secured in London from 
2S. 6d. a pound. 

The French Mattress 

The comfort of one's bed depends upon its 
mattress. An excellent article is what is 
known as the " French mattress." This has 
three layers of material. First comes an 
inner layer of fine, long horsehair, with, 
on each side, an outer casing of long white 
wool, that serves to make the bed soft, easy, 
and comfortable. The central stratum of 
hair prevents the wool layers felting down 
into a firm mass, and gives to the soft, 
fleecy wool just that amount of elasticity 
which is required to make one of the most 
comfortable beds that can be imagined. 

This sort of mattress is made in the French 
style, and with fewer ties than an ordinary 
English mattress ; also it has a soft edge, not 
" quilted " or stitched up, as in the everyday 

The best bed ever made is, in my opinion, 
the " Woodstock " mattress. This is a 
mattress of fine, long horsehair, having on 
either side a thick pad of the finest eider- 
down. This layer of down forms a soft 
surface, and produces the softness of a feather 
bed without its undue warmth and its 

unhealthy mass of material. The price of a 
" Woodstock " mattress for a single bed would 
be just over £^, and a good French mattress 
of the same size would cost about £2 2s. 

Ordinary wool mattresses can be had from 
QS. Linen and not cotton ticking should 
be used for mattress covers, but the best 
mattresses are covered with swansdown. 

Bolsters are made of fine feathers, and in 
these there have of late been several improve- 

The so-called " pillow-bolster " is the old 
round-end bolster, but is cut wide and deep, 
with flat pillow-ends, so as to give a wider 
surface for the support of the pillow. 

Opinions on pillows are many and varied. 
Most of us prefer a down pillow, for the sake 
of its softness ; on the other hand, some 
people — men especially — like a pillow of ex- 
treme hardness. 

To my mind there is a happy medium, 
and this can be obtained by a mixture of 
• down and the finest feathers. The best eider- 
down costs about 8s. 6d. a pound. 

A Patent Pillow 

The " Hair-Down " pillow, a patent, is a 
useful invention. 

It contains a layer of down on the outside, 
which gives a pleasant sense of softness, 
and an inner case filled w^ith fine horsehair 
that supplies the desired amount of firmness. 

The question of sheets is one easily settled. 
Fine linen sheets are the best, and these can 
be trimmed with lace or embroidery. But a 
few wealthy faddists prefer silk sheets, as 
being less cold to the touch in winter. 

Blankets should be of the finest white wool, 
and of the best make and quality. 

The styles of bedding here described are 
unrivalled for luxurious comfort and dainti- 
ness. But they must be written down as 
expensive. However, at all the best shops 
another and cheaper style of bedding can be 
procured, which is equally good in the im- 
portant points of purity, texture, and hard- 
wearing qualities. 


Wooden bedsteads have of late come 
much into favour. They were at one time 
disliked from the fear of insect pests which 
might be secreted in their various sections. 
But this evil has been avoided by the use of 
iron fittings, and by a different form of 

Iron and brass beds are, however, still in 
general use, and artistic specimens of these 
latter can be procured in certain of our 
London emporiums. 

As regards the shape of beds, we have of 
late become more sophisticated. The simple 
style, made with a low rail at head and foot, 
has now fallen into disfavour. What is 
known as the French or tester-shaped bed is 
preferred, and some of us even have adopted 
the old-world four-poster. 

Huge beds, of which the great Bed of Ware 
makes an historic example, are out of date. 

A modern contrivance that is useful 



is an expanding bedstead. This is at once 
a single and a double bed, for, by means of 
hinges and folds, it can be contracted to hold 
only one, or expanded to make room for two 
— or, indeed, one might say for half a dozen. 
This can be done by a touch of the hand, and 
in the course of a couple of minutes. 

Bed Hangings 

Many people prefer nowadays to sleep 
without any sort or kind of bed-hangings. 
But there can be no doubt that some kind of 
curtain, if well arranged, adds much to the 
comfort and beauty of one's apartment. 
The question of material is a wide one, and 
must depend on the aspect of the room, and 
on the nature of the carpet, wallpaper, etc. 

If the colour of the latter is decided, white 
dimity curtains make a good contrast, and 
have an excellent effect, especially if the 
colour that surrounds them is repeated in the 
form of braid at the edge or in some other 
style of trimming. In large towns, however, 
white curtains are soon soiled, and it is 
better to have a pale-coloured wallpaper and 
curtains of serge or of chintz or cretonne. 

Brocade curtains, on account of their cost, 
need not be described in detail in this article. 

Coverlets also are worth careful considera- 
tion. In winter eiderdown quilts are highly 
desirable. These are now made in all colours, 
styles, and qualities. White cotton cover- 
let , too, are used often, and some in cotton 
P|- /nted with colours may be set down as 
pietty, artistic, and serviceable. Coverlets 

of a richer kind can be made of silk or 
satin, gold-braided or hand-embroidered ; 
or else in thick brocade, with a coarse lace 
appliqued on to the surface. 

Finally, a word must be said as to the 
renewal of mattresses and bedding. French 
and German housewives surpass us in this 

Abroad, a man comes to the house once a 
year, takes each bed into the garden — if 
there is one — or else removes it to his own 
abode. He unpicks it, removes all the wool 
and hair, which he picks to pieces — " teases," 
as it is called — with his own hands, re- 
places, sews up again, and then returns the 
bed, renewed and refreshed, the same 
evening. It is true that a good English wool 
and horsehair mattress keeps its shape much 
longer than the. more loosely made foreign 
ones, but all the same, the best of mat- 
tresses should be cleaned and renewed at 
least once in every two years. 

Airing Beds 

The half-hour's airing, too, which is usually 
given to a bed in the morning is not enough 
to keep it in a fresh and perfect condition. A 
sun and air bath should be given to beds — 
another good custom that we may adopt 
from our French and German neighbours. 
If a garden is available, a bed might be put 
out in it in the sunshine, but such a practice 
as this would shock the ideas of Mayfair and 
Belgravia. After all, there are things that 
they do better on the Continent. 


Why some Open Grates arc Wasteful — Points oE an Economical Grate — Well Grates — Slow Com' 
bustion, Canopy, and Dog Grates — The Nautilus — Some Other Useful Patterns — The Mantelpiece 

•yHE wastefulness of the open grate has 
been alluded to already (page 3726, 
Vol. 6). Its more obvious faults are : 

Badly designed setting, by which the grate 
is much too far back in the flue opening, 
causing loss of radiant heat by the screening 
effect of the sides. 

Bad form of grate-back, causing the heated 
gases to escape in a backward and upward 
direction before parting with their heat. 

Iron surfaces in contact with the flames, 
leading to loss of heat by radiation in the 
wrong direction. 

Faulty design of bars, allowing the coal to 
fall through, and causing too rapid and there- 
fore wasteful combustion. 

These defects are common to most of the 
older types of grates, and to a certain pro- 
portion of modern ones. 

Tlie Efficient Orate 

The points which should distinguish an 
efficient and economical open grate are : 

It should project well into the room, so 
as to allow the heat to radiate over as wide 
an angle as possible. 

The grate -back should be vertical or 
inclined forwards, and of sufficient area to 
become useful in abstracting heat from the 

D 28 

gases which pass over it before they enter 
the flue. The heat thus abstracted will be 
radiated into the room instead of escaping 
up the chimney. 

All surfaces in contact with the coals and 
heated gases (bars, of course, excepted) 
should be of fireclay, to prevent loss by 
radiation in a backward direction. 

The bars should be set closely together. 

Air should be excluded from beneath the 
fire, either by the use of a solid bottom, or 
by a closely fitting ashbox. 

The fire should be as near the floor-level 
as practicable. < 

The diagrams illustrate both sets of points. 

Improved Designs in Orates 

So many improved designs of open grate 
have been introduced to notice in recent years 
that to enumerate them alone would occupy 
too much space. A careful review of their 
main features shows that they embody, in 
a more or less efficient form, the whole of 
the points just mentioned, though certain 
types have features peculiar to themselves. 

A few examples will be considered. 

Possibly one of the most economical of 
open grates, and one that has much to 
recommend it on the score of simplicity and 


good ap- 
pearance, is 
that called 
the Teale 
grate. The 
p ri n c i p a 1 
feature of 
this grate 
is the ab- 
sence of all 
The back 
and sides of 
the fire- 
place are of 
The fire- 
brick back 
leans f o r - 
ward over 
the fire. 
The front 
bars, bot- 
tom grid, 
and ash- 
pan, or 
iser," alone 
are of iron, 
and the 
front bars 
are narrow, 
and closely 
The a p- 
and con- 
struction of 
this grate 
are shown 
clearly in the elevation 
and sectional diagram. 
The well grate. This 
is otherwise known as 
the " front hob fire- 
place " and the " fire 
on the hearth " grate. 

Its main character- 
istic is the absence of 
bars, the fire being 
made on a removable 
iron grid, set slightly 
below the level of the 
raised hearth. The 
space below the grid 
communicates with an 
adjustable air opening 
in the side or front of 
the hearth, through 
which the fire draws 
the air it needs for 

These grates are 
cheerful in appearance, 
and are perhaps the 
most economical and 
easily managed open 
fireplaces to be had. 


An old and wasteful type of grate, showing how 

the heat escapes up the chimney, owing to the 

backward slope of the grate^back 

A mode.-n and more economical form of grate. 

The heat is deflected into the room, the grate' 

back being inclined forwards 

framing of 
bricks or 
tiles, they 
are costly. 
But if built 
up of ordin- 
ary good 
and with 
they cost 
no more 
than other 
and less 

An adap- 
tation of 
the well 
grate prin- 
c iple, in 
which the 
r a i s e d 
hearth is 
with, the 
air regula- 
tion being 
effected by 
means o f a 
iron " eco- 
is sold 
under the 
name of 
" The Bar- 
less "grate, 
and is said 

The Tealc grate, one of the most economical of open grates. 

There is no superfluous ironwork, and the back and sides of the 

fireplace are of firebrick 

to be as economical in 
use as its prototype. 

5I0W Combustion Orates 

This term is applied 
to all fireplaces in which 
means is provided for 
shutting off the air sup- 
ply from beneath the 
fire by a fixed or re- 
movable screen or 
" economiser." 

Canopy grates are 
provided with a metal 
hood arranged to slide 
upwards or swing out- 
wards for the purpose 
of regulating the flue 
opening. This device 
is useful as a " blower," 
to control combustion 
in the grate, but is not 
essential if the flue 
opening be properly 
shaped and pro- 
portioned in the first 
instance, and there are 
other means of regu- 
lating the draught. 



Another ap- 
pliance, which 
is designed for 
the same pur- 
pose, is a fire 
regul at o r, 
which effects 
the adjust- 
ment of the 
flue opening 
with greater 
facility, and is 
said to give 
perfect con- 
trol of the 
so that the fire 
may be made 
to burn feebly 
when the 
room is not 
occupied, and 
at once be re- 
stored to 
when desired. 
The construc- 
tion of this 
device is 

Section of theTeale grate, showing the forward 

tilt of the firebrick back and the method by 

which the grid and airwav are contrived 

clearly shown in the sec- 
tional diagram. 

The dog grate. This is 
practically a fire-basket to 
stand on the hearth. Its 
quaint, unusual appearance 
may commend it to some 
persons, but as an econom- 
ical grate it has doubtful 
value, as it is innocent of 
any means, for regulating 
the combustion of the fuel, 
and the absence of any large 
firebrick surfaces makes it 
a bad radiator. Its effici- 
ency depends to some 
extent on the construction 
of the flue and its back 

If the latter be tiled and 
its surfaces be disposed so 
as to act as reflectors, some 
of the waste heat may be 
gathered up and utilised. 
These grates are more 
suited for the burning of 
wood logs than for coal 

The Nautilus grate, so 
called from its shell-like 
form, is stated to be eco- 
nomical in use and to be 
capable of burning coal. 

coke, or wood. It is practically a closed stove 
in disguise, and has the objection that highly 
heated iron surfaces are exposed to the air of 
the room. 

Some other Types of Orate 

The Eagle grate is of the ordinary 
slow-combustion type, but is provided with 
sliding doors, by which the flue opening may 
be partly or entirely closed. These doors 
act as blowers, giving a wide range of control 
of the combustion, and enabling coke and 
other refractory fuel to be burnt. Their 
defect seems to be that when the doors are 
in use, and the combustion most intense, the 
bulk of the heat must be drawn up the flue. 

Two types of grate occasionally found in 
old houses, and not therefore of recent 
design, deserve notice, because they both 
embody excellent features, and where they 
are found they may well be retained. 

The first is the Leamington fireplace, 
which has much in common with some of 
the newest types of grate. The position of 
the fire is near the hearth, and its setting is 
between two brick or tiled cheeks, the flue 
opening being situated high up. 



The well grate, in which bars are dispensed with, the fire being made on a removable grid 
below the level of a raised hearth 



An ordinary canopy grate, in which a metal hood is arranged to slide upwards 
or swing outwards to regulate the flue opening and thus control combustion 

From what has already appeared in regard 
to the good points of a grate, it will be 
seen that this arrangement is simple and 

The Staffordshire fireplace is constructed 
on somewhat similar lines, but the back is a 
plain fiat surface. This brings the fire well 
out into the room, giving a very wide angle 
for the heat rays to pass out. 

The Mantelpiece 

The frame in which grates are set may form • 
part of the grate structure, as in the Teale 
grate already described and illustrated, or 
it may be a separate affair, built around the 
grate proper. It is, in the main, a decorative 
feature, and, as such, will not be treated at 
length in the present section. It only 
need be said that, whatever its material 
or design, it should accord generally with the 
other architectural features of the room, 
and that no part of it should project in such 
a way as to intercept the heat rays of the 
fire. This applies, not only to the sides, or 
jambs, but also to the shelf, which if too 
wide may cut off a very sensible proportion 
of the heat which otherwise would pass 
upwards to the ceiling and warm the air. 

The behaviour of radiant heat has already 
been described (page 3726, Vol. 6), and here 
it may be added that its effects may be felt, 
not only when it strikes our bodies, and 
there becomes sensible heat, but when it 
warms us indirectly by first impinging upon 
the walls and ceiling, and raising their 

temperature, whence it is dispersed 
partly as reflected and partly as 
convexed heat. 

Materials for Mantels 

Wood mantels, being bad con- 
ductors of heat, do not themselves 
become over-heated, and on this 
account are preferable to cast iron 
ones, but unless they be made of 
well-seasoned and dried wood they 
are liable to crack and warp under 
the influence of the warmth. 

Cast-iron mantels are now very 
popular, and are produced in tasteful 
designs. They are low in cost and 
very durable, their only disadvantage 
being a tendency to become heated. 
This may sometimes result in in- 
convenience, as, for instance, when 
the heat is conveyed by a metal 
candlestick to the candle and softens 
it, or when a piece of sealing-wax is 
inadvertently left upon the shelf, to 
be afterwards discovered as a flattened 

Marble, stone, slate, and such ma- 
terials are for those who like them. 
They have no special virtues in 
relationship to the efficiency of the 
grate, and are more often than not 
devoid of decorative character, though 
sometimes of interest to the geologist. 


Dr. Lee's regulating canopy, by means of which a 
perfect regulatioh of the combustion can be obtained 



and Corks 


An iron skewer, 
if manipulated 
carefully, will be 
found a good 
means of extricat' 
ing a broken cork 
from a bottle 




1?^ A cork can be 
removed from the 
inside of a bottle 
by looping a piece 
of string round it 
and then drawing 
it upwards. The 
operation is easier 
than it appears 

When drawing a cork 
one finger should be 
placed on it. as s:en 
above. If this is done, 
the corkscrew will not 
drag through the cork 

To remove a refractory 
stopper, loop a piece of 
string round the neck 
of the bottle and pull 
it back>vards and for^ 
wards. The frictional 
heat will cause the 
opening of the bottle 
to expand, and the 
stopper can be removed 
with ease 


This section tells everything that a mother ought to know and everything she should teach her 

children. It will contain articles dealing with the whole of a child's life from infancy to womanhood. 

A few of the subjects are here mentioned : 

The Baby 


Physical Training 



How to Engage a 

Use of Clubs 

Ho%v to Arrange a 

How to Engage a 

Private Governess 


Children's Party 


English Schools for 


Outdoor Games 

Preparing for Baby 


Chest Expanders 

Indoor Gaines 


Foreign Schools and 

Exercises ivithout 

Hoxv to Choose Toys 

What Every Mother 


' Apparatus 

for Children 

Should Know, etc. 

Exchange with Fo7-eign 

Breathing Exercises 

The Selection of Story 

Families for learn- 



ing Languages, etc. 





By Mrs. WORDSWORTH, Principal of the Physical Training College, South Kensington 

The Origin of the Gavotte — Connection with the Branlc — The Gavotte in France — Madame Vestris's 
Gavotte — Some Quaint Characteristics — An Effective Gavotte for Children 

■yHE gavotte is one of the 
oldest figure dances in the 
world's history. Originally it 
was an offspring of the 
branle, and this dance, which 
was popular down to the 
seventeenth century, was pro- 
bably the most ancient of all 
figure dances. It was accom- 
panied by singing, and the 
dancer always embraced his 
partner when the refrain was 
repeated at the end of each 

At first, the gavotte was 
titled the " Gavotte-Branle," 
with the following curious 
instruction : "In this mea- 
sure the damsel is not to be 
lifted ; nevertheless, she is to 
be kissed." 

In the gavotte proper, not 
only did the leading couple 
choose and kiss the lady and 
gentleman who were to lead 
after them, but the leaders 
generally embraced all the 
dancers, one after the other. 
In " Sandrinlou Vert Galant," 
there is an account of a 
gavotte in which little pre- 

Fig. I. Step I. The beginning of the gavotte step: each dancer has a foot ocnded ^^^^^S were givCU tO the dancCrS 
Photos, Martin JacoUttt lUStcad OI KlSSCS. IhlS SCCmS 

Fig. 2. 

Step 2. The mirror step. The dancers hold their right hands 
so as to represent a mirror through which each one looks 

an early; instance of the custom since so 
popular in cotillons. 

The gavotte is a dance in dainty rhythm, 
considerably livelier than the minuet or 
pavanne. A capital arrangement, suitable in 
every way for drawing-room or stage use, is 
the Kaiserin Gavotte. This fascinating dance 
comes from Berlin, where it has been, and 
still is, danced at Court with 
great success. The Gavotte ^ 
de Vestris, probably the best 
known of all gavottes, is a 
difficult dance, composed by 
Madame Vestris, and fre- 
quently danced by her when 
she was at the zenith of her 
fame. It can only be per- 
formed effectively by those 
who possess very neat execu- 
tion, and is, therefore, per- 
haps best left to professional 

The gavotte, which became 
the rage in France during 
Louis XIV.'s reign, re- 
appeared with Marie Antoi- 
nette, and again after the 
Revolution. The gavotte 
was the favourite Court 
dance under Louis XVI., and 
throughout the ministration 
of the Directory. " By the 
term gavotte, properly speak- 
ing," writes Madame Laurc 
Fonta, "we must understand 
the dances in short parts, in 


which good, merry dancers vary the move- 
ment in the most' fascinating fashion, even 
mingling with the genuine duple rhythm 
the triple rhythm of Mme. Gaillarde." 

But this bright, sparkling dance was 
modified, like so many others that have 
undergone the influence of time, and found 
it degenerating rather than improving. In 
the eighteenth century it had points of 
resemblance to the minuet. It became 
languid and gliding, rather solenm, and 
somewhat pretentious. Vestris tells us that 
the gavotte step consisted of three steps and 
an assemble. Littre says that " the step of 
the gavotte differs only from the natural 
step in that one springs upon the foot which 
is on the ground, and at the same time 
points the toes of the other foot down- 
wards. This is the sole indication that one 
is dancing and not walking." 

The air of the older- fashioned gavotte, 
as well as those of the present day, was in 
duple time. The pace was moderate and 
graceful, sometimes even tender and slow. 
It was divided into two parts, each of 
which began with the second beat, and ended 
with the first, the phrases and rests recur- 
ring with every second bar. Famous and 
wonderfully popular gavottes were written 
for the stage by Gliick, Gretry, and many 
other composers. 

The gavotte had quite lost favour, save 
at the theatre and among professional 
dancers, when Marie Antoinette restored it 
to fashion by endowing it with the seal of her 
approval. It is well known that this ill- 
fated, graceful Queen danced the minuet to 
perfection, but she excelled in the airy, 
fascinating movements of the gavotte. Marie 
Antoinette was delighted with the music, or 
the air of a gavotte, which Gretry composed 
in his opera " Cephale et Procris," and 

Fig. 3. Step 3. 

The mirror step i continued*. Dancers step apart, each looking over her 
shoulder at her partner 



Fig. 4. Step 4. The back to back movement, repeated four in a circle 

frequently desired the inclusion of the dance 
at State balls. The gavotte rose in public 
favour as rapidly as it had fallen, and, under 
the Royal patronage, became the fashion at 
society balls and all grand functions. 

At the same time, gavottes, in rather 
lighter and more tender rhythm than those 
pertaining to the Court, 
were greatly in vogue 
among the people 
generally. Fertiault, in 
his " Histoire de la 
Danse," describes the 
gavotte as follows : " Skil- 
ful and charming offspring 
of the minuet, sometimes 
gay, but often slow and 
tender, in which kisses 
and bouquets are inter- 

All the evidence of the 
steps and history of the 
gavotte point to the fact 
that it was closely akin to 
the simple branle in its 
original form, owing, in- 
deed, its entire origin to 
this popular country mea- 
sure. After being in favour 
for six centuries, the 
gavotte still retained the 
first three steps of the 
branle — unaltered and in 
their entirety — when it 
was revived under the 
Directory, and at the begin- 
ning of the last century. 

" In 1779," writes G. Lenotre, " we catch 
a glimpse of Marie Antoinette at the opera 
ball. She had been once before with the 
King, who encouraged her to go again in 
strict incognita. The Queen accordingly left 
Versailles without any of her suite in attend- 
ance, and at the barrier hastened into a 
hired carriage to avoid recognition. Unfor- 
tunately, the conveyance thus honoured was 
very old, and extremely ramshackle. Having 
gone quite a short distance, it broke down 
while still some way from the Opera House. 
The Queen, with the solitary lady who 
accompanied her, was forced to retire into 
the nearest house, which happened to be a 
silk mercer's shop. 

" Here she waited for some time, without 
unmasking, so the inmates never knew 
the identity of their visitor. It was dis- 
covered that the carriage was past mending, 
so the first hackney coach that came by was 
hailed, and Marie Antoinette arrived at the 
ball in this humble equipage. There she 
found several of her household, who had 
come on separately, and remained the whole 
evening masked, dancing several gavottes in 
the delicate and charming manner for which 
she was justly famous." 

In England the gavotte was never quite so 
popular as the minuet, but was greatly 
danced at the end of the eighteenth and 
beginning of the nineteenth century. At Bath, 
Beau Nash presided in the Pump Room over 
many gavottes danced by the youth, beauty, 
and fashion of the day. Most of its French 
piquancy and charm remained in the dance, 
as seen in England ; it seemed impossible for 
anybody to rob it of the quaint, elusive 
charm so essentially its own. 

The gavotte requires the tinkling notes of a 


Fig. 5. Step 5. The corner step. From opposite corners, the dancers approach und pass each 
othsr, each looking towards har partner 



Fig. 6. Step 6. 

gavotte step, turning, 
the assemble 

movement illustrating 

mellow old spinet, the rustling of brocade, 
the twisting of powdered heads. In many 
ballrooms it had a great vogue, and was seen 
in the theatres, danced, as a solo, by some of 
the greatest artistes of the day, even by 
Vestris herself. 

In Germany the gavotte holds a prominent 
place at Court balls, and 
the dances given by those 
in the Court circle. There 
it is danced, even now, 
with a great deal of skill 
and charm. 

For children, the gavotte 
forms a delightful fancy 
dance, in which two girls, 
or a girl and a boy, can 
figure equally well. The 
steps are not particularly 
difficult, and the slow, 
swaying grace of the 
dance forms an admirable 
contrast to the livelier 
measures of most other 
dances, and proves ex- 
cellent practice. The 
gavotte step should be 
practised straight up the 
room before attempting 
a complete gavotte. It 
is almost like a polka 
step — without the spring. 
Starting with the right 
foot, it continues as fol- 
lows : Right foot forward, 
left foot drawn behind, 
right foot forward, assemble 
with left foot. An assem hie 

is a step done in the air, the foot being cut 
inwards, towards the opposite knee, then 
outwards, while the dancer raises herself 
on the toe of the stationary foot. 

Step i. Fig. i. Gavotte step, forward. 
The start of the step, lady's right and 
gentleman's left foot extended. 

Step 2. Fig. 2. Mirror step. Starting 
apart, the dancers take a step forward, 
both using the right foot, and join their 
right hands, raising them above their 
heads. They lift their left feet on to the 
toe at the back, and lean forward, looking 
into each other's faces, as if into a mirror, 
under their raised hands. 

Step 3. Fig. 3. Mirror step, continued. 
They next step back on their left feet, and 
point their right, extending their arms 
and looking at each other over their 
shoulders. Afterwards they walk round 
slowly, and repeat the step from opposite 

Step 4. Fig. 4. Back to back. Moving 
in a circle, and back to back, the dancers 
bend, both feet together ; step out and 
point left foot, bending back to look at 
each other. This is repeated four times 
in a circle. 

Step 5. Fig. 5. Corner step. From 
opposite corners, they approach and pass 
each other, stepping forward on one foot 
and sharply pointing the other, looking 

towards their partners all the time. 

Step 6. Fig. 6. Gavotte step, turning. 

This illustrates the assemble, both left feet 

having been raised as the dancers turn. 
Step 7. Fig. 7. Final position. The 

curtsey and bow, which only occurs once in 

gavotte — at the very end. 

Fig. 7. Step 7. 

The final position. The dancers curtsey and bow respectively. This occurs 
but once in the gavotte, at the end 




An Interesting and Educative Game — How to Start a Class — The Interest a Child takes in a ** Real *^ 
Game — Stretcher Bearers — Improvised Accessories — Inspection by a Doctor or a Nurse 

•yHE tendency of this age, so far as children derive a great deal of valuable instruction 
are concerned, is to impart knowledge as well as pleasure from the game 

in an interesting and pleasurable way 

The Boy Scout and Girl Guide movements 
have done a great deal to bring forward 
the truth that useful knowledge can be 

There is often a great outcry that the 
school curriculum does not teach girls any- 
thing of housewifery and home duties, and 
no doubt a remarkable amount of ignorance 

acquired by children in their hours of of practical housewifery, cooking, and nurs- 
^•.„ T^ _ ^ ...„ 4. I, -j^g ^Qgg exist in every class. Thus, any- 

thing which tends to make children interested 
in these subjects is good work from many 
points of view. 

recreation. By pageant games, we teach 
history and the great facts of English 
literature. And there is no doubt that 
children will learn almost any subject 
if it is put before them in the right way. 

Great interest is taken in first aid and 
sick nursing. Young people eagerly attend 
lectures and drills, and learn a great deal 
that will be useful to them in after life. 
Even the younger children, too young for 
ambulance teaching proper, can learn per- 
fectly well a good deal about first aid in 
emergency if it is taught them as a " game." 

How to Start a Class 

A class may consist of almost any number 
of children, but ten is perhaps the largest 
number which can be managed and con- 
trolled easily. Certain things will be re- 
quired for the use of the class, but they can 
generally be made at home, and the children 
should be allowed to help in every possible 
way. Each child 
should have a 
couple of flags for 
signalling, and a 
regular semaphore 
parade should 
form part of the 

Then stretchers 
can be easily made 
from sacks, with 
broom-handles or 
sticks passed 
through the side 
and piercing the 
bottom. A coat 
also, with the 
sleeves turned 
inside out, should 
sometimes be used . 
Splints can be 
man uf actured 
from cardboard . 
bandages and 
slings from un- 
bleached calico, 
which can be pur- 

A semaphore parade. Even the younRest children will enjoy a lesson on this subject, and will acquire a chaScd for a fcw 
sense of discipline and a quickness of perception by its help ■, . 

pence a yard. A 
summer-house, or a room with a French 
window, makes an excellent hospital or 
dressing station, and a fire can be lighted 
in some safe corner for boiling water for 
tea, which the children can make for them- 
selves as part of the game. 

The teaching, in the first place at least, 
should be of the simplest description ; but 
it is wonderful how quickly the children 
learn, because they are keen, and inter- 
ested in the play game which is not all 

Indoors or out of doors the game can be 
played, and the result is that boys are 
keen to join the Scouts as soon as they 
reach the age, and the girls become quite 
handy little cooks and nurses, trained to 
be of considerable use in emergency. In a 
country village such teaching of the school 
children would be of real service to the 
community. In the long summer evenings 
batches of children could be given lessons 
once or twice a week, and they would 


Carrying the wounded to the dressing station. The stretcher consists of two 

brooms, passed through the sleeves of a coat. The sleeves are turned inside out 

and the coat is then buttoned down the front 

but which leads to useful service sible. 


or summer-house, where the nurses 
are ready with all apphances. 

The stretcher bearers are trained 
in first aid work, and if they find 
that the wounded man is suffering 
from a broken leg, or haemorrhage, 
they must attend to that injury on 
the spot, as transport might have 
serious results. 

Then, when they are taken to 
hospital, the little nurses have ready 
a bed for each of the wounded. 
This usually consists of a small 
mattress with a couple of rugs and 
a cushion. The cooks are in the 
kitchen preparing the gruel, warming 
the milk, or preparing a simple 
nursing dish from eggs and milk. 
The nurses know that a wounded 
person requires a hot drink when 
consciousness returns. 

The detachment of little cooks 
or housewives have to provide 
what is ordered, and serve it 
neatly on a tray as quickly as pos- 
At the same time the young children 

" pretence, 

for others. are looking after their doll patients, and the 

If the class is at all large, it should be whole four detachments are supervised by 
divided into four sets, the older or taller the teacher in charge. 

children being stretcher bearers and the The teacher has to see that the children 
others first aid nurses in the field hospital, put on the proper splints, and a good deal 
whilst another batch would be learning of teaching will be required before they can 
cooking, housewifery, bed-making, and pre- tie reef knots and handle the injured limbs 
parations for receiving the sick. Even the and apply splints of the right size correctly, 
babies can help, as a little kindergarten But it is wonderful how quickly they 
class can be arranged for them with wooden pick up knowledge in these hours of play, 
boxes for beds and dolls as patients. and a child of twelve can be taught quite 

Everything must be done methodically easily most of the necessary practical points 
and in order. All supplies 
should be kept in a special 
cupboard or room, and the 
children must put them 
carefully and tidily away 
at the end of each lesson. 
That is part of the train- 
ing. Little lectures and 
lessons suited to the 
children's ages and under- 
standing must be given. 

After a time such a 
game as the following can 
be played : 

A couple of children 
act as the wounded, and 
the teacher pins to the 
coat of each a little ticket 
describing the injury. 
They are told to go and 
hide themselves amongst 
the shrubs, and a patrol 
party goes out to look 
for them. Four of the big 
boys will act as stretcher 
bearers, and they have to 
be taught to lift the 
wounded child, who ought 
to be, of course, of rather 
a small size, into a 

stretcher and to Carrv The "hospital" where the children tend the sick and apply surgical aid to the wounded. 
u:.^ i_ . V , . X .L- -^ This part of the work falls to the share of the little girls, who thus learn invalid cookery and 

nim to the dreSSmg station *^ first aid, as well as elementary nursing 



about common accidents. All the necessary 
information has been given in a series of 
articles on first aid (see pages 871, 986, 
Vol. 2). . 

A lady who started a class of this sort 
in North Lancashire said that the ambu- 
lance teaching was most useful. Accidents 
are always liable to occur, and by the means 
of this ambulance teaching children derive 
in addition a great deal of information 
about health and hygiene. 

Many ladies have studied first aid who 
might turn it to profitable account by 
organising these ambulance classes for chil- 
dren. It would help to keep up their own 
training, as most people find that after a 
few years they have completely forgotten 
all they learned in their first aid classes. 

It is an excellent idea to get the district 
nurse or the local doctor occasionally to 
inspect the work. This " inspection " 
greatly pleases the children, and makes 
them very keen on being perfect in their 
ambulance duties. Some extremely valu- 
able information can be given to them 
about burning accidents, for instance. The 
mere teaching of a child what to do when 
the clothes catch fire might save serious 
injury in after life. 

The children are taught that a person 
on fire should be laid on the ground and 
rolled in rugs, and that a child whose 
clothing has caught fire should never run 
about, but lie down at once and try to 
extinguish the flames by rolling on the 

The little nurses are told the value of 
hot bottles, hot flannels, and hot plates 
for all accidents attended by shock. They 
are shown how to wrap hot bottles in 
flannel in order not to burn the skin of the 
patient, and they learn gradually how to 
act in emergency, and are much more likely 
to keep their heads — and be useful when 
an accident occurs. The lessons should be 
given as much as possible out of doors, 
because of the health value of fresh air, 
but the game can be played both in 
summer and winter. 

Whilst a certain amount of routine must 
be observed, a great deal of varied instruc- 
tion can be introduced from time to time. 
By following the guide book of the Girl 
Guides or Boy Scouts very many ideas are 
suggested, and children are likely to be 
interested if given some teaching in sig- 
naUing and " trekking " and other outdoor 


Contitiiied from page 3^40, Part 31 

Bosalina and Rosalind (Teutonic)—" Famed 

serpent,"" or beautiful as a serpent. The 
love story of Rosalind and Orlando in the 
Forest of Arden forms the subject of Shake- 
speare's delightful comedy " As You Like 
It" : 

From the East to Western Ind, 

No jewel is like Rosalind. 

Her worth, being mounted on the wind, 

Through all the world bears Rosalind. 

All the pictures, fairest lin'd, 

Are but black to Rosalind. 

Let no case be kept in mind 

But ths face of Rosalind. 
Rosalinde — Appears in the " Shepherd's Calen- 
dar " as the vainly beloved of Colin Clout. 
Rosaline — French form of Rosalina above. A 
very pretty story is told in connection with 
St. Rosaline, who lived in the thirteenth 
century, and was the daughter of a count 
at Villeneuve. Her father was of somewhat 
uncharitable disposition, and refused to 
give bread to the poor in his neighbourhood. 

But Rosaline's heart was touched by their 
distress, and she secretly filled her apron 
full of food for her poor sisters. Unfortun- 
ately, however, she met her father, who 
asked sharply what she was thus carrying. 
" Only roses," she replied. And when he 
pulled back the apron-folds to see, lo ! her 
lap was full of beautiful crimson blossoms. 
The seigneur bowed his head at this striking 
rebuke, and henceforth permitted Rosaline 
to give away whatever she desired. Much 
the same story is told concerning St. Eliza- 
beth of Hungary and her husband, Kinsf 
Ludwig of Thuringia, only in the latter 
instance Ludwig treasured one of the 
miraculous blossoms till his death. 
Rosamond — [Teutonic) — " Famed protection." 
The story of the " Fair Rosamond " forms 
the subject of Tennyson's powerful drama 
" Becket." According to Higden, a monk of 
Chester, " She was the fayre daughter of 
Walter, Lord Clifford, mistress of Henry II., 




poisoned by Queen Eleanor, a.d. 1177. 
Henry made for her a house of wonderful 
working, so that no man or woman might 
come to her. This house was named 
Labyrinthus, and was wrought like unto a 
knot in a garden called a maze. But the 
queen came to her by a clue of thredde, 
and so dealt with her that she lived not long 
after. She was buried at Godstow, in an 
house of nunnes." 

Another Rosamond, who dwelt in far 
earlier times, namely, in the fifth century, 
was called upon to endure a still more tragic 
fate. She was the chieftainess of the 
Gepidae, or peasantry, of the Jura moun- 
tains, and was compelled by .her inhuman 
Lombard husband to drink his health from 
a goblet fashioned out of the skull of her 
murdered father. Rosamond repaid this 
final insult by slaying her tormentor at 

In the original the name was Hrosmond 
(famous protection, or horse protection). 
Omission of the " h," as time went on, 
easily led to confusion, and resulted in 
the series of " Rose " names many of which 
had really very little originally to do with 
the flower. 

Rosana — " A rose." Spanish form. Rosana 
was the daughter of the Queen of Armenia, 
and aided the three sons of St. George to 
quench the seven lamps of the Knight of 
the Black Castle. " These " seven lamps of 
sleep," as they are called in the tales of 
" The Seven Champions of Christendom," 
caused everyone within the room to fall 
into a deep stupor, from which nothing 
could rouse them till they were extinguished. 
Rosana fetched the necessary water from 
the enchanted fountain, and so awoke and 
rescued the three knights. 

Rosanne — Pretty old English form. 

RosaUPa {Italian) — " Breath of a rose." 

Roscrana {Irish) — " Rose-bush." This lady was 
the daughter of Cormac, King of Moi-lena, 
and wife of Fingal, King of Morven. She 
has been poetically described in Ossian's 
" Tamora as " the blue-eyed and white- 
handed maid, like a spirit of heaven, half 
folded in the skirt of a cloud." 

Roschana {Persian) — " Dawn of day." 

Roeschen — " Little rose." German diminutive. 

Rose — Favourite English form. 

Roseta — Portuguese form of " Rose." 

Rosetta — Italian diminutive. It was with the 
Princess Rosetta that St. David of Wales 
fell in love when he became one of the Seven 

Rosemary {Latin) — " Sea-dew," from Ros- 
marinus. There was an old belief that it was 
" useful in love-making " from the following, 
quaint reason : Both Venus, the love- 
goddess, and Rosemary, the sea-dew, were 
offspring of the sea ; and while Love is 
Beauty's son, Rosemary is his next-of-kin ! 
Thus Butler in " Hudibras " writes : 

The sea his mother Venus came on ; 
And hence some reverend men approve, 
Of Rosemary in making love. 

Rosemary also signifies " remembrance," 
and, belonging to one pretty class of flower- 
names, indicates " fidelity in love." 

Roshilda {Teutonic) — " Famed battle-maid." 

Rosia {Teutonic) — " Fame." English form. 

Rosie — Endearing diminutive of Rose. 

Rosilde {Teutonic) — " Horse battle-maid." 

Rosimonda {Teutonic) — " Horse protection." 
Italian form. 

Rosina {Latin) — " A rose." Italian derivative. 

Rosine — French and German of above. 

Rosita — Spanish diminutive of " Rose." 

Roswida and Roswitha {Teutonic) — " Horse 
strength " was the original meaning of this 
name, and when borne by a Prankish man 
was spelt Hroswith. As with Rosamond, 
the " h " was lost, and " Roswitha " has 
now been softened into " a white rose " or 
" a sweet rose." 

Rowena (Keltic) — " White skirt." She was a 
Saxon princess, who wedded Ivanhoe in Sir 
Walter Scott's novel of that name. 

Roxana {Persian) — " Dawn of day." Roxane is 

Ruby {English) — " A safeguard." A jewel form 

Rufina {Latin) — " Red-haired." 

Rudolphine {Teutonic) — " Wolf of fame." Popu 
lar in Germany. 

RupePta {Teutonic) — " Bright fame." 

Ruth {Hebrew)—" Beauty," or " beauty of 
devotion." The sweet story of Ruth and 
Naomi is too well known to need repeating, 
but the following lines of Longfellow are 
worthy of note : 

Long was the good man's sermon, 

Yet it seem^ not so to me ; 
For he spake of Ruth the beautiful, 

And still I thought of thee. 

Long was the prayer he uttered, 

Yet it seemed not so to me ; 
For in my heart I prayed with him, 
And still I thought of thee. 

Sabella {Latin) — " A nurse." 

Sabina {Latin) — "A Sabine girl." The Sabines 
were a very ancient Italian people, whose 
name has been handed down in the forms of 
Sabinus and Sabine. 

SSibrmB. {English)— " The Severn." The old 
name for the Severn was Sabrin from the 
following legend. Sabrina was the daughter 
of King Locrine by Estrildis whom he loved 
in secret. When his queen, Guendolen, dis- 
covered her husband's faithlessness, she 
gathered together an army and marched 
against him. Locrine was slain in battle, 
and Guendolen pursued after Estrildis and 
Sabrina. Some say they were captured, and, 
by the Queen's orders, flung into the river, 
which was henceforth known as the Sabrin, 
or Severn river. The other version is that 
Sabrina fled, and sprang into the river to 
escape Guendolen's wrath. Nereus (the sea- 
god) took pity on her, and made her the 
goddess of the Severn, which was after- 
wards poetically called Sabrina. Three 
writers refer to this story — Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, in " Historia Britonum;" Milton, 
in " Comus," and Fletcher in " The Faithful 

Sadie {Hebrew) — " Princess." An affectionate 
contraction of Sarah, used in America as a 
distinct name. 

Saffi {Greek) — " Wisdom." Danish form. 

Sally {Hebrew)—" Princess." English contrac- 
tion of Sarah. 

Salome {Hebrew) — " Peaceful." This was the 
name of the famous daughter of Herodias, 
whose dancing so charmed King Herod that 
he promised to grant any boon she might 
ask, a promise which led to the execution of 
John the Baptist. 

To be continued. 



How a Rirl of eighteen years received the news of her accession to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland. Writing rfbout it, she said : 

" Lord Conyngham knelt and kissed my hand, and gave me the certificate of the King's death." At the close of the interview the Queen 

of an hour said to the Archbishop: " I ask your Grace to pray for me." 

From the painting by H. T. tfelis, R.A. 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia deals with 

all phases and aspects of Court 

and social life. It contains authoritative articles upon : 

Presentations and other Func- 

Card Parties 

The Fashionable Resorts of 




Court Balls 

At Homes 

Great Social Positions Occupied 

The Art of Entertaining 

Garden Pitrties, 

by Women 

■ Dinner Parties ^ etc. 

etc.y etc. 

Etiquette for all Occasions^ etc. 




In this series oj articles^ specially written for " Every Woman^s 
Encyclopcedia^^^ by Mrs. Sarah Tooley {the well known author of ^^ Royal 
Palaces and their Memories ^^^ " The Life of Queen Alexandra" etc.), will 
be narrated so?ne of the tragedies, tojuances, and traditions that have in the 
course of centuries gathered round the historic walls of our ancient Royal 
seats. It is in such vividly sketched pictures of the past that characters 
and scenes of long ago live once more for the generations of to-day 

'T'o-DAY everyone may claim to know some- 
thing about the interior of Kensington 
Palace. Its State apartments are open to 
the public, and " conducted " tourists gaze 
upon the portraits of William and Mary, of 
Anne, and the Georgian monarchs and their 
consorts in the very rooms which they 
occupied, and may touch the faded old chairs 
upon which once they sat. 

Even the children from the back streets of 
Bayswater may trot with wondering eyes 
along the Great Gallery where William III., 
stern scion of the House of Orange, unbent 
once to play at horses with little Lord 
Buck, and may feast their eyes upon the 
toys with which Queen Victoria played, 
arranged in the rooms where, as a merry 
child, she romped with the nurse, " dear 

The beautiful old gardens, once the 
exclusive domain of the Court, are now the' 
lounge of the million, and in the Broad Walk, 
where lords and ladies gay promenaded in 
their brocades, chintzes, swords, and cocked 
hats, Mary Jane trundles the go-cart and 
immaculately attired nurses push their 
perambulators in solid phalanx. 

Gone from the gardens are the 

Goodly dames and courteous knights, 

The silken petticoat and broidered vest , 

The peers and mighty dukes, with ribands blue, 

of whom Gay sang ; but the stately elms of 
the Broad Walk are taller than in the gay 
days of long ago, the may- trees make an even 

braver show in spring than when the ladies 
of Queen Anne's Court trailed their Watteau 
trains over the green sward, and the thrushes 
and blackbirds sing as sweetly as in those 
long-past days. 

The Round Pond displays flotillas of 
miniature vessels which would have aston- 
ished that bluff Tsar, Peter the Great, who 
visited the palace when he came to these 
shores to study shipbuilding. The majestic 
Serpentine has broadened its curves and 
beautified its banks beyond the expectations 
of its originator. Queen Caroline. The tulip 
beds make as gay a show as ever around the 
old palace, and display a profusion of blooms 
which would have made King William's 
subjects stand aghast at the extravagance of 
their planters. The pure, dainty snowdrops, 
too, which, according to Tickell's poetic fancy, 
were first planted by the fairies in Kensington 
Gardens in honour of Queen Caroline's 
" virgin band " of fair Maids of Honour, still 
deck the turf in winter :-airith patches of 
quivering white. 

Every passer-by is famihar with the 
statue of King William III. in the private 
garden of Kensington Palace, and with that 
beautiful figure of Victoria, as the maiden 
monarch, sculptured by her daughter. 
Princess Louise, and placed in front of the 
apartments where Queen Victoria was born. 
Those two statues speak silently of the span 
of Court life passed within the walls of 
Kensington Palace. 


The romance of the old rambling red-brick 
"building begins with its first Royal mistress, 
Mary II., to whom, indeed, the palace is due. 
That strange union of William and Mary, the 
^tern Hollander and the beautiful daughter 
of the Stuarts, begun in dislike on her part 
and contempt on his, ended, as the walls of 
Kensington Palace could reveal, in a love and 
devotion to each other which grew ever 
stronger as the years went by. 

The B«)lding: of the Palace 

The story opens in 1689, when Mary 
arrives from Holland to share the sove- 
reignty of this country with her husband, the 
stern Stadtholder of the House of Orange, 
whom the Protestants of England have 
summoned to be their ruler. 

Ten years before Mary, daughter of the 
jiow exiled King James II., had left White- 
hall Palace, in floods of tears, the unwilling 
bride of William Prince of Orange. The 
immature girl has become a beautiful and 
graceful woman, with much of the fascination 
and bonhomie of the Stuarts. She now 
adores her husband whom she married on 
compulsion, and has grown so fond of her 
peaceful life in Holland al her " house in the 
wood," that her return to regal dignity in 
her native land is most distasteful. 

" My heart is not made for a kingdom," she 
sighs, " and my inclination leads me towards 
a retired life." 

She feels acutely her unfortunate position 
in helping her husband to take the throne of 
her father ; but devotion to her husband and 
zeal for the Protestant cause prevails. 

No sooner has Mary reached this country 
than she is confronted with the task of pre- 
paring a suitable house for the King, who 
cannot live at Whitehall by reason of his 
asthma. Mary, too, longs for such a quiet 

country home as she has left in Holland, and 
is attracted by a pleasant villa, owned by her 
Chamberlain, my Lord Nottingham, in the 
rural and salubrious district of Kensington. 
It is purchased for eighteen thousand guineas, 
and Sir Christopher Wren is entrusted with 
the work of converting it into a Royal 

Mary has a woman's natural desire to see 
that her home is made to her liking, and 
endures the usual trials with dilatory work- 
men. She relates that she went " often to 
Kinsington to hasten th.e worckmen. I was so 
impatient to be at that place, imagining to 
find more ease there. This I often reproved 
myself for, and at last it pleased God to show 
me the uncertainty of all things below, for part 
of the house which was new built fell down." 

The poor Queen rises superior to this 
calamity, and while the King is engaged in 
his Irish campaign, continues to struggle 
bravely with the trials of house building. 
But, alas ! when her victorious husband 
announces his home-coming after the Battle 
of the Boyne, the house at " Kinsington" is 
still in the hands of " worckmen." 

A Destructive Fire 

It is the " fiddling worck outside," explains 
the harried Mary to her spouse, ' ' which takes 
up more time than one can imagine, and 
while the ' schafolds ' are up the windows 
must be boarded up." Fortunately, the King 
is detained longer in Ireland than he antici- 
pated, and before he arrives Mary is able to 
announce " Kinsington is ready." 

Not only has the Queen been superintend- 
ing the preparation of the new home, bitt she 
has been fulfilling the arduous duties of 
governing the kingdom in the King's absence, 
and it is with pardonable pride that she 
records, " Mv husband was satisfied, and told 

he King ;, diawing-rooin at Kensington Palace. This beautiful apartment was added by command of King George I. In the 
State apartments of this London palace Queen Victoria played as a child 



me he was very much pleased with my 

Alas, the trials of the first Royal mistress of 
Kensington Palace are not yet over. Scarcely 
a year has elapsed before a fire breaks out, 
and in sadness of heart Mary writes with 
chastened spirit. " But of how little con- 
tinuance are all wordly contentments ! I 
confess I had to much in the convenience of 
my house and neatness of my furniture, and 
I was taught a second time the vanity of all 
such things by a fire on the 9th of November, 
which burnt one side of the house at 
* Kinsington.' The whole had not escaped 
but by the good providence of God, which 
kept everybody from hurt, so that there was 
not the least accident that I could hear of. 
This has truly, I hope, weaned me from the 
vanities I was most fond of — that is, ease and 
good lodgings." 

The Court of William and Mary, when at 
length they are settled in the completed 
Palace at Kensington, is not a gay one. The 
King has made a fine new road to connect 
Kensington with St. James's and Whitehall, 
but my lord and lady shudder at the thought 
of venturing on dark nights out into the wilds 
beyond Hyde Park, and their servants decline 
to conduct their chariots ; so few courtiers 
come to disturb the seclusion of the King and 
Queen w^hen they are in residence at their new 
abode. A fine wing of State apartments is 
added, but mirth and fashion have little 
place therein. 

The "Great Man in a Little Body" 

William, the " great man in a little body,* 
is intent on his task of governing a critical 
and ungrateful people, and trusts none of 
the English nobility. He dislikes social life, 
and passes much of his time in the Green 
Closet at Kensington in conference with the 
faithful friends who accompanied him from 
Holland — Bentinck, now my Lord Portland ; 
Zulestein ; Auverquerque, and the young 
page, Keppel, who becomes my Lord 

INIaster Matthew Prior, too, whose verses 
have pleased my Lord Portland, is in the 
King's confidence, and has been appointed 
a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, but the 
King has been careful to tell him that he 
must not be expected to read his writings. 
Presently, however. Lord Portland goes as 
Ambassador to the Court of France, and the 
W'itty Prior gladly accompanies him as 
secretary, thankful to escape the tedium of 

Wlien not in the Green Closet, William 
paces the new King's Gallery, with its nine 
windows overlooking the gardens. This 
affords him exercise when the weather is 
inclement. We see, in imagination, his 
careworn face, surrounded by the long, 
flowing wig, his bent and puny form, and 
dark, piercing eyes, and hear the hack of his 
cough as he pauses to take breath. At each 
turn he gazes at the dial over the mantel- 
piece connected with the vane on the roof 
by which he can gauge the winds which will 

D 25 

affect his fleet in Holland. The heart of the 
great Stadtholder is in his native land. 

Mary passes much of her time in the 
Patchwork Closet, working covers for her 
furniture or knotting lace. Bishop Burnet 
counted it amongst her excellencies that 
" she never had a female friend." It is 
certain that devotion to her husband kept 
the gifted and sprightly Queen from a gay 
Court life. She finds pleasure in having the 
gardens of the palace planted and trimmed in 
the Dutch style and she fills her rooms with 
blue Delft china. 

A Death- Bed Story 

The childless King and Queen are en- 
livened by visits from their nephew, the 
little Duke of Gloucester, for the coolness 
which exists between the Royal sisters makes 
no difference in Mary's kindness to Anne's 

The infant Gloucester exercises his regi- 
ment of Kensington boys in paper caps and 
wooden swords in the garden of the palace. 
He is greatly interested in the campaign in 
the Low Countries, and says to his uncle 
one day, " My dear King, you shall have 
both of my companies at Flanders." Think- 
ing to amuse him, the Queen takes him to 
see the carpenters at work in the Long 
Gallery. " What are they doing ? " he 
queries. " Mending the gallery, or else it 
will fall down," replied his aunt. " Let it 
fall, let it fall," said he, " and then you will 
scamper away to Ix)ndon."' 

Another day the Queen offers her nephew 
a beautiful bird, but the precocious boy 
replies, " Madam, I will not rob you of it." 

Five years later, and the gracious, kindly 
figure of Mary passes away from the palace 
which she has loved and laboured to beautify. 
She is seized with an attack of smallpox, and 
comes to Kensington to die. With extra- 
ordinary fortitude she keeps her fears from 
the King, and before repairing to what she 
feels will be her death -bed, spends a night 
of lonely vigil in the Patchwork Closet, 
arranging her private papers and writing 
a letter to the King, to be opened after her 
death, in which she tells him of the suffering 
she endured in their early married life 
by reason of Elizabeth Villiers. Hot tears 
fell, surely, on the writing as the death- 
stricken Queen penned those words in the 
dread stillness of that awful night. 

In the Days of Qood Queen Anne 

Gloom settles over Kensington after the 
death of Mary. The King is inconsolable, 
and spends sorrowful hours soliloquising on 
her goodness as he stands gazing; up at her 
portiait. " I was the happiest man on 
earth," he cries, " and now I am the most 
miserable. She had no fault, none ; no- 
body but myself could know her goodness." 

A pretty story lights up this sombre 
period. As the King sits brooding in the 
Green Closet one morning, there is a tap at 
the door. 

" Wlio is there ? " asks the King. 


" Lord Buck," replies a childish voice. 

" And what does Lord Buck want ? " asks 
his Majesty, as he opens the door and 
encounters the small son of his Chamberlain. 

" You to be a horse to my coach,'' says 
the boy, with infantile assurance. " I've 
wanted you a long time." 

The King cannot resist such wmnmg 
artlessness, and, taking the traces of the toy 
coach, plays at horses up and down the 
long gallery, as little Lord Buck shouts and 
spurs him on. 

Momentous history for the country is 
' being made in * the Council Chamber at 


The doll's'housa and furniture that Queen Victoria delighted to play with as a child. In the latter years 

of her life, with the cares of State heavy on her shoulders, a visit to the scenes of her happy childhood 

brought tears to her eyes as she recognised her favourite and battered toys 

Kensington when William hovers between 
life and death. The Ministers are laying 
their plans to secure the succession of Anne 
before tidings of the King's condition reaches 
the Jacobite Party. While they yet de- 
liberate, William passes away in the arms 
of his faithful page. He is found to be 
wearing a locket containing a piece of Mary's 
beautiful golden hair bound to his arm with 
a black ribbon. Thus closes the first 
romance of the palace. 

With the advent of Anne Kensington 
begins to merit the name of the "Court 
suburb." The narrow high-road becomes 
alive with rank and fashion wending their 

way to the palace. To the pillared entrance 
facing the green comes my lord's chariot, 
my lady's sedan, and the stately equipages 
of the Ministers and Ambassadors. The 
military are in evidence, and the Royal 
guards pass to and fro between the palace 
and the adjacent barracks. The Queen has 
enlarged and beautified the gardens, and 
on summer evenings gives grand illuminated 
fetes, to which she graciously invites her 
lieges of Kensington, as well as the Court 
circle of St. James's. 

The ladies trail their gowns d la Watteaii, 
a mode which it pleases her Majesty to be- 
hold. Sheltered 
alcoves have been 
erected in the 
gardens for the con- 
venience of the 
company, and some 
remain there to- 
day. There is music 
and dancing in the 
Queen's Orangery, 
erected by Wren and 
carved by Gibbons. 
There, too, on hot 
evenings it pleases 
the Queen to sup. 
She is surrounded by 
obsequious courtiers, 
the ladies in 
brocaded robes, fly- 
caps, and fans. 

A d V en t u rous 
citizens journey to 
Kensington when 
there is a garden 
fete to watch the 
promenaders , and 
perchance join at a 
respectful distance 
in the chorus of the 
Court lyrist's ode 
to " Gloriana " : 

Bright Gloriana all along, 
Bright Gloriana was their 

There is a romantic 
meeting in the 
gardens one morning 
when the ponderous 
Anne is taking her 
airing in a chair 
drawn by a " pant- 
ing stag." She is accosted in her favourite 
Cedar Walk by a young gentleman from my 
Lady Castlewood's in Kensington Square, 
who would feign crave an audience. One 
look at the visitor, and the Queen guesses 
that it is the son of her exiled father, the 
hope of the Jacobite Party, who solicits her 
sisterly recognition. The scene lives in the 
pages of " Esmond." 

A few years later, and Anne, now a 
widowed and childless Queen, lies dying 
in her chamber at Kensington, murmuring 
in her delirium: "Oh, my brother! My 
dear brother ! W^hat will become of you ? 
There is plotting and counter-plotting 

amongst the rival factions as the end 
approaches. " She dies upward ; her feet 
are cold," say her women. And there are 
young bloods amongst the Jacobites who 
would fain rush to Charing Cross and hoist 
the standard of the Chevalier. But the 
Protestant Lords of the Council have matured 
their plans, and Addison, now Secretary of 
State, is commissioned to announce his 
succession to George, the Elector of Hanover. 

The Kensinsfton Promenades 

The new King's wife, the hapless Sophia 
Dorothea, languishes in exile, and there is 
now no gracious mistress to preside over the 
Court at Kensington. Nevertheless, his 
Majesty is much pleased with the Dutch 
style of the place, and adds to its State 
apartments, and his sprightly daughter-in- 
law, Caroline of Anspach, Princess of Wales, 
brings life and gaiety to the gardens when 
she comes thither to promenade with the 
ladies and gentlemen of her household. 

Anon, when Caroline has become Queen, 
the Kensington promenades are the great 
diversion of the Court. Onl}- courtiers and 
people of the best fashion are admitted. 

At first the promenades are on Saturday, 
but later they are changed to Sunday. 
The courtiers and the wits, poets, and 
litterateurs who come in their train, all 
appear in full dress. Can we not picture 
the gay company under the elms bowing 
to and saluting each other, the gentlemen in 
powdered wigs, swords at their sides, and 
cocked hats tucked gallantly under their 
right arms, as they converse with the fair 
dames in flowered silks and chintzes ? 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu is there, 
with a tongue as witty as that of Mary 
Bellenden, and Captain Dick Steele, always 
a favourite with the ladies, and Addison, of 
graver mien, strolling with observant eye 
making notes on the " fair sex " for next 
week's " Spectator." Tickell, also, is there, 
and immortalises the gay scene in verse. 

For fifty years the Kensington promenades 
flourish, long after the brilliant Caroline 
has passed away, leaving the glorious 
Serpentine and its sylvan banks to per- 
petuate her memory. Even when George 
is King, and the palace is no longer the 
residence of the Court, it is considered 
" smarter " to walk in Kensington Gardens 
than in Hyde Park. 

The Birth of Queen Victoria 

Though by the beginning of last century 
Kensington Palace ceased to be the abode 
of the monarch, members of the Royal 
House still reside within its walls. The. 
Duke of Kent and his amiable Duchess have 
apartments in the south-east wing. On 
May 24, 18 19, a baby daughter is born to 
the Duke and Duchess, and the proud 
father, as he holds the infant in his arms 
says, " Take care of her ; she may one day 
be Queen of England." In the Cupola 
Room they baptise the " hope of the nation " 
by the name of " Victoria. ' 


Eighteen years pass by, and the fair, 
blue-eyed, winning child in Leghorn hat 
and streamers who used to salute the visitors 
to the gardens so prettily, and water her 
flower-beds and draw her cart along the 
gravel paths has become a winsome girl 
in the first flush of womanhood. In the 
early dawn of a morning in June, 1837, 
she is roused from her slumbers — but let 
her tell the tale : 

" It was about 6 a.m. that mamma came 
and called me, and said I must go and see 
Lord Conyngham directly — alone. I got. 
up, put on my dressing-gown, and went into 
a room, where I found Lord Conyngham, 
who knelt and kissed my hand, and gave me 
the certificate of the King's death." 

Before the tearful figure of the young girl, 
with hair streaming over her white robe, 
Archbishop Howley and the Lord Chamber- 
lain, Conyngham, knelt in homage, and the 
Queen of an hour, turning to the Archbishop, 
says, with all humility : " I ask your Grace 
to pray for me." 

Sixty years pass by, and Queen Victoria, 
a revered figure with silver hair and the weight 
of close upon eighty years upon her, comes 
once again to the home of her youth. The 
State apartments of Kensington Palace have 
been converted into a shrine to her memory, 
and before they are thrown open to the 
public she would fain gaze upon the old 
scenes once again. 

A Modern Romance 

She is drawn in her wheeled chair from 
room to room, identifying old associations, 
and when at length she reaches the nursery 
where the cases containing her old toys 
stand, she desires her attendants to leave 
her alone. The flood-gates of tender 
memories are opened. The Ruler of a 
mighty Empire, who has wielded the sceptre 
so long with strong hand and sagacious 
mind, has still a tender woman's heart, 
and the sight of a battered doll speaking of 
the days of childhood moves her to tears. 

Now the scene changes, and it is a merry 
party of princes and princesses who have 
come to see the renovated palace. Fair 
and tall among them stands our present 
Queen, then Duchess of York. It is her 
birthplace also, and she and her husband 
and brothers grow merry together as they 
recall the games of childhood in the old 
palace, in the same rooms where Queen 
Victoria's youth was passed. 

Yet once again in recent years the old 
palace is a scene of courtly splendour. 
Princess Henry of Battenberg's apartments 
are full of life and colour, for her fair 5-oung 
daughter is having her coming-out ball, 
and Royal and courtly equipages throng 
the palace entrance. Amongst the brilHant 
company who offer congratulations to 
pretty Princess Ena none is more obser\'ed 
than Alfonso, the youthful King of Spain. 
Cupid's shaft goes home that night, and it 
is not long before the old palace yields the 
ardent young wooer the fairest of brides. 


From the paintins by H. Koch 


By permission of Uu Berlin Photographic Co, 


Romance is not confined solely to the realms of fiction. The romances of fact, indeed, are greater 
and more interesting ; they have made history, and have laid the foundations of the greatness both of 
artists and of poets. 

This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia, therefore, will include, among many other 
subjects — 

Love Poems and Songs 
The Stiperstitions of Love 
The Engaged Girl in Many 

Historical Love 


Love Letters of Famous People 
Love Scenes from Fiction- 

Proposals of Yesterday and 

Elopements in Olden Days^ 

etc., etc 




Trusty, dusky, vivid, true, 

With eyes of gold and bramble-dew, 

Steel-true and blade-straight 

The great Artificer 

Made my mate. 

Honour, anger, valour, fire ; 
A love that life could r>ever tire, 
Death quench, or evil stir, 
The mighty Master 
Gave to her. 

Teacher, tender comrade, wife, 
A fellow-farer true through life, 
Heart-whole and soul-free 
The august Father 
Gave to me. 

And surely the wife of Robert Louis 
"^ Stevenson deserved this tribute from 
her husband . She must have been a splendid, 
fascinating woman. What one knows of 
her suffices to prove this, and one knows 
very much less than one would like to know. 

The love affairs of most great men, espe- 
cially writers, are common knowledge. Biit 
Stevenson's, by some strange mischance, has 
been allowed to remain veiled in obscurity. 
As a matter of fact, he had only one. This 
may serve partly to explain the mystery. 
And that one ended happily. This, perhaps, 
completes the explanation. To Byron, for 
example, and to Shelley the pen brought 
fame ; the heart notoriety, and notoriety 
too often lives longer in the memory of man 
either than fame or happiness, a still more 
precious prize. 

As a lover, therefore, Stevenson is barely 
known. The popular impression of the 

man is merely as a great writer who travelled 
incessantly, who knew all that was to 
be known about the South Sea Islands, and 
who was comparatively indifferent to the 
attractiveness of women. But he was much 
more than this. He was one of the most 
compelling characters of modern times, a 
giant among giants in spite of his frail body. 
He travelled widely, it is true, but mainly 
because he possessed a restless, Bohemian 
spirit. Similarly, he lived in the South Seas 
mainly because the state of his health made 
it impossible for him to live elsewhere. And, 
if he paid but little attention to women, surely 
it was because the influence of a few mono- 
polised his life entirely. In his mother, his 
nurse, and then in his wife were centred all 
his affections. The only other woman in 
whom he took a serious interest was a little 
girl two and a half years old whom he met 
once on his Continental travels. But his 
friends were nimiberless. 

Love came to him but once. It came then, 
however, in all its fulness. Indeed, " the 
woman whom," Gerald Balfour declares, 
" Fate brought halfway across the world to 
meet him " grew in his eyes to be incom- 
parably the most precious thing in life ; he 
adored her with all his soul. But, alas ! 
she was already married when he met her. 
Love, therefore, seemed likely always to 
remain with him a hopeless paission, but still 
it did not waver ; it was a love such as few 
men bear, and in the end it triumphed over 
every obstacle. How could it have done 
otherwise ? Amor vmcii omnia. 

LOVE 3S70 

By birth Stevenson was a Scotsman, but 
only by birth ; he inherited the quahties 
neither of his parents nor his race. An 
ideaUst and a dreamer, he possessed an m- 
born love for the lawlessness of Nature, and m 
the fantastic and the mysterious he revelled, 
even as a child, perhaps because he was 
delicate, for, like most delicate children, he 
was wildly imaginative. 

" Mamma," he said once, " I have drawed 
a man. Shall I draw his soul now ? " And 
the remark was characteristic. The boy 
proved in truth to be the father to the man. 
Indeed, the passing years, instead of ordering 
his mind, made it only more fanciful. 

And yet his parents wanted him to become 
an engineer, and to spend his life in an office 
poring over maps and plans. It was an 
impossible desire. The training, it is true, 
proved greatly to his liking, but only the 
training, for it entailed no actual work ; it 
merely kept him " hanging about harbour- 
sides," and this he found to be " the richest 
form of idling." In short, the boy loved ships 
not as ships, but because they sailed upon the 
sea, the sea in whose depths he saw buried all 
the beauties and mysteries of life. 

And before long this truth dawned even 
upon his father. But to the latter, for he 
was a practical minded man, it came as a 
sorry disappointment to know that he had a 
son endowed with the temperament of an 
artist and the soul of a poet. But, for he 
was also a wise man, he disguised his feelings, 
and allowed his son to follow his natural 
bent towards literature. 

But he made one condition. The boy, he 
said, must at the same time study for the Bar, 
in order that, should he fail as a writer — and 
this, needless to say, was assumed — he might 
have some other calling to fall back upon. 

And Robert accepted this condition readily. 
In fact, he welcomed it ; his legal studies, he 
hoped, would enable him sometimes to escape 
from the dull respectability of a Scottish 
household and to mingle with men who did 
not regard every question from a stand- 
point tediously conventional. Much as he 
loved his home, he often found life there in- 
tolerably monotonous. 

Besides, his mother firmly refused to recog- 
nise him as a man or to release him from the 
bondage of her apron strings. This was 
ridiculous. Indeed, in 1872, when he sug- 
gested to her that he should spend the 
summer session at some German university, 
the idea horrified the good lady to such an 
extent that, being a dutiful son, he had no 
alternative other than to abandon it. And 
he was then twenty- two years old. 

Early in 1873, however, he secured eman- 
cipation. His health broke down com- 
pletely, and the symptoms were unmis- 
takable ; consumption had fastened a hold 
upon him. Forthwith, therefore, he was sent 
to Switzerland, and more than a year elapsed 
before he returned to Scotland. And then, 
since he came back apparently strong and 
well, it was impossible for him to be regarded 
longer as a child. Indeed, his father even 

went so far as to undertake in future to 
allow him the munificent sum of ;^7 a month. 

To Robert this meant undreamed-of wealth, 
and that which is more valuable than wealth — 
freedom. Henceforth, he felt, he would be 
able to live how and where he liked. And, 
what is more, he did. He was perpetually 
on the travel. 

" You must not be vexed at my absences," 
he told his mother in a letter; "you must 
understand that I shall be a nomad more or 
less until my days are done. You don't 
know how much I used to long for it in the 
old days ; how I used to go and look at the 
trains leaving and long to go with them. 
I must be a bit of a vagabond ; it's your own 
fault, after all, isn't it ? You shouldn't have 
had a tramp for a son." 

Paris and the artist colonies in the neigh- 
bourhood. Monaster, Nemours, Barbizon, 
were his favourite haunts. " I was for some 
time," he wrote, " a consistent Barbizonian ; 
et ego in Arcadia vixi." Indeed, he delighted 
in the life. Here he found it possible for 
him to be himself, to ignore small conven- 
tionalities, and to live with his own sweet 
thoughts ; they were much more interesting 
than stern realities. 

Not far from Barbizon lay a little village 
called Grez, also sacred to artists. Here 
Stevenson spent a few days in the summer 
of 1875, but apparently the place did not 
appeal to him. At any rate, he wrote and told 
his mother that he was very glad to be back 
again at Barbizon and " to smell the wet 
forest in the morning." 

In a letter written some time later, how- 
ever, he declared that it was unspeakably 
delightful " to awake in Grez, to go down 
the green inn-garden, to find the river 
streaming through the bridge, and to see the 
dawn begin across the poplared level." And 
why ? Why this sudden change of opinion ? 
Usually there is only one answer to such 
questions — cherchez la femme. And perhaps 
it will serve again. 

At any rate, when Stevenson arrived at 
Grez, in 1876, he found the little village in a 
state of great excitement. Preparations were 
being made for the reception of a woman 
artist. A woman artist ! In those days 
such a phenomenon was almost unheard of 
outside Paris ; the woman of 1876 was a very 
different being to the woman of 191 1. 

And in due course the lady arrived. She 
proved to be an American, a certain Mrs. 
Osbourne, who had come to France to educate 
her children because her husband had made 
life impossible both for her and them at their 
home in California. In Paris she had made 
several artist friends, and they had recom- 
mended Grez to her as a peaceful, quiet 
retreat. It was, therefore, really quite 
natural that she should seek the place. And 
perhaps it was equally natural that Steven- 
son should fall in love with her immediately, 
for she happened to be the very woman for 
whom unconsciously he had long been seeking. 
He could not help himself ; she fascinated 
him, and her charm flooded him like an 

irresistible wave, carrying all before it. Of 
his friends, some laughed at his infatuation ; 
others, those who esteemed him most highly, 
grew anxious and tried to stifle it, for Mrs. 
Osbourne was a married woman. 

But there was no occasion for alarm. 
Stevenson saw the insuperable obstacles 
which stood between him and the realisation 
of his dreams. Indeed, his hopes for the 
future "seemed so remote that he dared not 
even to entertain them. For this reason, 
therefore, and to stay the voice of scandal, 
he buried his secret deep in his heart. And 
by discretion 
he displayed 
his wisdom. 

And Mrs. 
—she, too, 
loved, and 
she, too, saw 
the need of 
ing that 
love, for she 
had children 
to consider, 
and for their 
sake was un- 
willing to 
divorce her 
But, none the 
less, she cher- 
ished dearly 
her unattain- 
able longing ; 
in Stevenson 
she had 
found her 
ideal of man- 
hood. And 
surely it is 
no matter 
for wonder 
that he 
should have 
appealed to 
her, for, in 
spite of ill- 
health and 
suffering, he 
was a big 

generous, bubbling with silliness and humour, 
and she a woman with whom the world had 
not dealt kindly. Besides, he possessed the 
divine gifts of sympathy and understanding, 
and that rare but curious power of attracting 
the good in everybody. 

And it was in this man's company that 
Mrs. Osbourne passed the summer of 1876. 
A perfect friendship sprang up between them, 
and it was only when October came, and 
Stevenson found it necessary to return to 
Edinburgh, that they fully realised how 
much they had been to one another. But the 
man, at any rate, did not confide in anybody 
either his secret or his sorrow ; they were 

3871 LOVE 

much too precious, much too dear. Even 
his parents suspected nothing ; outwardly 
he appeared as his own gay, irresponsible 

Only occasionally — sometimes in a letter — 
did he allow his true feelings to escape. " I 
am getting a lot of work ready in my mind," 
he wrote in 1878. " . . . What a bles- 
sing work is ! 1 don't think I could face 
life without it. . . . it helps so much." 
This he wrote in February, and at that time 
he had much need of consolation. Mrs. 
Osbourne had just returned to California. 

He might 
never see her 
again; in- 
deed, it was 
more than 
that he 
would not. 
The cruel 
thought ob- 
sessed him, 
and he found 
life an utter 
blank; the 
seemed to 
hold nothing 
for him. No 
wonder he 
felt sad. 

Do what 
he would, 
moreover, he 
could not 
banish the 
from his 
mind , nor 
the vision of 
an impos- 
sible happi- 
ness. ' ' I 
heard," he 
wrote in 
ber wh i 1 e 
j o u r n eying 
through the 
" the voice 
of a woman 
singing some sad, old, endless ballad 
not far off. It seemed to be about love 
and a bel anioureux. her handsome sweet- 
heart ; and I wished I could have taken 
up the strain and answered her, as I went 
upon my invisible woodland way, weaving, 
like Pippa in the poem, my own thoughts 
with hers. What could I have told her ? 
Little enough, and yet all the heart requires. 
How the world gives and takes away, and 
brings sweethearts near only to separate them 
again in distant and strange lands ; but to 
love is the great amulet which makes the 
world a garden ; and ' hope, which comes to 
all.' outwears the accidents of life and 

Robert Louis Stevenson is not a well'known lover, but, none the less, the one great romance in 

his life forms a magnificent story, noble and sincere. In short, he loved as he lived 

From a sketch by F. S. Spence, N.P.G. 



reaches with tremulous hand beyond the 
grave and death. Easy to say ; yea, but 
also, by God's mercy, both easy and grateful 
to believe ! " 

He strove hard, therefore, to lead his 
normal Hfe. But it was very difficult ; the 
glorious light, which suddenly had shone 
upon it and then vanished, had left behind 
a gloom bitter and intensified. 

But still in his inmost heart he did not 
despair. " What a man truly wants," he 
once related, " that will he get." And 
he proved the truth of his aphorism. 

Indeed, barely a year after her return to 
California, he heard that Mrs. Osbourne could 
be released from her husband ; her family 
even approved of the idea. This was aston- 
ishingly unexpected news, and it threw 
Stevenson into a turmoil of doubt. Should 
he go to her immediately ? Dare he ? 
Neither friends or relations, he knew, would 
ever countenance his action ; to love he 
must sacrifice everything ; to a dream of 
love, for, after all, its beauty and its sincerity 
might prove merely to be creations of his 
imagination which reality would dispel. 

And so for several months he existed in a 
state of restless indecision. Then came news 
that Mrs. Osbourne was ill, dangerously ill. 
So, for that matter, was Stevenson. But he 
hesitated no longer — now ; he became strong 
in his purpose. Quickly, therefore, and with 
the utmost secrecy, he made preparations 
for departure, and early in August set sail 
from Glasgow in the steamship Devonia, 
bound for New York. 

He travelled in the second cabin, " steer- 
age " it would be called to-day. Lack of 
funds forbade him greater comfort. Although 
he suffered terribly on the voyage, moreover, 
he could not afford or even allow himself to 
be idle. But his pluck was indomitable. 
And before reaching New York, " in a slantin- 
dicular cabin, with the table playing bob- 
cherry with the ink-bottle," he wrote the 
greater part of " The Story of a Lie." 

He landed on August 18, but did not delay 
a minute to recuperate. Forthwith he 
boarded an emigrant train, and set out for 
San Francisco. And the journey nearly 
killed him ; it was a terrible experience. 
He began it on a Monday evening, but did not 
arrive at his destination until the Saturday 
morning of the following week, and theR he 
was so ill that he could barely stand. 

In such a state he dared not show himself 
to his beloved. Instead, therefore, he 
continued his journey 150 miles to the 
South, and camped out alone on a range 
of mountains on the coast beyond Monterey. 
There, undoubtedly, he would have died had 
not two ranchers, who found him lying under 
a tree " in a sort of stupor," carried him 
to the ranch and nursed him back to life. 

He remained with them a fortnight. Then 
he returned to San Francisco, and here his 
Fanny found him. At last she was free. 
And on May 19, 1880, he married her. 

" As I look back," he wrote two years 
before his death, " I think my marriage was 

the best move I ever made in my life. Not 
only would I do it again, I cannot con- 
ceive the idea of doing otherwise." And 
he was not a demonstrative man. 

Yet again, " I may as well tell you," he 
declared in a letter to his mother, " that my 
marriage has been the most successful in the 
world. 1 say so, and, being the child of my 
parents, I can speak with knowledge. She 
is everything to me — wife, brother, sister, 
daughter, and dear companion ; and I would 
not change to get a goddess or a saint." 

But what made his happiness complete 
was the fact that his parents received his 
bride with open arms, "as if it were they 
and not Louis who had made the match." 

Indeed, so high was the old man Steven- 
son's opinion of her that, before his death, he 
made his son promise that he would " never 
publish anything without Fanny's approval." 
And an admirable critic she proved herself. 

But make a home in the land of his birth 
Stevenson could not ; his precarious health 
demanded sunshine, and even living as he 
did mainly on the Riviera, he soon over- 
taxed his strength. 

" Keep him alive till he is forty," the 
doctor told Mrs. Stevenson, " and then, 
although a winged bird, he may live to 
ninety." But this was no easy task ; the 
man's energy was unbounded ; he would not 
rest. And in 1884 he again became danger- 
ously ill ; so ill that his wife wrote to her 
mother-in-law, and said that for the next few 
years he must " live as though he were 
walking on eggs." 

But a man with Stevenson's temperament, 
needless to say, could not lead a life like this. 
To him it seemed merel}^ an existence, a living 
death. He soon found it intolerable. And 
so at last, in 1888, he sailed, with his house- 
hold, " beyond the sunset." And there, in 
the South Seas, he found a home and peace. 
Europe saw him no more. On the island of 
Upolu, in his wonderful house of Vailima, 
he passed the remainder of his days. 

It was a strange, beautiful life. Stevenson 
loved it, and loved it the more since his wife 
shared his happiness and enjoyed it with him. 
But it was all too short. The end came in 
December, 1894, the end which Mrs. Steven- 
son long had dreaded. For some time psist 
her mind had been filled with strange pre- 
sentiments of tragedy ; nothing could dispel 
them. Only a few hours before his death 
her husband rallied her tenderly about these 
forebodings, and then " played a game of 
cards with her to drive away her melan- 
choly." But all to no purpose ; she was 
conscious of death's presence ; she knew 
that he would be denied no longer, and, 
when the time came, knelt in frenzied grief 
by the side of the man she loved while life 
ebbed away, impotent to save him. 

Rarely has a man been mourned more 
truly. And on the hillside where his body 
found its final resting-place the chiefs have 
forbidden the use of firearms, so " that the 
birds may live there undisturbed and raise 
about his grave the songs he loved so well." 




Coutiitiifd /rout /•ax'f J7j2, J'art ji 

Hazel — " Keconciliation." Mythology has 
given us a very poetical explanation of why 
the meaning of reconciliation was given to 
the hazel. In primeval times, ere law, 
religion, and some say language, were known 
upon the earth, man lived in a state of bar- 
barism. At length the immortal gods took 
pity upon him, and Apollo and Mercury 
descended to the earth, after bestowing gifts 
upon each other, Apollo receiving a lyre 
made from the shell of a tortoise, and Mer- 
cury a hazel stick, which possessed the 
magic power of imparting the love of virtue, 
.and of reconciling hearts divided by envy 
and hatred. To the accompaniment of his 
lyre, Apollo sang to the mortals the story 
of creation, the power of love, and the beauty 
of the worship of the gods, and at the sound 
of his voice revenge died, and envy fled away. 
Mercury then took up the task, and, 
touching man with his hazel rod, he be- 
stowed upon him the gift of language and 
eloquence, taught him that unity imparted 
strength and produced prosperity. Listening 
to the wondrous story, both filial and patri- 
otic love awoke in man's dull heart, and the 
dawn of a new era began. In all his pictures 
Mercury is still depicted carrying this hazel 
rod, which, adorned with two light wings 
entwined with serpents, is known by the name 
of Caduceus, and regarded as the emblem of 
peace, commerce, and reconcihation. 
Heartsease — " You occupy my thoughts." 
The alternative name for the heartsease is 
" pansy," derived from the French word 
" pensee — thought." In the floral language 
of France this flower desires the recipient to 
" think of me " (pensez a moi). Ben Jonsori 
spelled it paunse, Spenser as paunce, and 
Milton as pancies. Shakespeare makes 
Ophelia say when distributing her flowers: 
" And there is pansies, that's for thoughts." 
One pretty line defines this flower as the 
" Shining pansy trimmed with golden lace." 
Of the many names given to the heartsease, 
one of the prettiest surely is " three faces 
under a hood," because the petals resemble 
little faces looking up at one. Another 
suggestive title is " kiss me behind the 
garden-gate." According to an old legend, 
heartsease was originally a milk-white 
flower, till Cupid in wanton mischief strove 
to pierce a maiden's heart ; but, repelled by 
her icy coldness, the arrow glanced off, and 
fell upon the flower, dyeing it purple with 
love's wound, and gaining for it the name 
" love in idleness." Shakespeare alludes 
to this in " Midsummer Night's Dream," 
ii. I : 
Yet marked I where the bolt of Cupid fell ; 
It fell upon a little western flower, 
Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound, 
And maidens call it love in idleness . . . 
The juice of it on sleeping eyelids laid 
"Will make a man or woman madly doat 
Upon the next living creature that it sees." 

The German term the pansy " stepmother " 
flower from the fancy that the smallest petal 
resembles the stepchild overshadowed by her 
stepmother and two stepsisters. 

Heal All — " Healing " or " comfort." This 
plant derives its name from the French 
toute saine (heal all). Coming into blossom 
about St. John's Day, it was gathered on 
Midsummer Eve (St. John's Eve), and hung 
up in houses as a preservative from evil 
spirits and storms. Formerly it was worn 
in Scotland as a charm against witchcraft. 

Heath—" SoHtude." 

Heather — " Bravery." White heather is said 
to bring good luck, and for this reason is 
frequently included in bridal bouquets. 

Heliotrope — " Devotion." The word heliotrope 
is derived from two Greek words : helios 
(sun) and trepo (to turn), because the whole 
genus of Helianthus plants are supposed to 
turn towards the sun, following him in his 
course round the sky. The famous botanist 
Jussieu first discovered it in the Cordilleras, 
Peru. His attention was first drawn to some 
tall, green bushes by reason of the exquisite 
fragrance emanating from it, and on ap- 
proaching saw the ends of every spray 
were covered with very small delicate 
flowers of a blue-purple colour. Struck 
with the fact that all the blossoms were 
turned towards the sun, Jussieu christened 
it the heliotrope. From the seeds he sent 
home heliotrope was first cultivated in 
the Royal gardens at Paris in 1740, 

Hellebore — " Scandal," " calumny." The 

black hellebore is the botanical name for 
the Christmas rose, which was much used 
by the ancient Druids, both in medicine 
and to hallow their dwellings. It was 
thought to drive away evil spirits, and 
preserve cattle from the spells of the 

Hemlock — " You will be my death." The 
hemlock is a very poisonous plant, and by 
its juice prisoners were done to death in 
ancient Greece. Socrates was thus killed, 
400 B.C., and his marvellous fortitude when 
drinking it created the most profound im- 
pression on all present. It was ever a 
favourite plant in witchcraft, and in " Mac- 
beth," the Third Witch speaks of " Root of 
hemlock, digg'd i' the dark." 

Hepatica (Liverwort). — "Confidence." From 
the old country proverb that when hepatica 
comes into flower, " The earth is in love, 
we may sow with confidence." 

Herb of Grace — " Disdain." An old-fashioned 
name for rue. 

Hibiscus — " DeUcate beauty." This is a species 
of mallow bearing a purple and yellow 
flower which opens but for an hour, and by 
the French is called " fleur d'une heure." 
The hibiscus of the West Indies is often 
called the " changeable rose," from the fact 
that the flower which opens white changes 
at noon to rose colour, and later to purple. 

Holly — " Foresight." 

Holy Herb — " Enchantment." This is another 
name for the verbena, which was supposed 
to cure all manner of ills, since it is said to 
have been first found on the holy Mount of 

To be continued. 





CiNCE love is God's greatest gift to man, the sunshine 
*^ joy and crown of his existence, it is only 
natural that many proverbs and phrases 
should be found dealing with that theme, for 
ever old, yet ever new. 

Nearly every country possesses several 
characteristic love proverbs, the majority of 
them revealing great depth of feeling and 
beauty of expression. 

Love Proverbs of Shakespeare 

In European proverbs we naturally com- 
mence with England and the Bard of Avon. 
Throughout his works Shakespeare attaches 
the utmost importance to this subject, fully 
realising that it is " love which moves the 
world along," and, while never belittling its 
dignity and joy, is nevertheless forced to 
admit that love is bitter-sweet, a delicious 
pother, a rare intermingling of joy and pain, 
but a rose for which all long, despite its 

O spirit of love, how quick and fresh art thou I 

That, notwithstanding; thy capacity, receiveth as 

the sea. (" Twelfth Night." Act I., i.) 

Love-thoughts lie rich, when canopied with bowers. 

(I.. I.) 
Journeys end in lovers meeting, 
Every wise man's son doth know. (H., 3.) 
Let thy love be younger than thyself 
Or thy affections cannot hold the bent ; 
For women are as roses, whose fair flower, 
Being once display'd, doth fall that very hour. (U., 4.) 

She never told her love, 
But let concealment, like a worm i* the bud, 
Peed on her damask cheek. (11,4.) 
Love sought is good, but given unsought is better. 

(HI., I.) 

The course of true love never did run smooth. 

(" A Midsummer Night's Dream, I., i.) 

Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind. (I., i.) 
Love can transpose to form and dignity, (i., 2.) 
Reason and love keep little company. (Hi., i.) 
A lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind. 

(" Love's Labour Lost." Act IV., 3.) 

A lover's ear will hear the lowest sound, (iv., 3.) 
Who can sever love from charity, (iv., 3.) 

All students of Shakespeare will readily 
admit that to him we are indebted for some 
of the most perfect word-pictures of a lover's 
ardour, his ecstasy, his eager impatience, and 
his swift despair. 

In like manner he has given us some of the 
most beautiful love, passages to be found in 
all literature ; some so light and dainty that 
we fain must own 

A lover may bestride the gossamer 
That idles in the wanton summer air. 

" Romeo and JuHct." (Act IL, 6.) 

Others, full of the virile passion of Hamlet's 
cry — 

Doubt that the stars are fire, 
But never doubt I love. (Act iL, 2.) 

While through them all, like the silken 
cord through the beads of a rosary, runs the 
sense of love's elusiveness, which, like "the 
uncertain glory of an April day," now all 

now all shower, acts as the lover's 
sharpest spur, and teaches him that he must 
woo his lady delicately, deeming no toil too 
great if he but gain her at the last. 

The following quotations may illustrate 
the above remarks : 
Love like a shadow flies when substance love 

pursues. ("Merry AVives of Windsor." Act IL, 2.) 

In love, the heavens themselves do guide the state. 

(V.. 5.) 

Prosperity's the very bond of love. 

(" Winter's Talc." Act. IV., 3.) 

Since maids in modesty, say " No " to that 

Which they would have the prof ferer construe "Aye." 

(" Two Gentlemen of Verona." Act. 1., 2.) 

They love least that let men know their love, (i., 2.) 

They do not love that do not show their love. (i., 2.) 

Love is blind, (ii., i.) 

Love's a mighty lord, ml, 4.) 

Love hath twenty pair of eyes. (iL. 4.) 

Didst thou but know the inly touch of love, 

Thou wouldst as soon go kindle fire with snow 

As seek to quench the fire of love with words, (ii., 7.) 

That man that hath a tongue, I say, is no man, 

If with his tongue he cannot win a woman, (iii., i.) 

Scorn at first makes after-love the more. (IIL, i.) 

Love is like a child that longs for everything that 

he can come by. (IIL. i.) 
Hope is a lover's staff. (IIL, 1.) 
Trifles light as air are to the jealous confirmations 

strong as proofs of Holy Writ. ('Otheiio." Act. in., 3.) 
Then must you speak of one that loved not wisely 

but too well. (\'.. 2.) 
Lovers ever run before the clock. 

(" Merchant of \'enice." Act II. , 6.) 

For love is blind and lovers cannot see 

The pretty follies that themselves commit. (li., 6.) 

When maidens sue, men give like gods. 

(•• Measure for Measure," Act I., 5.) 

Sigh no more, ladies, men were deceivers ever. 

(" Much Ado About Nothing." Act II. , 3.) 

All hearts in love use their own tongue. (Act iL, i.) 
To be wise and love exceeds man's might. 

("Troilusand Cressida." Act III.. 2.) 

Down on your knees and thank Heaven, fasting, for 

a good man's love. C As you like it." Act III., s.) 

Let me but bear your love, I'll bear your cares. 

(•• King Henry I\'.," Part II. Act V , 2. 

She's beautiful, and therefore to be woo'd ; 
She is a woman, therefore to be won I 

(•• King Henry VI.," Part I. Act V., 3.) 

Hasty marriage seldom proveth well. (Part iil. Act iv., i.t 
Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs. 

(■' Romeo and Juliet." Act I., i.) 

Stony limits cannot hold love out. (il., s.) 

.My bounty is as boundless as the sea, 

My love as deep. (ii. 2.1 

Love goes towards love, like schoolboys from their 

But love from love, towards school with heavy looks. 

(II. ,2.) 
How silver sweet sound lovers' tongues by night, 
Like softest music to attending ears, (ii., 2.) 
Love is a spirit all compact of fire. 
Not gross to sink, but light, and will aspire. 

(" \'cnus and Adonis." Stanza 25.) 

Were beauty under twenty locks kept fast. 

Yet love breaks through and picks them all at last. 

(Stanza 96.) 

Love comforteth like sunshine after rain. (Stanza 134.) 
Love is not love which alters when it alteration 

finds. (Sonnets, 116.I 

Love is too young to know what conscience is ; 
Yet who knows not, conscience is born of love ? 

(Sonnets, 151.) 

To be continued. 


The sphere of woman's work is ever widening, and now there are innumerable professions and 

businesses by which the enterprising woman can obtain a livelihood. The object of this section 

of Every Woman's Encyclopedia, therefore, is to point out the high-road to success in these 

careers. Ideas are also given to the stay-at-home girl which should help her to supplement her dress 

allowance and at the same time amuse herself. The subjects dealt with include : 


Woman's Work in the Colonies 

Little Ways of Making Pin- 




Civil Sei-vant 




South Africa 

Chicken Rearing 


New Zealand 

Sweet Making 


Colonial Nurses 

China Painting 


Colonial Teachers 

Bee Keepitig 


Training for Colonies 

Toy Makini^ 


Colonial Outfits 

Ticket Writing, 

Dancing Mistress^ etc. 

Far^ning, etc. 

etc., etc. 

How to Start a Nursing Home — The Support of the Faculty — Choice of Position — Sanitary Arrange* 
ments — How to Furnish — What is Required in the Nursing Staff — An Extraordinary Patient — An 

Original Venture — Convalescent Homes 

TThe modern, indeed, quite recent, inno- 
vation of having private nursing homes 
attached to hospitals has to a very large 
extent done away with or encroached upon 
the profits of and openings for private 
nursing homes. It is still possible to make 
a living out of them, but it is more difficult 
than it used to be. 

The Choice of a Neighbourhood 

Before deciding to start one, it is advisable 
to try to obtain the interest of one or more 
doctors, and their promise that they will send 
patients. It is the general rule of West End 
doctors and specialists to have a special 
home or homes to which they send their 
patients, and this practice means, of course, 
a certain more or less definite income for the 
owner of the home. 

In every case the matron should be a" 
fully trained nurse, as it is in her hands that 
the responsibility of the home and the lives 
of the patients rest. The matron is generally 
present at operations, and the nurses work 
under her control. 

The first question to be settled is the 
locality of the home, and this depends 
entirely on the doctors whose support has 
been promised. They generally prefer the 
home to be as close as possible to their own 
residence ; for instance, if patients have been 
promised by Kensington doctors, it will be 
necessary for the house to be somewhere in 

the Kensington district. But for choice, and 
if one is fortunate enough to have the 
patronage of West End doctors, Harley Street 
and its environs is by far the best locality, 
and will command the highest fees. 

In choosing the house, due regard should 
be paid to the convenience of reaching it by 
rail or 'bus. No side streets or out-of-the-way 
places are suitable ; a good address and a 
good thoroughfare are always important 
points with well-off patients. 

No woman is advised to start, however, 
unless she has enough capital in hand not 
only to furnish the home, and to equip the 
theatre, but also to pay her expenses until 
patients come. Even with the support of 
two or three doctors, one may have to wait 
many months for patients, and, meanwhile, 
expenses are being incurred. The capital 
required depends on the size of the home. 

Sanitary Arrangements 

Good drains and perfect sanitary arrange- 
ments are of primary importance in a nursing 
home. Doctors are rarely content with 
the former tenant's certificate, and so the 
whole place should be thoroughly examined, 
not only by the London County Council 
inspector, but also by a private sanitary 
inspector. The latter will charge a fee of 
from two guineas upwards, but, as a rule, 
he is more difficult to satisfy in details, and 
insists upon more elaborate and careful 


arrangements being made than the London 
County Council man. Most doctors like to 
have the double certificate. 

The landlord must understand that the 
house is required for a nursing home, and 
give his consent to its being used as such, 
otherwise he may afterwards intervene and 
stop the proceedings. 

As the major part of the house will be 
required for bedrooms, all the rooms should 
be light and airy, though not necessarily 
large. Difficult or high stairs should be 
avoided, unless there is a lift which could be 
used for patients, and that is very unusual 
in ordinary private houses. All the rooms 
will have to be freshly painted and " done 
up," so that there can be no danger of 
" germs." The walls are seldom — if ever — 
papered, for the same reason. Most doctors 
prefer to have them distempered, as in 
cases of ipfectious illness they can be 
washed down. 

Furniture and Decorations 

Pale, soft colours, restful for the eyes of 
the sick, should be chosen, and it is a good 
idea to have the same colour scheme carried 
throughout the room; the screen, curtains, 
easy chair, and even the bed coverlet can be 
in harmony. 

When one comes to discuss the furniture 
of a nursing home, the question is more 
difficult, because so much depends on the 
kind of patient expected. Rest-cure cases, 
for instance, should have a more luxurious 
room — sometimes two rooms — than opera- 
tion cases, where the most rigid antiseptic 
precautions must be taken. 

In these latter cases, carpets are never used 
— linoleum is substituted, with rugs for the 
bedside and the fireplace. The rooms of 
operation cases are furnished as plainly and 
lightly as possible, and everything is wash- 
able. White furniture is the best, and 
wardrobes, as a rule, are not allowed at all, 
the patients' trunks and clothes being kept 
in a special room. Single spring beds, of a 
comfortable height for bending over, a 
table for the patient's bedside, the necessary 
toilet articles, a couple of chairs, a screen, 
and perhaps a combination dressing-table 
will be, generally speaking, all that is required 
for an operation case's room. 

The Operating Theatre 

If there is no operating theatre — though, in 
high-class homes there should be one — a 
large white deal table of not less than 
six feet, on which the necessary mackintoshes 
and blankets are laid, will serve the purpose, 
and will have to be carried about from room 
to room as it is required. A well-known 
and successful home in the West End 
district used only for its many operations a 
wooden movable table. But this practice is 
not to be recommended, and gives a great 
deal of extra work. 

When there is an operating theatre, all 
the articles required for operations will be 
kept there, and in an adjoining room or in 
the theatre itself there will be cupboards 

and receptacles for keeping dressings. The 
fit ting-up of the theatre would have to be 
carried out by a qualified nurse. 

The most modern hospital theatres are all 
in white, with tiled floors and walls, and 
though this may be impossible in a private 
nursing home, it is indispensable that ever}-- 
thing in the theatre should be antiseptic , 
and washable. 

Hospitals always have an adjoining room 
where the anaesthetic is administered before 
the patient is taken into the theatre, but 
the only general rule which can be laid down 
is that the patients must be saved from every 
possible cause of nervousness. A tactful 
nurse has a very powerful influence before 
and after an operation, and nothing is more 
important in a nursing home than to choose 
not only competent, but tactful and pleasant 
nurses. Many people arrive so overcome 
by sheer fright that they stand in the way 
of their own recovery unless the nurse can 
soothe them. Young girls and children 
especially need infinite tact and patience ^ 
shown them when they are sent to a home 
for operations. There is usually home- 
sickness, shyness, and often terror for the 
nurse to combat and overcome, for a patient 
who is constantly fretting does not get well. 

There is, in fact, no profession which 
requires more tact and patience than that of 
the nurse. Above all, the matron and staff 
of a nursing home require these qualities, 
for the patients paying well have generally an 
unreasonably high idea of the demands which 
they are entitled to make on their nurses. 
The strain of taking care of rest-cure cases 
is the most severe of all, and the nurses 
engaged in this work should themselves have 
plenty of rest, good food, and recreation. 

An Instance of the Need of Tact 

It is a very inadvisable practice, if it can 
possibly be avoided, for a matron or pro- 
prietor to have her family living in the home. 
For one thing, the confidence and privacy of 
the patients has to be scrupulously respected. 
Many strange cases come to a nursing home, 
and there should be no opportunity for 
a leakage of their affairs to the outside world. 

As an instance of the diplomacy and care 
required in the management of some patients, 
a well-known matron once said to the writer, 
" I think one of my strangest cases was a 
titled woman, whose nerves, apparently under 
the strain of a society life, had completely ~ 
given way. She came to me for a * rest-cure,' 
but for a long time I feared her case was 
hopeless. For one thing, her relations 
insisted on giving her, when the nurse had 
left the room, liqueur sweets, although the . 
doctors had strictly forbidden all stimulants. 
The doctor could not entirely forbid them 
visiting her, neither could I examine their 
pockets. To add to my difficulties, the 
patient wept night and day without ceasing, 
that being the especial form of her malady, 
and it was a trial for the most strong-minded 
nurse to remain in such an atmosphere of 
unceasing tears. She was convinced that 



she was placed in the home to be poisoned, 
and before she would take any food, we had 
to call in someone not in nursing dress to taste 
it, and prove it was not poisoned. She 
eventually recovered, and was sent home 
practically cured." 

Very often the difficulty experienced by 
the nurse is not to persuade patients that they 
require medical attention, but to make them 
believe that there is nothing the matter with 
them at all, except that they are leading 
too luxurious a life, and are suffering from 
the unromantic ailment of indigestion. Yet 
there are, alas ! many tragic life-stories and 
but few comedies hidden behind the doors 
of a nursing home. 

Infectious Cases 
Infectious cases, of course, cannot be taken 
into an ordinary home, and special permission 
must be obtained from the authorities to 
take them at all. Not very long ago, an 
enterprising woman in London made a 
very good opening for herself by starting a 
small home in the suburbs for infectious 
cases alone. One of the great London hotels 
subsidised the home, because so often people 
from abroad or even from the country came 
to stay at the hotel and developed measles 

or scarlatina or some other infectious illness 
with which the ordinary nursing homes could 
not cope. Very often children were th« 
victims, and the hotel, of course, could not 
keep them. They at once, therefore, sup- 
ported the undertaking. But this lady 
cannot, of course, take any other kind of 
patient, and increasing competition from\ 
the private homes of hospitals will doubtless 
soon make even such an original idea as 
this difficult to carry out. It would be 
dangerous, therefore, to recommend this as a 
likely opening. 

Very few homes have convalescent 
branches of their own in the country or at 
the sea, but they are generally in touch with 
one to which patients can be sent if they so 

Of these convalescent homes there are two 
kinds, the one for persons of ordinary 
independent means, and the other for 
gentlewomen of limited means who are often 
sent down by the society or league which has 
helped to pay their operation fees. There 
are two or three of these gentlewomen's 
medical aid societies in London alone. 
These, and the question of convalescent 
homes in general, will be dealt with in a 
forthcoming article. 



The House that is Patronised— Furnishing and Arrangement of Rooms— Managerial Tact— Com- 
petent Service — Types of Board ing'houses — Continental Houses— Possible Profits 

"yo open a boarding-house is one thing, 
to keep it open another ; and to make it 
a really profitable affair is no easy matter. 
Sometimes it is the management, sometimes 
the catering, and sometimes the personality 
of the proprietress which hinders success. 

Probably every reader of this article can 
recall some seaside boarding-house she never 
wishes to see again, and another, less luxu- 
rious, perhaps, to which she hopes to return 
with friends in her train. 

It is worth while for any woman con- 
templating the starting of a boarding-house 
to consider well the causes that produce 
favourable and unfavourable impressions, so 
that she may try to safeguard herself against 

Now a house that holiday-makers like' 
to visit is one where the meals are well 
cooked, punctually served, the menu as 
varied as possible, and the food, however 
plain it may be, nourishing and of good 
quality, and the table arrangements spot- 
lessly clean and dainty. Of equal im- 
portance is a comfortable, clean bed, with 
soft pillows. It may be thought superfluous 
to emphasise this matter, but experience 
proves that it is not so. 

Another essential is a good water supply. 
A stay in a house situated in lovely country 
may be spoilt through old-fashioned sanitary 

arrangements and brackish drinking water. 
Visitors may put up with little inconveniences 
if they can get these three necessaries — good 
food, pure water, and comfortable beds. 

As to the house and its contents, the 
furniture must be modem, as good and 
attractive as can be had for the capital to 
be spent on it ; but it is a mistake to put 
into a bedroom any article that is not 
absolutely necessary. Boarders' own lug- 
gage will occupy empty spaces, and a bare 
mantelpiece and chest of drawers' top are 
more appreciated than the most treasured 
ornaments and curios of the proprietress. 

A bedroom hung round with pictures and 
photographs of relatives, dead or hving, is 
not attractive to strangers, who would, 
however, welcome a bright and good picture 
or two. 

Avoid Superfluous Ornaments 

There should be no superfluous hangings 
or. curtains, nothing to harbour dust or 
germs. Whatever else may be wanting, 
provide ample wardrobe accommodation, 
and, if at all possible, a full-length mirror. 
When this latter item cannot be placed in 
each room it is an excellent plan to place 
one on a landing in a good light. 

A floorcloth, with rugs, is preferable to a 
carpet, and more sanitary. 


In a holiday boarding-house such as the 
writer has in mind there will be a good- 
sized lounge hall, a smoke-room, and a 
drawing-room provided with a cottage piano. 
If the size of the house does not also permit 
of a writing-room, then both smoke-room 
and drawing-room should each be provided 
with a writing-table. Men are sometimes 
a little thoughtless in the matter of smoking, 
and a courteous intimation that the drawing- 
room should be kept free from the fumes 
of tobacco will not be resented on their 
part, and will 'be much appreciated by the 

In the lounge hall it will be well to have 
a good supply of comfortable basket chairs, 
and on the walls notices of anything that 
may interest visitors — information concern- 
ing local matters, excursions, fetes, enter- 
tainments, railway and boating time-tables, 
names of local churches with their hours of 
service, and an Ordnance map of the district. 

If there happens to be a garden it can be 
made a great attraction. A shady lawn is 
the ideal spot for the afternoon cup of tea 
on hot summer days. Grown-ups as well 
as children appreciate a hammoolc or two, 
and games such as croquet or tennis, if 
available, will always prove an attraction. 

The furniture should be obtained on the 
most advantageous terms. An introduction 
to a wholesale firm is invaluable, as the 
middleman's profits are saved. One enter- 
prising woman obtained her thirty bedroom 
suites in the plain wood from the warehouse, 
and then employed a man to French polish 
them. She thus secured reliable solid wood 
goods at little more than half the cost of 
buying in the ordinary way, even with 
liberal discounts. 

Linoleums, carpets, table linen, china, 
and glass can all be obtained in bulk to the 
great advantage of the buyer. 

The arrangements of the house and its 
management should permit of plenty of 
freedom, with restraint so tactfully con- 
cealed that it is hardly felt. The proprie- 
tress who wishes to enlarge her clientele 
tries to make every visitor at home, is never 
too busy for a chat or word of information, 
and takes a personal interest in the comfort 
and amusement of each individual. 

The Spirit of Personal Interest 

This spirit of personal interest in the 
well-being of the visitor and the encourage- 
ment of a cheerful, homely feeling is highly 
desirable and much appreciated. The pro- 
prietress may be an expert housekeeper, 
and yet fail because she keeps aloof or too 
much in the background. Not for a moment 
should she let her boarders feel she is 
making money out of them ; always she 
should have the tact and the good sense 
to treat them as though they were guests. 

She must, of course, be experienced in 
the management of a large house, or have 
undergone training at some school of 
domestic science. A year or so spent in 
this manner would be a valuable experience 

for her. There is the difficulty of obtaining 
servants and retaining them during the 
busy season, so that a proprietress who 
can don her apron and turn cook or house- 
maid at any moment possesses a distinct 

Undoubtedly she needs a business head. 
She must buy economically, know all the 
available markets, understand book-keeping, 
and be familiar with the legal relations 
existing between herself and her boarders. 
Illness may intrude at any time, therefore 
a knowledge of sick-nursing will be found 
never to come amiss. 

The proprietress, however, may possess 
a great deal of information and personal 
charm and yet not attain success, because 
she has neither wisdom in the selection of 
servants, nor power to manage them, and 
to inspire in them the spirit of helpfulness 
which visitors so much appreciate. 

Tlie Servant Question 

In engaging servants it is very necessary 
to make particular inquiries as to honesty 
and trustworthiness, because drawers, ward- 
robes, and trunks are constantly left open, 
and their contents at the mercy of the 
evilly disposed. 

The scarcity of servant maids is a difficulty 
which some overcome by taking young 
foreign menservants, many of whom are 
willing to cross the Channel for the season, 
and do not expect high wages because 
they value the opportunity for improving 
their knowledge of English. 

As a rule, they make good servants, 
especially as waiters and luggage carriers ; 
but their tempers are too often volcanic, 
and liable to cause undesirable upsets. 

In one small suburban boarding-house 
where permanent gentlemen boarders are 
taken, a manservant is found useful as a 
valet, waiter, and general factotum. Occa- 
sionally it works well to have a childless 
married couple, the wife acting as cook 
or housemaid. 

It may be useful to consider the 
type of boarding-house which people do 
not care to revisit. There is the house 
where meals are never ready to time, the 
food ill-cooked, the servants inattentive, 
and forgetful of boot-cleaning, hot-water 
jugs, and bedroom service ; where the 
proprietress neglects some boarders in favour 
of others ; where trains, tramcars, and 
other irritants disturb the night's rest ; 
where children, uncontrolled, romp and play 
boisterous games; and where "extras" 
run up the account to an amount which 
is, to say the least of it, unexpected. There 
is the house to which some infectious com- 
plaint has been brought. And there is the 
house where the proprietress is rarely to be 
found when she is vv^anted. 

In a seaside, or, perhaps, it would be 
better to say holiday, boarding-house the 
work is usually very heavy during the 
summer months, but when the season is 
over there is opportunity for a long rest. 



or visits to friends ; or the house perhaps 
may be closed entirely. 

As to the choice of locality there are 
numbers of points to be considered — the 
amount of capital available, the class of 
boarder to be catered for, the style of the 
boarding-house, and the people who are 
expected to make use of it. There are the 
seaside, the inland watering-place — Harro- 
gate, Bath, Buxton — the city, the country, 
and the suburban boarding-houses, and they 
may exist for pleasure-makers, invalids, or 
workers. Some cater for families, others 
for elderly bachelors and spinsters, others 
almost entirely for foreigners, and others, 
again, for young men or women engaged in 
some study, profession, or business during 
the day. There is, indeed, ample choice. 

A Susfgestion 

Sometimes a girls' boarding-school pro- 
vides suitable premises at some seaside 
resort during August and part of September, 
and at one French seaside town an attractive 
convent school with large grounds is full of 
boarders in the summer. This remark 
might suggest a venture beyond our own 
shores, arfd the idea is worth considering. 
Last year the writer stayed at an English 
boarding-house at a port on the French 
coast, the proprietress of which closed it to 
return to England for the winter. 

As English and Americans travel more 
and more on the Continent opportunities 
for opening English boarding-houses in 
tourist resorts increase. And in the north- 
west of Canada there are good prospects in 
the growing townships for those who care 
to emigrate. 

One rarely finds a solitary woman taking 
upon her shoulders the responsibility of a 
boarding-house. Usually she has a sister, 
daughter, relative, or friend who shares her 
arduous duties ; and, perhaps, the widow 
left with some capital, a good supply of 
furniture, a growing family, and a fairly 
large circle of trends might do many worse 
things than start a boarding-house. 

The house should be advertised in local 
directories and guides, in newspapers, in 
railway time-tables, and perhaps at the 
nearest railway station ; also in educational 
publications if student boarders are desired, 
and in Church or Nonconformist weekly to 
suit the advertiser. 

Probable Profits 

Special attention should be given to the 
printing of an attractive folding card, 
stating terms (from 25s. at least), and 
hours of meals, preferably with a photo- 
graph of the house, for people like to know 
to what sort of place they are going. It is 
quite worth while to put such a card into 
the hands of the station waiting-room 
attendant, who is sometimes quite beset for 
addresses during excursion times. 

It is not unusual for an ex-teacher to 
open a boarding-house. She might like to 
have her address inserted in a useful little 

booklet of addresses in almost every country, 
" The Teachers' Guild Holiday Resorts " 
(is.), for it is much used by teachers and 
their friends. 

As to the profits to be derived from 
boarding-houses they differ so much that 
any statistics might be misleading, and if 
scores of results were given a house opened 
on similar lines would probably give a very 
different return ; but provided the suit- 
able woman, the necessary capital, and the 
right locality be ensured, it js possible to 
make, if not a fortune, at least a good 

Experience shows that once the first 
twenty or thirty regular visitors are secured 
profits are larger in proportion to the 
working expenses. Very little can be made 
out of a small boarding-house. 

For the first few seasons there may not 
be a profit on the investment, therefore it 
is very important to get the house filled 
as soon as possible. When the project is 
mooted among friends they generally rally 
round to assist in the start, and every fresh 
boarder, if satisfied, may be counted on to 
make the house known, and to recommend 
it to others. 

A visitors' book in which comments — they 
are usually commendations — are invited is 
usually placed on a side table, and helps 
to preserve the general glow of satisfaction. 

Another means of advertising is a brass 
plate on the gate, or a large board on the 
front of the house. This summer the 
writer noticed one house described itself 
as " Popular Boarding-house," and as it 
was crowded to overflowing the name was 
apparently justified. Even babies and baby 
carriages were accommodated. 

The spirit of enjoyment and bonhomie 
was very evident, and it is safe to predict 
the house will need an annexe in the neai 

Answering Inquiries 

In contrast to this house there is the 
legend " Select Boarding-house," or " Board- 
ing Establishment," and sometimes 
" Private " is prefixed, which may drive 
away some casual searcher who may be 
a most desirable person from every point 
of view, while it attracts others. 

The answering of inquiries and applica- 
tions for rooms by post should be entrusted 
to a good letter writer. A slovenly written 
communication, ignoring the questions asked, 
is not likely to attract a newcomer, and 
exaggeration of the merits of the house or 
the advantages of its situation are bound 
to react unfavourably. 

In conclusion, the woman who thinks of 
opening a boarding-house is recommended 
to visit several of the type she is contem- 
plating and observe carefully all that goes 
on, criticising from the point of view of 
proprietress and boarder alike. If the plan 
is feasible, she would find it advantageous 
to visit a French or Swiss pension, and find 
out how they are managed. She would 
probably learn a useful lesson in economy. 




By J. T. BROWN, F.Z.S., M.RSan.I. 

Editor 0/ " The Encyclopedia 0/ Poultry," etc. 
Continued from page 373g, Part 31 

Necessity of Method In 

Poultry Farming — Cleansing the 
Economy and Care 

Runs and Houses — Shelters — "Wise 

As in other business enterprises, method 
"**■ is absolutely necessary in poultry farming. 
The work of feeding the stock, cleaning out 
the various structures, managing the incu- 
bators or broody hens, ^gg collecting, etc., 
must be performed at regular times. The 
attendant must at no time get behind with 
her work or the stock and appliances will 
suffer, and loss, rather than gain, will result. 
The aim of the poultry keeper should be to 
have no more birds and appliances on the 
premises than can receive regular and proper 
attention from one's self or the one in charge. 
It is not the number of fowls one keeps that 
ensures success, but the useful qualities of 
those that are kept, combined with good 
management. And, be it rem.embered, good 
management is of quite indispensable 

Twice a year the poultry shelters and the 
fencing forming the runs should be inspected, 
and any defects caused by accidents or the 
weather should be made good. During the 
spring all necessary outside tarring and 
painting should be done. Houses painted in 
the spring will add to the good appearance 
of the stock running near them, and visitors 
will be impressed, probably to the poultry 
keeper's advantage. 

In the autumn an inspection should again 
be made of the structures, and any defects 
in their walls or roofs should be remedied, 
so that the inmates may escape damp and 
dangerous draughts during the stormy 
winter i^ionths. 

During spells of hot weather fowls confined to 
earth runs must be protected from the power- 
ful rays of the sun. Fowls can no more 
thrive under a blaze of sunshine than they 
can during periods of frost. It is during 
the two extremes of weather that the birds 
must have special attention, or disease will 
break out. 

Hot Weather Precautions 
During hot weather temporary shelters 
should be provided by driving stakes into 
the ground at suitable distances apart, and 
stretching calico or sacking across and fixing 
it to them. 

Fabric, some four feet wide, fixed to stakes 
of the same height, will shade a good portion 
of the ground, and to this the birds will resort 
during the hottest part of the day. 

Again, the soil in earth-runs is liable to 
become baked and hardened in hot weather. 
It should, therefore, be watered every day 
without fail with the spray-pump or watering- 
can. Fowls are liable to go lame through 
running daily on earth-runs that have become 
uncomfortably hard through exposure to hot 

The birds should not be compelled to seek 
the shelter of the roosting-house or scratch- 
ing-shed during the hot part of the day. 
The more fresh air and exercise they get m 
the open the healthier they will be, and 
everything, therefore, should be done to 
provide the necessary means to this end. 

Instead of scattering the grain among the 
litter under the scratching-shed, it should 
be lightly buried in the earth in a shady 
part of the run, when the birds will get 
healthy open-air exercise scratching after it. 
Drinking vessels should be kept clean and 
well supplied with clean water, and the grit- 
boxes should be kept supplied with flint 
grit and crushed oyster shells. 

How to Economise 

In the management of the stock and plant 
economy must be practised in every direc- 
tion. By this I do not mean that the food 
given to the fowls must be of a low-priced 
grade, or that anything used in the opera- 
tion or preservation of the appliances must 
be of second-rate quality. It is false 
economy to invest money in anything of a 
" cheap and nasty " kind. Extravagance 
must, however, be avoided, and advantage 
must be taken of everything that can be 
turned to good account. 

There are many items in the management 
of poultry that call for economy, such as the 
care and preservation of hatching and rearing 
appliances, coops and runs, etc. Such appli- 
ances, before being stored at the close of the 
hatching and rearing season, should be 
thoroughly cleaned and stored under cover 
for the winter, when they will be in a clean 
and dry condition for painting, limewashing, 
etc., when the breeding season again comes 

Treated thus carefully, such appliances 
will wear treble the length of time as will 
those left lying out in all weathers during 
the autumn and winter. 




Marriage plays a very important part in every woman's life, and, on account of its universal interest 

and importance, its problems are considered very fully in Every Woman's Encvclop.iidia. The 

subject has two sides, the practical and the romantic. Under the many headings included in this 

section are articles dealing with : 

T/ie Cereiiiony 

Marriage Customs 




Colonial Marriages 


Wedding Superstitions 

Foreign Marriages 


Marriage Statistics 

Engagement and Wedding Rings ^ etc. 



The Essential Oil of Life's Machinery— A Priceless Possession — The Want of Humour of 
Engaged Couples — A Working Arrangement — ** Settlement Day'' — Humour Under Difficulties 

A SENSE of humour is the oil that keeps the 
marriage machine running smoothly. 

Like all other machines, it works very well 
when it is new, but after a few weeks the dust 
of convention begins to clog the wheels. 

That part called " Rosamond " is not so 
obedient as it was at first, and that part 
called " Ferdinand " seems to prefer its own 
way, regardless of other parts. 

A little oil would soon work wonders. But 
this is where the metaphor fails, for it is no 
machine of hard, unliving metal, that needs 
a minder's ceaseless attention, and an ever- 
ready oil-can, nor is the oil to be bought at 
the nearest chandler's. For the marriage 
machine is very human. 

Saving a Situation 

The sense of humour has saved more 
situations than the lifeboat has saved lives. 
Of all virtues, it is the most priceless, for it is 
in reality a piled- up heap of virtues which 
stand unseen, but solidly, as a background. 
And its value is very largely measured by the 
fact that, like " the crown of laurels," it is 
won by fighting, not by inheritance. 

There are cases of people who appear to 
have an inborn sense of humour. But really 
it is never inborn. Their fathers and mothers 
have taught them the ABC, and they have 
in later life learnt the rest of the alphabet 
with as many tears, and as much trouble, as 
the average girl learns the sixth book of 

Girls and boys rarely have the smallest 
senst of humour; they take life in deadly, 

D 25 

exasperating seriousness, and are very much 
offended when older people point out the 
great mistake. When they fall in love, they 
do so with a solemnity worthy of the strictest 
religious ceremonial, and " Love's young 
dream " sinks from gloom to gloom until it is 
about as melancholy a thing as an under- 
taker's face. Extreme indignation is aroused 
when someone suggests that they are spin- 
ning cobwebs of worry and anxiety and gloom 
over the loveliest, happiest, brightest thing 
the world gives. 

They talk vehemently and incoherently of 
"the holiness of love," "the blissful unity of 
souls," and " the profane frivolity " of all 
other lovers, not realising that a sense of 
humour would prevent them mentioning such 
hallowed subjects even to the empty air. 

During courtship, this analysis and intro- 
spection brings considerable gloomy pleasure 
to the couple. But marriage needs its other 
side nurtured as well, and the couple who do 
not make up their minds to look at most of 
life's circumstances in a humorous light 
have a very bad time indeed. 

A Wise Ordinance 

A couple who realised at the end of the 
first married year what the lack of a sense of 
humour would mean to them in middle life 
were those who ordained that all quarrelling, 
scolding, fault-finding, worrying, recrimi- 
nation, should be saved up for an evening, 
and only one evening, every week. 

" Rosamond " declared she was thunder- 
struck to find that two people who were 


really devoted to each other could have 
quarrelled so much, and have said such 
peculiarly nasty things. 

" Ferdinand " felt inclined to say in 
excuse that he had not known his wife had 
a temper until after he married. Then he 
remembered it was only the day before that 
he had declared she was a " stupid little 
baby," because she refused to walk straight 
across a crowded street when the London 
theatres were closing, and taxis were darting 
about like large destructive glow-worms, 
and motor 'buses, like cars of Juggernaut, 
were trampling mercilessly on their way. 

How It Worked 

So they thought over together that first 
year's downhill path. At first their quarrels 
had been earthquakes of two moments, 
followed by avalanches of sunshine — all 
kisses, tears, and protestations of sorrow. 

Not so very long after he had called her 
" a little idiot," with variations, and she had 
worked out quite a theme on the words, " a 
bullying brute of a hooligan." Regrets that 
they ever married proved the next step on 
the easy road of the quarrellers, then, one 
much-to-be-deplored day, he had seized her 
by the shoulder and shaken her, and she had 
grabbed his most carefully assorted and 
collected papers and hurled them in wild 
disorder out of the window on to the flower- 

This recital of the year's doings happened 
the next day after that. " Rosamond " 
finished laughing : " You'll soon be in Bow 
Street, charged with ill-treating your wife, 
and you'll get a month's hard labour, and I 
shall be a glorious, independent grass 
widow ! " 

" The mischief with us is " — discovered 
Ferdinand — " we've got no sense of humour 
in regard to our quarrels." 

So together they concocted a plan. 
Wednesday evening was to be " settlement 
day." Any digression from manners, any 
unconsidered remark, any vexed question 
was to be settled on that day, and on that 
day alone. The plan succeeded well, but it 
required a sense of humour to keep it 

Recordfns: Angels 

*' Ferdinand " came down to breakfast one 
morning late, and found his wife v^ry quiet 
and subdued. He liked her always to be 
bright and cheerful, and so asked the reason. 
" Only the servants," was the brief reply. 
He resented this curtness, and began sharjrfy, 

" Well, don't be " when she held up a 

warning finger, smiling, " Not till Wednes- 

They even bought a penny exercise book, 
and entered " Ferdinand " on one page, and 
" Rosamond " on the other, and either could 
write down the other's misdeeds. When 
" settlement day " came, it was generally 
found that the misdeeds about balanced, and 
so cancelled one another. In time they both 
improved, and " settlement day " became 

unnecessary — ^but that was when his black 
hair was streaking with grey, and her merry 
eyes were lining with wrinkles. 

The story told me by another young couple, 
who moved from the heart of the city to the 
depths of the country under even more 
trying " removal " circumstances than usual, 
was another instance of the sense of humoui 
that saves. She suggested, while she stood in 
the little bedroom, almost hidden beneath 
packing-cases, dress-baskets, newspapers, and 
her husband's extensive wardrobe of undei- 
garments, that they should treat the whole 
matter as a joke. " You must smile even 
when the men bump the case containing your 
most precious books down every one of the 
hundred stairs." 

" And you," he answered, " must peal 
with laughter like a comic opera heroine 
when you see the silver chest plumped down 
on your best ' tea-party ' hat." 

Heroic Resolves 

When at half-past eleven the same evening' 
they wearily made the beds in the new home 
and crawled into them, they sleepily acknow- 
ledged that but for a sense of humour they 
could never have survived the day, sane and 
still good-tempered. 

The married couples who find life dread- 
fully dull and tedious when alone with each 
other for any length of time, lack the saving 
grace of humour . The arrangment of furniture, 
escapades of Eliza Ann, flirtations of the 
latter with the milk-boy, correspondence 
with the landlord about a leaky gutter w hich 
the landlord repudiates his obligation to 
mend, can all be turned into jokes which 
keep good temper in the house, and drive 
worry and loneliness from the door. 

A young married couple of very small 
means, who could not afford to go to theatres 
very often, decided that even the smallest 
of their little outings should be means of 
entertainment. A visit to a picture gallery — 
by the amusement which they got out of 
some of- the pictures, or some of the picture- 
gazers — was a very good afternoon's enter- 
tainment ; an expedition to a shop where 
strange and weird foods were sold as 
" reformed foods " gave them plenty of 
merriment ; and a visit to the Zoological 
Gardens on a Sunday, with a Fellow's ticket, 
gave them as much, if not more, entertain- 
ment than the wealthy man who lounged in 
a half a guinea stall watching the latest 
comic opera. 

Mutual Tolerance 

Many things in marriage war against 
perfect happiness, but an easy tolerance, each 
going his and her own way, which many 
couples believe in doing, will never lead to that 
happiness, for it is bound to lead the two 

A continually combined attempt to swim or 
sink together, to work together, and, above 
all, to laugh together, is the only real means 
to happiness, and that is only possible if in 
both exists the saving sense of humour. 



National Sentiment in Royal Wedding Veils— Russian Lace— Colour in Bridal Attire— A Bridal 
Veil of the Twelfth Century— The Rise of the Veil— The Bridal Dress of an Austrian Princess 

•yHE importance of the. wedding veil as 
•^ . part of the toilette of a bride is 
constantly demonstrated by the use of 
heirloom lace for that purpose on the 
occasion of the marriage. 

SThose whose rank demands the highest 
ceremonial usually choose to wear the fine 
webs of lace already reserved for this special 
purpose. Queen Mary was 
married in the veil that her 
mother, the late Duchess of 
Teck, had worn. It was 
ornamented appropriately 
with a beautiful pattern of 
rose, shamrock, and thistle. 

In nearly every country a 
patriotic feeling is expressed 
in the making of the bridal 
lace. Of the wedding veils 
of the Bourbon family we 
have already spoken (see 
page 3526, Part 29). As it 
was deemed seemly that 
these magnificent hand-made 
veils should be worked in 
France for the five sisters of 
the representative of the 
French dynasty, so also 
Honiton, in Devon, was 
chosen to furnish the veil of 
Queen Victoria. This was 
sprigged in the characteristic 
manner of the English 
workers, who originally copied 
the Brussels methods. 

Queen Alexandra's wed- 
ding veil was also English. 

The bridal veil of the 
present Duchess of Saxe- 
Coburg was of lace made by 
industrious fingers at 
IVIoscow. Russian lace is 
extremely interesting .and 
original in type, and though 
but little is made at present, 
it may come into vogue with 
conspicuous success. 

The manufacture of this 
lace is under Royal patron- 
age, and the Imperial Family 
often make valuable gifts of 
Moscow lace to intimate 
friends. -r, ,, 1 c m 

^, r -i-N 1 r I hi wedding veil ox n 

The former Duchess of 

Saxe-Coburg, a Russian Princess who married 
Prince Alfred, afterwards Duke of Edin- 
burgh, also had a veil of Russian lace. The 
characteristic feature of this lace consists in 
the varying thickness of its threads, which 
are used so that an effect of either high or 
low relief is given, according to the density 
of the work. A garland of roses formed the 

M. the Queen of Italy, an exquisite specimen o. 

.odern Alencon 



A scarf veil in finest point gaze 
Photo, Paul Gtfiiatix 

pattern of this wedding veil 
for one of Russia's high-born 
daughters, and it is said to 
have been the most perfect 
specimen of lace ever pro- 
duced at the factory. 

Wedding Veils Worked in Qold 

Within recent years colour 
has occasionally been intro- 
duced to relieve the dead 
white of the conventional 
wedding toilette. Sometimes 
gold or silver tissue lines 
the train ; occasionally the 
" something blue," deemed 
essential for luck in the com- 
pletion of the dress, is brought 
into sight, though it is gener- 
ally worn as a pale thread of 
ribbon on the lingerie petti- 
coat, or as a dainty satin bow 
on a bride's garter. 

The veil or dress trimming 
may be old, and the satin new. 
The veil, too, is frequently 
borrowed, and there is always 
provided a place for a dainty 
ribbon knot of blue. Thus 
does the bride fulfil the terms 
exacted by tradition. 

The fashion of using a little 
colour in the wedding dress is 
greatly arv the increase, for 
while a few years ago its 
introduction was wont to 
raise a storm of comment 
and protest from the more 
conservative, it now is con- 

sidered quite a usual expression of taste on 
the part of the bride. 

No modern bride has yet had her veil 
hemmed or embroidered with colour. Per- 
haps some day, gold or silver, already a 
favourite for trimming the dress, will also 
appear on the veil. Should it do so, it will 
be no new thing, but the revival of a fashion 
which is very old. 

A Veil of the Twelfth Century 

There was a Royal wedding veil prepared 
in the twelfth century, and it was of white 
stuff (probably not transparent) worked 
with gold and worn with a crown of gold 
leaves. The veil was drawn straight over 
the forehead, and high over a square-shaped 
frame, which lifted it well above the leaf 
crown. It fell in long folds down the back. 

This truly Royal manner of adjusting the 
wedding veil was adopted by Matilda of 
Scotland when she was married to Henr^ I. 
of England. The effect must have been ^ 
magnificent and stately, and would not 
appear so strange to the guests of those days 
as it would to us now, for the horned head- 
dress was then in fashion, and most women 
of rank wore a veil or wimple pendent from 

A marvellcu; piece of needle-point lace, of superb execution and intricate pattern 
Photo, PattlGeniaiix 



Part of the bridal lace of Queen Amelie of Portugal, an example of the introduction of heraldic embiems into such work 

a wired headdress. This was usually of 
linen or brocade, laced with gold, or 
embroidered in chequers of brightly coloured 

Such a veil could be utilised in a moment 
as a protection against the weather or the 
rude stare of the multitude. In the reign of 
Edward III. veils were worn by nearly every 
woman except those of the lowest class. So 
general was the veil-wearing of this period, 
and so extravagant were some of the veils, 
that in 1363 an Act was passed, prohibiting 
the use of silk for veils, or any but the 
simplest material. 

In an old fashion plate of 1830, the 
wedding veil is worn almost as a drapery. 
It is adjusted to the head, beneath a charming 
fillet of myrtle. It falls at the back and also 
at the sides of the face and over the arms. 
The pretty, transparent net covers the bare 
arms gracefully. The lace itself is of fine 
quality, being of Belgian sprigs mounted on 
machine-made net. This veil is small, only 
reaching about twelve inches below the waist 
at the back. The dainty little Early Victorian 
bride has a tightly fitting lace-sprigged skirt 
with two flounces of old Brussels. She 
carries a Prayer Book, and wears pretty 
satin, heelless slippers. 

The Rise of the Veil 

Though we have no distinct record of the 
first wearing of the veil at a marriage 
ceremony, we can trace its gradual adoption 
through the ages. 

On occasions of ceremony, women attended 
the services of the church wearing a veil 
instead of hat or bonnet, as to this day at 
confirmations and bridals. Anglo-Saxon 
women wore a " couvre chef," which 

eventually became a part of conventual 
dress. The most important ceremony in the 
life of a nun was significantly called the 
taking of the veil, when she became dead to 
the world and the bride of Christ. The veil 
was put on exactly as it is by a young girl 
at the time of her marriage. 

Significance of the Veil 

In the sixteenth century, the head of a 
woman was uncovered befoi^ marriage, 
the hair being bound by a fillet. After 
marriage, it was veiled, and the hair was 
bound up. In Scotland, to this day, the 
snood or fillet is the distinctive" wear 
of an unmarried girl, and in Switzer- 
land and the Austrian Tyrol, the hair is 
in plaits in youth and concealed after 

We can conclude, therefore, that the veil 
has always been the outward sign of maturity 
and fraught with meaning in countries where 
there is conservatism in ceremonial. 

In Austria, the wedding veil is considered 
of deep significance. At the wedding, in 
October, 191 1, of Princess Zila of Bourbon- 
Parma to the Archduke Charles (who stands 
next to Francis Ferdinand in succession to 
the Austrian throne), there was much 
importance attached to the wearing and 
adjustment of the wedding veil. 

The bride's dress was of white duchesse 
satin, severely plain in cut. The skirt was 
wide enough to strike horror into the 
modish hearts of the Rue de la Paix, but the 
Imperial House of Austria does not follow 
the fashion, and the dress measured three 
yards round the bottom. The front of the 
dress was embroidered in silver thread with 
myrtle-wreaths, and the fleurs-de-lys of the 


Bourbon family. The train was four yards 
in length, ornamented with the same 
wreaths of bridal flowers. 

Heirloom lace draped the bodice, lace 
which had been used on the wedding dresses 
of other members of the Braganza family, and 
orange-blossoms fastened the bodice. The 
veil was presented by the Emperor, together 
with a priceless diadem of jewels. A little- 
nosegay of orange-blossom was tucked into the 
side of the elaborately dressed coiffure. 

The wearing of veils by bridesmaids is a 
fashion which reappears occasionally. In 
this case, the veil is arranged beneath a 
wreath of flowers, and hangs to a little below 
the waist, but is never worn over the face. 
The fashion is not, however, a favourite one. 
There is no particular reason why we should 
admire these attendant maids, however 
important their task, therefore we think 
bridesmaids do well to demand wide- 
brimmed hats or modish capots, rather than 
the poetic but trying veil. 

Perhaps one of the most richly trimmed 

bridal dresses of modern days was that worn 
by Miss Violet Rawson, who, in November, 
1911, became the wife of Lord Leconfield, 
owner of beautiful Petworth, and of some 
of the finest pictures Vandyke ever painted. 
Miss Rawson's dress was of lily-white 
satin, as rightly became so young a beauty. 
A drapery of fine old Brussels lace formed a 
crossed fichu bodice. This was fastened down 
in a somewhat novel way by a long spray of 
orange-blossoms, which reached nearly from 
the waist to the shoulder. The vest and collar- 
band were also of old lace, and ruffles 
foamed at the elbow in quite a Louis Seize 
fashion, while the under-sleeves were also 
of lace cut from a deep flounce. The pointed 
tunic of satin had a lace flounce, buds of 
orange-blossom hanging as garlands from the 
head. From the shoulders fell a magnificent 
court train of pure white satin, with a long 
flounce of the old lace caught down with 
flowers. The wedding veil was of rare old 
lace, and made a fitting finish to this really 
regal gown. 

The Call o! Duty and Love— A Woman's Place— The Lonely Husband— Care of the Children- 
The Wise Decision— ** Till Death Us Do Part" 

It is often difficult enough to do one's duty 
when that duty lies plain before one, but 
it becomes ten thousand times more difficult 
when one does not know in which direction 
the duty lies. It is not always that the path 
becomes obscured, but sometimes the duty 
seems to lie in two opposite directions. 

This sounds like a paradox, but, unfor- 
tunately, it can often be only too true. A 
married woman with children has a double 
duty, the duty of the wife and the duty of 
the mother. As a rule, these two run 
happily side by side, but this is often not the 
case when the woman is married to a man 
whose profession or calling obliges him to live 
abroad. It may be that the place is not 
healthy for children, or the necessities of 
their education render it desirable that they 
should be sent home, and at once a terrible 
problem confronts the mother. Is she to 
remain at the side of her husband or come to 
England to take care of her little ones ? 

Duty calls her both ways. Love is equally 
unreasonable in its demands. 

A Crucial Point 

It is a difficult question, and as far as 
concerns both lives, momentous issues are 
at stake. The woman, wife and mother, has 
to decide who has the greater need of her — 
the children of tender years, to whom the 
mother-influence means so much, or the 
grown-up man-child, who is even more 

dependent on his wife than the children on 
their mother. 

A bachelor is quite capable of taking care 
of himself — that is, while he is content to 
remain a bachelor; but when a man is 
married, or falls in love, he changes. He 
loses something of his self-sufficiency, a new 
need is born in him, the need of the woman 
he has chosen to be his wife ; his tastes and 
disposition also alter to a great degree, and 
the things that pleased him in his bachelor 
days have now lost their relish, and he 
cannot go back to what he was before he 
became a married man. 

It is a very grave responsibility for a 
woman to take upon herself if she decides 
to sacrifice the father for the children. It 
may turn out all right ; it may turn out all 
wrong. Besides, a woman's first duty is to 
her husband. 

Hundreds of women every year are called 
upon to make choice between their loved ones, 
and very many of them choose to go with the 
children. It is wrong ! Looked at without 
prejudice, there can be no question about 

Tfie Greater Evil 

There is nearly always someone at home 
who can look after the little ones. There is 
never anyone who can look after the hus- 
band. The children, at the worst, can be 
sent to school if there is no relative who can 



make a home for them, but the man out in 
a far country must eat his heart out alone. 
If his wife leaves him, too, he is bereft of 
everything at once. Life that has been so 
full of joy becomes barren and a desert. 
When his day's work is done, he will come 
back to his empty house or bungalow, and 
the very silence will strike him as with a 
chill. There will be no loving woman to 
greet him, no laughing welcome from the 
little ones he has cherished. 

The Wifeless Husband 

The house is like a habitation of the dead, 
and it is full of ghosts, who mock and gibe 
at him. He may stand it for a few days 
and nights, perhaps, but in all probability 
he will become moody and depressed ; then 
his friends will try and cheer him up, and he 
himself will endeavour to fill the void that 
has been made in his life. Evil of some sort 
or other is sure to overtake him. It may be 
a lesser evil, or it may be a greater ; it may 
be only that he will get into the habit of 
smoking and drinking too much, and thereby 
undermining his constitution and ruining his 
digestion, or he may fall into more disastrous 
ways. Not the least of all the evil is that he 
must necessarily become independent of his 
wife, and for a man and wife to be inde- 
pendent of each other is not a condition 
conducive to their happiness. 

A Mistaken Sacrifice 

Then there is another factor in the case. 
Slowly and surely the man will begin to 
realise that he has been sacrificed for his 
children. It will not be a pleasant reflection, 
and though it may not make him bitter, it 
will certainly leave a little sore feeling that 
it will take a long, long time to eradicate. 

No, it is not good for man to be alone. 
It has been so decreed since the making of 
the first man, and through all the genera- 
tions that have come and gone there has 
been no great fundamental change. 

The mother may argue that her children 
cannot get on without her, that it is her first 
duty to be with them always, and guide their 
footsteps in the right way., that she cannot be 
parted from them, that they will miss her so. 

The Problem of the Children 

It is all quite true — they will miss her, and 
that right sorely, but that does not alter the' 
fact that her first duty is to her husband. 
There are others who can take care of the 
children. It is a duty that can be relegated 
into other hands. There are many homes to 
be found with gentlewomen, nearly all of 
them children-lovers, who add to their 

slender incomes by . the taking charge of 
" Indian children," and because it is done for 
money it does not necessarily follow that it 
is not done for love also. 

There are many childless women who are 
never happy unless there are children in the 
house. " It is the only thing that makes a 
house like home," said one of them once, 
and to the children it waa in truth a second 
home. Always, in after years, when their 
own parents were in England again, they used 
to come and pay long visits to the gentle- 
woman who had " mothered " them when 
they were motherless. 

An Irreparable Error 

A woman came home from India with her 
children, and left her husband abroad with 
his regiment. Naturally, he went back to live 
at the mess, but he realised that he didn't 
appreciate the life as he had done when he 
was an unmarried subaltern. He was bored 
and restless, and all the other women in the 
station wanted to take pity upon him ; but, 
fortunately for him, that only seemed to 
make matters worse. Then he took to card- 
playing, and in that he found the panacea 
for loneliness, and the demon of play crept 
in and took possession of him body and soul. 

Someone wrote to the wife in England, 
and she did what she should have done in 
the first instance — left the children with 
a relative, and went back to her husband. 

But the mischief had already been wrought. 
He had learnt how to do without her, and 
he thirsted for the excitement of the gaming- 
tables as a drunkard craves for drink. 

The Unbreakable Tie 

Of course, it may be argued that the man 
was weak, and would probably have become a 
gambler in any case sooner or later, but that 
does not follow at all. Everyone becomes 
more or less weak when they are feeling 
lonely and miserable. It is at times like 
these that they most easily fall victims to the 
temptations of any vice or folly that may be 
inherent in them, and which, under different 
circumstances, might never be developed. 

It is old-fashioned, perhaps, to quote the 
Marriage Service, but one line runs, " Till 
death us do part," not, " Till the wants of 
our children necessitate that I should live 
in one quarter of the globe and you in 
another," but " till death us do part." 
Certainly the separation may be only for a 
matter of a few years, but a great many 
changes can be brought about in less time 
than that, and a great many things can be 
done that can never be undone, and after- 
wards a great many tears may be shed which 
might never have dimmed the eyes. 



This important section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia is conducted by a prominent lady 
doctor, who gives sound medical advice with regard to all ailments from childhood to old age. 
When completed this section will form a complete reference library in which will be found the best 
treatment for every human ill. Such subjects as the following are being fully dealt with : 

Home Nursing Co7iswnption First Aid 

Infants' Diseases Health Hints Common Medical Blunders 

Adults' Diseases I Hospitals The Medicine Chest 

Homely Cures \ Health Resorts Simple Remedies^ etc., etc. 


The Right Way to Keep Warm in Winter— The Mistake of Too Hot Rooms— Food in Winter- 
How to Ward Off a Chill — Dress as a Factor in Keeping Warm— Gas Fires and Open Fires — 

House'Cleaning in Winter 

nPHE problem of how to keep well in winter 
^ can only be solved by attention to 
health in the home. So many people are 
ill who need not know the meaning of illness. 
There are the children who contract colds 
and catarrhs ; the business men who have 
to stop work on account of influenza ; the 
women who are miserable from ill-health all 
the winter, who might all be fit and healthy 
if more intelligent attention were paid to 
winter hygiene in the home. 

Too Hot Rooms 

An unhealthy atmosphere is far too preva- 
lent in English homes in winter. Perhaps we 
have the idea that we must keep warm at 
all hazards, and by acting on this assump- 
tion we over-coddle ourselves into chronic 
ill-health. A stuffy house is the direct cause 
of illness, because if people do not breathe 
pure, enough cold air the lungs and respir- 
atory passages deteriorate in health. 

If we lived out of doors all the time, pro- 
tected only from wet and discomfort by a 
rough shelter, we would never contract colds 
at all. " Cold " is a disease of civilisation, 
and the housewife who is educated up to the 
idea of keeping her house rather too cold than 
too hot is working on the right lines. If we 
are busy, we generate heat. If we sit about 
doing nothing, we deserve to catch cold. 

The right way to keep warm is to wear 
wa,rm clothing, and to keep up the body 
heat by healthy movement and good food. 
We are thus more independent of artificial 
heat, and can do without big fires. 

Many mothers make the mistake of keeping 
their nurseries too hot, so that the children 
contract cold out of doors from the sudden 
change of temperature. Big fires are not 
necessarily unhealthy so long as the windows 
are kept well open, but when fires are blazing 
and windows are shut we invite illness into 
the home. 

The hygienic housewife must understand 
once and for all that cold winter air is not 
harmful, but beneficial to health. Colds and 
catarrhs do not find their way into the house 
where open windows all the year round are 
the rule, and where the inmates have under- 
gone a sensible amount of hardening, so as 
to make them resistant to cold. So let the 
housewife open the windows in every room 
of the house, and keep them open all day, 
and partly open, at least, all night. This is 
one of the first essentials in the healthy 

Warmth and Food in Winter 

A good fire will keep the room from being 
unduly chilly, and draughts can be avoided 
by seeing that doors are properly fitted, and 
that any crevices admitting draughts near 
the floor are filled up. A draught along the 
floor is not a good thing, especially where 
there are old people and 3^oung children. 
Although the windows are open, it does not 
follow that there need be draughts at all if 
screens are arranged so as to protect those 
who are sensitive to cold currents of air. 

It may be said as a dietetic axiom that 
diet should be varied every three months 



according to the season. The diet that is suit- 
able and right in midsummer is insufficient 
for the body's needs in winter, when we must 
generate sufficient heat from the oxidation 
of our food to withstand the external tem- 
perature. Heat-producing foods are neces- 
sary, especially for the shivery, chilly people 
who heap garment after garment upon them- 
selves in order to keep warm. We require 
more fat in the dietary in winter, and the 
English breakfast of ham. and eggs is an 
excellent winter dish for those who go out of 
doors in the morning in winter, and cannot 
get another meal until one o'clock at the 
very earliest. 

A Nourifihins: Diet 

A good, solid, hot breakfast is a very 
valuable health asset in winter. A plate of 
porridge and milk, or, better still, porridge 
and cream, may be taken first, especially in 
the nursery. Indeed, one of the most 
pleasant methods of taking " fat " is in 
the form of cream. Children who will not 
take fat meat will generally take cream like 
a kitten, and we are apt to regard this food 
too much as a luxury. 

Foods that are especially suitable for lunch 
or dinner consumption in winter are lentils, 
beans, and peas, made into good soups or 
purees. Well-made suet puddings also supply 
animal fat in a palatable form to many people. 
Children can be given butter as a fat, and 
they should have thin bread well buttered 
at every meal. Cocoa should be served for 
breakfast several days a week, as it contains 
quite 50 per cent, of fat, whilst tea is not 
in any sense a nourishing beverage. Milk 
puddings, sweet cakes, potatoes, etc., may be 
eaten more freely in winter than in summer, 
especially if we take a good deal of outdoor 

Those who are working hard all day are 
often better with their chief meal in the 
evening, and a somewhat lighter lunch, as a 
certain amount of quiet and rest are neces- 
sary if digestion is to be complete. It is 
foolish, for example, to hurry through a 
three-course meal, and rush back to work at 
once. A small, light lunch is easily digested, 
and it is only what we digest and assimilate 
that nourishes us. 

stimulating Foods 

It is for the housewife to regulate the 
daily menu so as to supply food that is 
nourishing, suitable for winter, and varied. 
By studying dietetics, and understanding a 
little of the chemistry of food, she will very 
soon be able to give the best and most 
suitable menus with the minimum expense. 
The hygiene of food is one of the chief ques- 
tions to be studied in the home during the 
winter. If people are properly fed with the 
right sort of food, their vitality is kept up, 
and they are far less likely to contract chills 
and infectious diseases. A cup of hot soup 
or hot milk will ward off a chill, and anyone 
coming home tired, cold, and shivery will 

find a liquid, non-alcoholic stimulant of this 
description immediately beneficial. 

Dress in Winter 

The housewife also must superintend the 
family clothing if she is to keep her household 
healthy in winter. It is important, for one 
thing, that children are adequately dressed, 
that they wear warm woollen stockings, 
not socks, and that woollen combinations 
are the rule in the nursery. If the body and 
legs are protected by woollen combination 
garments, the texture of the other items of 
dress is of less consequence. 

Insufficient clothing accounts for a fairly 
large number of deaths and serious illnesses 
in winter, but the same thing is true of over- 
clothing. When people wear too heavy and 
too many garments, they get overheated, and 
then perspire. Heavy overcoats, for example, 
are responsible for a good many colds in 
winter, because people wear them at the 
wrong time. There is not the slightest need 
if we are walking or exercising in any way 
to attire ourselves in greatcoats. They simply 
produce overheat and fatigue, and it is when 
bathed in perspiration that chill is most 
likely to occur from the contact of the damp 
clothing against the skin. If, however, our 
clothing is porous, the risk of chill is less, as 
the moisture evaporates from the skin and 
passes through the clothes. 

In the healthy home there should be a 
standing rule that all damp boots and 
stockings are changed on coming indoors. 
This will not only affect the health of the 
individual, but will keep the house cleaner 
and more free from dust and microbes. The 
Japanese are horrified by the fact that we 
walk straight from the street on to our carpets 
in muddy boots. They always remove 
their outer footgear before entering a house, 
and thus their homes are beautifully clean 
and hygienic. The English housewife might 
take a lesson from them. Our heavy floor- 
coverings, for example, simply harbour dust 
and mud, and the germs of disease. The 
home would be much healthier if it were less 
heavily furnished. 

How many people have twenty, or even 
more, pictures in a room where three or four 
are sufficient ! How many housewives 
litter their bedrooms with books, ornaments, 
photographs, nicknacks of all sorts, which 
make hygienic cleanliness impossible! The 
result is that we sleep in rooms where 
invisible dust and invisible microbes are 
floating in the air. Bedroom fires add to 
the dust, but they serve a useful purpose in 
facilitating ventilation. 

Gas Fires and Stoves 

A gas fire is almost a feature of our English 
winter life, and it is open to many objections 
from the health point of view. When it is 
not in good condition, it pollutes the air 
with gases which poison the respiratory 
system, causing headache, nausea, and breath- 
lessness in many people. Even when 
working perfectly, the gas fire dries the 


atmosphere to such an extent that the lungs 
do not get their requisite amount of moisture 
in the air, and the skin is dried up. 

The great convenience of gas fires makes 
them appeal to many housewives, and one 
must acknowledge that they .are extremely 
useful where domestic service is limited. It 
must be said in their favour, also, that they 
cause less dust than the ordinary coal fire. 
But the housewife must take certain pre- 
cautions when she installs them into the 

In the first place, she must see that they 
are working properly, and not emitting 
undesirable gases. 

Secondly, every room which contains a 
gas fire requires to be very carefully venti- 
lated, and no one should sit in a room with 
gas fires if the door and window are closed, as 
they use up so much oxygen. 

Thirdly, counteract their drying effect by a 
vessel of "water. Clean water should be placed 
twice a day in the grate. This evaporates, 
and keeps the air moist. 

Stoves are not very much used in this 
country, for living-rooms, at any rate. They 
are apt to make the rooms too hot and dry, 
and are not to be compared with the open fire. 

Regular cleaning is a hygienic measure the 
housewife must not forget if she is to keep 
the home healthy in winter. The lack of 
sunshine and the dark days make dust less 
visible, but it is present all the same. A 
modified " spring-cleaning " once a month is 
a more important measure than people 
realise. Each room should be turned out 
thoroughly every two or three weeks, and if 
the housewife regulates the work this matter 
can be arranged, even when domestic servants 
are not plentiful. 


A Series of Articles on Wiiat tJie Amateur Nurse Should Know 

Continued from pase J76g, Pari 31 


Types of Heart Disease — General Rules of Treatment— Diet — Symptoms — An Improvised Rest to 
Relieve Breathlessness— Dropsy — How an Ice Poultice is Made— Syncope — Diet — The Nauheim 


HEART disease is not uncommon ; and although 
it often happens that those with some 
heart affection are not confined to bed, no series 
of articles would be complete without some 
particulars of how to deal with affections of the 

There are various varieties of heart disease, 
perhaps the commonest being valvular disease, 
which may follow upon rheumatic fever. The 
rheumatic poison in the blood causes inflam- 
mation of the delicate valves guarding the 
openings of the heart, with the result that the 
ef&ciency of these valves is impaired, and the 
heart is handicapped in consequence. 

Another form of heart disease is called aortic 
disease. The large blood- 
vessel of the heart, the 
aorta, is affected, and 
various symptoms of 
heart disease, such as 
breathlessness and palpi- 
tation, are present. 

Then the heart may be 
dilated by strain, or the 
heart muscle may be 
fatty and flabby, as a 
result of general obesity 
or some wasting disease. 

Whatever the type of 
heart disease, there are 
various general rules of 
treatment and nursing 
which must be followed. 

The most important 
thing for the patient is 
rest combined with a type 
of diet that will not cause 
flatulence and which, will 
be easily digested and 
assimilated. When a 
patient with heart affec- 

duty of the nurse will be in seeing that her 
patient is protected from chill, that he has 
sufficient but not excessive exercise, that he 
lives a hygienic life, and eats simple, nourishing 

When a patient is ill enough to go to bed, it 
is wonderful how improvement follows upon 
complete rest. The one thing a weak heart needs 
is as much rest as possible ; and everything 
should be done to keep the patient cheerful, as 
anyone with heart trouble is apt to be depressed 
and melancholic. This is due, of course, to 
interference with the circulation in the brain, 
and improvement of the circulation and digestion 
will make a great difference to the mental con- 

The chief symptoms of 
heart affections which 
the nurse will have to 
deal with are breathless- 
ness, palpitation, pain, 
and dropsy. 


Breathlessness is in- 
creased by any excite- 
ment or muscular strain, 
and it is most important 
to keep a patient com- 
fortably in bed. When 
the symptom is at all 
marked she should not 
even be allowed to lift 
herself or to move about 
unnecessarily. It is im- 
portant to support the 
patient chiefly below the 
waist in order to allow 
breathing to be free and 
unimpeded. In some 
cases the patient is most 

tion is not ill enough to SpUndid support for a patient with difficult breathing is supplied comfortable when leaning 
be confined to bed, the by a plank resting on trestles placed across the bed forward; and one ot 




How to break away pieces of ice from a block by means of a 

Strong hatpin or knitting needle. A large block can be bought 

from a fishmonger for from 9d. to Is. 

the best methods of propping the patient up 
under these circumstances is by means of a 
plank resting on trestles or upon two perpen- 
dicular pieces of wood ten inches higher than 
the bed. This forms a sort of bridge across 
the bed, on which a pillow can be placed, and 
the patient can then rest the arms comfortably 
upon it. This bridge idea is splendid also for 
convalescent patients, as it makes a good book- 
rest or improvised desk. 

Every care must be exercised by the nurse in 
moving the patient. In the case of a heavy 
person suffering from dropsy, two people will 
always be required to do this properly. The 
nurse must always ask the doctor if the patient 
is to be allowed to sit up or to get out of bed, 
and she must faithfully follow out his wishes 
with regard to this matter. 

Restlessness and Discomfort 

These symptoms are frequently present even 
when there is no pain, and the careful nurse 
has several little devices to make her patient 
more comfortable. Sometimes by merely fanning 
the face and sponging the hands the patient 
will become quiet and ready to sleep. Very 
often too many bedclothes will keep a person 
restlessly tossing about. Anyone with enfeebled 
circulation almost invariably suffers with cold 
feet, and a hot bottle wrapped in flannel is 
often all that is necessary to make the patient 
quiet and comfortable. 

A nurse in charge of a heart case should 
cultivate a quiet, cheerful manner, and meet 
any irritability in a soothing way, realising that 
it is a symptom of the patient's condition. 


Dropsy is due to obstruction of the circulation. 
The enfeebled heart is unable to pump the blood 
through the body, and the veins and capillaries 
become distended with blood. Then the fluid 

part of the blood escapes into the tissues round 
about, and causes swelling. This may be con- 
fined to the feet and ankles, and in such cases 
the patient must rest lying down as much as 
possible, as the swelling diminishes after rest in 

In some cases of heart disease the patient 
suffers from sudden attacks of pain (angina 
pectoris), which are apt to be brought on by exer- 
tion, excitement, or exposure to chill or fatigue. 
Thus, everything should be done to avoid 
excitement or over-exertion, and the doctor will 
probably supply capsules of nitrite of amyl, 
which can be crushed and the vapour inhaled, 
the result being that the blood-vessels on the 
surface of the skin are dilated, and this relieves 
the congested heart. 

How to Make an Ice Poultice 

Poultices and blisters are sometimes ordered 
for the relief of pain in various heart affections, 
and sometimes an ice poultice relieves the pain 
better than a hot one. 

This requires to be carefully prepared. The 
nurse will require gutta-percha tissue, chloro- 
form, ice, salt, and linseed meal, or wood-wool, 
which is better than meal, because it is more 

Take a piece of gutta-percha tissue a little 
larger than the poultice is desired to be when 
it is doubled over. Break the ice with a strong 
hatpin or safety-pin point. Place on the 
lower leaf of the gutta-percha a layer of wood- 
wool or linseed meal, then some crushed ice, 
covered in turn by common salt, and then 
another layer of wood-wool or linseed is placed 
on the top. Now fold down the gutta-percha 

Making an ice poultice. The block of ice on a plate, a basin. 

a little chloroform, a tin of salt, and a tin of linseed meal should all 

be placed ready. The nurse is cutting the gutta'percha tissue to 

the Inquired size 


tisijue, and paste the two edges together with the 
chloroform. This poultice may be put m a 
thin flannel bag, and applied to the heart. After 
the poultice is removed the part should be 
covered up, and if the bag is slit open and washed 
out it may be used again in the same way. 
Sudden Fainting, or Syncope 

Sudden fainting, or syncope, is another and 
often very troublesome occurrence in certain 
types of heart disease. The patient should 
always be laid quietly down ; and if the doctor 
has given permission to use them on such 
occasions, stimulants should be kept at hand. 
The clothes should be loosened from the neck 
and chest, and the patient given plenty of fresh 
air. The windows should be open and the face 
fanned, whilst smelling-salts are always useful 
In most cases the feet and legs will be found 
chilly, and hot bottles should be applied. Any 
further remedies must be given by the doctor. 
Diet in Heart Cases 

Meals must be light and frequent, and all 
foods likely to cause indigestion avoided. The 
patient may be given lightly boiled or poached 
eggs, oysters, boiled plaice, cod, whiting, 
flounders, lightly cooked meat once daily, 
beef, mutton, ' lamb, sweetbread, chicken, 
pheasant, tiipe. Whilst vegetable and all rich 
soups are to be avoided, mutton or chicken 
broth and beef tea and clear meat soup can all 
be taken. Stale white bread, toast, plain 
biscuit, should be served with meals, and 
vegetables should only be taken in very moderate 
quantities. Uncooked vegetables or salads 
should not be allowed. Stewed fruits, oranges, 
grapes, and peaches are suitable. 

The nurse should avoid giving large meals, 
and must never provide pork, goose, duck, 
or rich fish, like salmon or mackerel. Strong 
tea and coffee must be forbidden, and all effer- 
vescing beverages, as the presence of gas in the 
stomach presses up the diaphragm, and hinders 
the heart's action. Cheese, pickles, and pastry, 
as well as condiments, are unsuitable, because 
they are difficult of digestion. Milk, or water 
or barley water, weak tea, and such mineral 
waters as Carlsbad, Vichy, Ems, or Hunyadi 
Janos should be allowed fairly freely. Food 
should be avoided late at night, and the person 
who sleeps in a well-ventilated room is more 
likely to get a good night's rest than if the 
windows are closed. The chief meal should be 
taken in the middle of the day, and only a very 
light supper at seven o'clock. 

Nauheim Treatment 

The Nauheim treatment has become very 
widely known in England in recent years. It 
consists in medicated baths and special active 
and passive movements, followed, as the patient 
improves in health, with graduated exercise 
such as mountain climbing. The idea is gradu- '. 
ally and regularly to stimulate the heart by 
strengthening its muscles, and it is only suitable 
for chronic cases, and must be associated with 
a sufficient amount of rest. 

Treatment should be carried on under the 
care of a doctor, who will describe how to pre- 
pare baths by adding table salt and other chemicals 
and give instructions as to the proper tempera- 
ture. The movements also must be very care- 
fully done, and the nurse will require special 
teaching in the manipulations necessary. 


Co'ttinue~i front fw^e 3677, Part jo 

Phlebitis is an inflammation of veins, which 
may either be simple or suppurative. It may 
happen as a result of an accident to the vein 
walls or inflammation of the parts round about 
veins, whilst it is very commonly associated with 
gout. The vein becomes swollen and dusky red 
in colour, and there is a good deal of pain, 
especially on movement or pressure. A cord- 
like swelling is apparent in the case of super- 
ficial veins such as in the leg. The veins may 
become obstructed, and occasionally an abscess 
forms, due to suppuration. 

When pain is present, absolute re§t may be 
required, as if there is a clot in the part move- 
ment may cause it to become detached and 
carried off in the circulation, when it may plug 
an important artery in the brain or lungs. The 
limb may have to be elevated and evenly and 
firmly bandaged. If there is much pain, a 
mixture of glycerine and belladonna should be 
painted over the vein, or some lead and opium 
smeared on the part with a piece of lint. Hot 
poultices of lint wrung out of boracic lotion 
should be placed over the part. If an abscess 
forms the doctor will have to open it antisep- 
tically. The patient should have hght diet and 
be given occasional doses of salts. 

In serious cases the inflammation becomes 
suppurative and spreads up the vein, when there 
is danger of blood-poisoning. It is important 
to attend to any constipation, which may be 
present, and the general health should be as 
much as possible improved. All severe exercise 
should be forbidden so long as there is the 

slightest tendency to phlebitis of the vein in the 

Phthisis, or consumption, is a tubercular 
disease of the lungs, caused by a minute germ 
called the tubercle bacillus. There are two 
types of the disease — acute, or galloping, con- 
sumption, and the chronic form, which persists 
for 3-eais, and which has been more amenable 
to treatment since open-air methods were 
utilised in this country. In acute phthisis, the 
patient may at first show the symptoms of 
ordinary bronchitis, and the temperature is 
what is called " hectic " in type — that is, it is 
normal in the morning and raised in the evening 
to 10 1 or 102 degrees. There is a good deal of 
cough, and night sweats are nearly always 
present. Weakness and progressive loss of 
weight are very characteristic in t^'pical cases. 
The disease is commonest in young people,* 
especially where there is a family history of 
consumption. It may follow measles or whoop- 
ing cough, or complicate other lung affections. 

Treatment of acute phthisis does not come 
under the heading of domestic medicine. 

Chronic tuberculosis of the lungs is very 
widespread in this country. It accounts for 
many thousands of deaths per annum which 
might be prevented. Like the acute form, it is 
caused by the tubercle bacillus, which finds its 
way into the lungs, sets up congestion, inflamma- 
tion and suppuration, gradually destroying the 
lung tissue. The old idea of phthisis w^as that 
it was invariably hereditary, but we know now 
that it is only the tendency or weakness of 



disposition that is inherited, and that phthisis 
is always due to infection. The normal person 
is very resistant to infection. Everyone must 
be exposed constantly to the tubercle bacillus, 
which lurks in dust, which finds its way into 
milk and other foods, and which is constantly 
being shed into the atmosphere by the coughing 
of infected persons. When we are well, even if 
we breathe tubercle bacillus into our lungs, we 
can destroy them by sheer force of our own 
resisting power. 

In circumstances of exhaustion, malnutrition, 
starvation, people are more susceptible to the 
disease, whilst it flourishes in unhealthy sur- 
roundings to an alarming extent. Indoor 
occupations, such as clerical work, shop work, 
dressmaking, etc., favour the development of 
the disease, and those who are exposed to a dust- 
laden atmosphere are more liable to contract 

Symptoms. The disease is chronic. It comes 
on gradually, and in the early stages responds 
to treatment, especially since the introduction 
of modem hygienic measures. So that the 
earlier the disease is diagnosed, the better 
chance the patient has of complete recovery. 
Chronic cough, progressive weakness, and loss of 
weight are early symptoms in most cases, but 
the first manifestation of the disease may be 
haemorrhage from the lungs. 

Young people in the prime of life are most 
likely to develop consumption, which some- 
times comes on in the course of an acute 
lung attack, such as pleurisy or pneumonia. 
Whenever there is any suspicion of tubercular 
disease, prompt measures should be taken to 
check the tendency in its early stages. The 
temperature is an excellent guide, for so long 
as the temperature is normal, one need not 
be afraid that the tubercular process is making 
progress, even if it exists in the body. 

Some authorities declare that of almost every 
person dying above the age of thirty, five have 
tubercular spots in the lungs, which means that 
the tubercular bacillus has attacked some part 
of the lung, leaving a scar after the patient has 
recovered and the affection has been overcome. 
There is not the same sense of hopelessness in 
dealing with cases of consumption nowadays 
as in the past, when hygienic conditions were 
not understood, and treatment was so ineffective 
that fatal results were very common. 

When a doctor discovers by examining the 
sputum that tubercle bacilli are present, and 
when, by sounding the lungs, the presence of 
tubercular inflammation is apparent, the patient 
is made to take up a certain mode of life. He has 
to live as much as possible the open-air life, and 
take a definite amount of exercise carefully 
regulated so as to avoid over-fatigue. He has 
to be removed from any unhealthy environment, 
and when this is possible he has a good chance 
of recovery. Unfortunately, amongst the poor 
classes, where dust and dirt prevail, the mortality 
from phthisis is very high and the disease 
sometimes makes rapid progress. When these 
patients can be moved to a sanatorium, where 
regular life and open-air methods prevail, they 
have a very good chance, but even when people 
cannot afford sanatorium treatment, much can 
be done by method in the home. 

The advantages of a sanatorium are many. 

The patients are under the doctor's care from 
day to day. They are constantly exposed to 
fresh air and sunlight, which directly destroy 
the tubercle bacillus. They are given a large 
amount of the right kind of food and made to 
live entirely hygienic lives, whilst, at the same 
time, they have to rest when the temperature 
indicates that rest is necessary. 

Over-fatigue is one of the worst things pos- 
sible for patients suffering from phthisis. 
Good food is necessary to build up the strength 
of the patient, and to prevent him from losing 
weight. Thus the food should be abundant 
and appetising. In some sanatoria the patient 
is given thirteen pints of milk, or their equiva- 
lent in other foods, but over-feeding, without 
proper proportional exercise, is not a good 
thing, as the patient simply gets fat without 
affecting the course of the disease. 

As a rule, a phthisical patient is not de- 
spondent, but rather optimistic in temperament ; 
but even when there is no depression, the 
effect of amusement and recreation is good, 
although anything in the shape of excitement 
should be avoided. All these points are care- 
fully attended to at sanatoria, and one excellent 
result of these places is that people who have 
been there generally take back their open-air 
habits into their homes. 

When treatment is organised at home the 
great thing is to impress the importance of 
breathing fresh air day and night. As much 
time as possible should be spent out of doors 
and the windows must always be kept open day 
and night, whatever the weather may be. When- 
ever there is a strip of garden, a shelter can be 
erected. Indoors much can be done to make 
the patient sleep with windows wide open, and 
to pay attention to hygiene and cleanliness and 
the taking of food. 

Pigeon Breast is a deformity of the chest 
which is found in rickets. It is a disease of 
malnutrition which will be described later. 
The rib and breast bones are altered in shape, 
and the chest is depressed at the sides, so that 
the breast-bone sticks out in front. It requires 
to be treated by a doctor, as the child's whole 
health will be affected unless proper diet and 
other hygienic treatment are provided. (See 
" Rickets.") 

Piles, OP Hsemoprhoids, show a varicose 
condition of the veins of the lower intestine. It 
is associated with constipation, and in bad cases 
there may be a good deal of haemorrhage and 
pain. Headache, faintness, and anaemia, constant 
fatigue and irritability are common symptoms. 
There are various causes of haemorrhoids, but the 
chief of these is certainly constipation, asso- 
ciated often with a sedentary habit of life. 
The taking of alcohol causes congestion of the 
liver, and this in itself may produce piles; there- 
fore, rich food or anything causing strain upon 
the liver should be avoided. 

In treating this condition, regulation of diet 
and outdoor exercise are important. It is 
necessary to guard against constipation, A 
glass of mineral water in half a tumblerful of 
hot water should be taken night and morning. 
In bad cases the patient should rest in bed, and 
surgical treatment may be called for. 
To be coniinued. 




Co7iti7iued from, pase 3771, Part ^ J 


Precautions to Take when Weaning Baby— When the Change in Food Should Not be Made- 
Suitable Foods— Feeding With a Spoon— Gradually Withdrawing the Bottle— Dietary at Ten 


THE baby should be kept on milk until nine 
months. The term " weaning " generally 
means that baby begins to be fed from a spoon 
or a cup instead of by the mother or the bottle. 
The mistake many young mothers make is in 
suddenly weaning a child. Weaning is a gradual 
process, not an act to be determined upon on 
some particular day of the week, and insisted on 
in spite of loud remonstrances from the baby. 

When baby reaches eight or nine months he 
should be given part of his food from the spoon, 
and be gradually accustomed to this method of 
feeding. It is always a good thing when the 
bottles are dispensed with, but, at the same time, 
there is no harm in giving baby a bottle when he 
goes to bed, even after the age of nine or ten 
months. He takes his last meal quietly and 
comfortably, and it is always a hard struggle to 
induce him to lie down without his bottle at 

When Not to Wean Baby 

It is never a wise plan to wean baby during a 
spell of very hot weather ; that is, if the child 
is being naturally nursed by the mother. Weaning 
under such circumstances means the sudden 
change to unaccustomed artificial food, and the 
risk of an attack of summer diarrhoea, which is 
a very serious ailment. 

Baby should never be weaned when he is 
indisposed. When a child is feverish and fretful, 
for example, from cutting a tooth, it is positive 
cruelty to insist upon weaning. 

Choose a time when baby is well, and spread 
the weaning processes over perhaps two weeks. 
Gradually reduce the number of times that baby 
is fed from the mother, or from the bottle, so that 
at the end of the first week baby is taking most 
of his daily meals from a cup or spoon. By the 
end of the second week, perhaps, he should be 
nursed only at bedtime, after which it should be 
stopped altogether. 

It is sometimes necessary to wean a baby from 
the mother even before six months. This should 
be done, for example, if the mother's health is 
over-strained by nursing, or if the child is not 
thriving and increasing in weight. In some cases 
the mother's nursing should only be supple- 
mented by extra feeding; and there is no ground 
for the fairly common idea that mixed feeding — 
that is, partly natural and partly from the 
bottle — is not a good thing. 

Poods for Baby when Weaned 

When baby reaches the age of eight or nine 
months he is probably getting an occasional meal 
consisting of a good reliable malted or patent 
food. He is even given a crust of bread to bite 
or cut his teeth on, and at nine months a tea- 
spoonful of the red gravy from a joint is excellent 
fare two or three times a week. A little potato 
or the head of a cauliflower, well mashed, may be 
mixed with the gravy. 

He must still have a good deal of milk ; and the 
reason why many children do not get on so well 
after nine or ten months is that they are not 
getting sufficient food. Encourage baby as much 
as possible to take his little mug of milk at meals, 
as it is the very best food he can have, and the 
most easily digested. But he can now and again 
have a little arrowroot or ground rice pudding, 
made with the yolk of an egg. The reason the 
yolk is used is that it is more nourishing than the 
white, and the whole egg is too much. He may 
not be able to take more than half of this pud- 
ding, if as much. At ten months some of the yolk 
and white mixed will make an excellent meal. 

At a year old he may be able to take half an 
egg, but occasionally children do not care for 
eggs, and cannot digest them. When a child 
shows distaste for egg as an article of diet, it 
should be stopped entirely for a few weeks. A 
few breadcrumbs may be mixed with a soft- 
boiled egg occasionally. 

A Dietary at Ten Months 

Then bread-and-milk is quite a suitable meal 
for babies about ten months old. It must be 
carefully prepared. In the first place, the bread 
should be twenty-four hours old. A fairly thick 
slice should be cut, and the crust removed. An 
ounce of this bread is sufficient, and it should be 
cut into small cubes, put in a clean saucepan 
with six or seven ounces of fresh milk, and 
brought to the boil. It may be gently boiled for 
a minute or two, being stirred with a spoon, and 
served when it is sufficiently cool. 

It may be a little difficult at first to make 
baby drink from a cup. The milk has to be 
warmed until it is at the right- temperature, and 
then the nurse must patiently teach the baby, 
without forcing him or making him irritable, to 
take a little from the cup at each meal, giving 
him the bottle afterwards if necessary. 

As a guide to feeding children after weaning, 
at nine or ten months, the following dietary will 
be found very useful : 

For breakfast at seven o'clock give the usual 
bottle containing seven or eight ounces of milk. 
Then at ten some of the milk should be given in 
a spoon and out of the cup, but the mother 
must be careful to see that baby gets his 
due allowance. Now at dinner-time he should 
have a little of the red gravy with potato or 
cauliflower, and on alternate days perhaps some 
yolk of egg and breadcrumbs, or milk pudding. 
When he takes this, halve the usual allowance 
of milk — i.e., four ounces should be taken from 
the cup or bottle. Baby may be tried with a cup 
at four o'clock, and at 6.30 he should be given 
the bottle as he goes to bed. 

The four o'clock meal should sometimes take 
the form of bread-and-milk, so as gradually to 
wean him still further ; and by twelve months 
he may be having bread-and-butter, or rusks and 
milk occasionally. 



In this section will be included articles which will place in array before the reader women born to 
fill thrones and great positions, and women who, through their own genius, have achieved fame. It 
will also deal with great societies that are working in the interests of women. 

IVoniaii's Who's Who 
The Queens of the Woj-ld 
Famous Women cf the Past 
Women's Societies 

Great Writers^ Artists^ and 

Women of Wealth 
Women's Clubs 

Wives of Great Men 
Mothers of Great Men^ 
etc.^ etc. 



C'encing has a most brilliant and enthusiastic 
* exponent in the person of Baroness de 
Meyer, M^ho is also, by the way, an expert 
swimmer and a clever rider. Attired in a 
workmanlike costume of knickerbockers and 
long tunic, the Baroness every morning has a 
bout with her fencing-master, and frequently 
enters the fencing con- 
'^*""^*^^jflB^Q tests organised on 
behalf of society ladies. 
The Baroness is a 
typical cosmopolitan. 
She is by birth an 
Italian, and was born 
Princess Olga Carac- 
ciolo. She spent her 
early days in Paris, 
and married Baron de 
Meyer, whose beautiful 
pictures and photo- 
graphic studies were so 
much admired some 
years ago. The 
noted for her beautiful 
and artistic dressing, and her love of music. 
Her husband, too, is passionately fond of 
opera. Their house in Cadogan Gardens is a 
wonderful place, an Italian palace, in fact ; while 
they also spend part of the year at a splendid old 
palazzo on the Grand Canal at Venice. 

Baroness de Meyer 

Fellows IVilson 



at Nice on December 30, 1904. She at once 
sprang into fame, and in a very short time the 
unknown Montreal girl was receiving the rap- 
turous approval of critics and audiences at all the 
great opera-houses at Brussels, New York, and 
Co vent Garden. Indeed, in the short space of 
seven years she has secured for herself a place 
among the greatest opera singers of the 
day. Her fame, how- 
ever, has in no way 
altered her nature, and 
she is still the simple, 
unaffected woman 
whose charm and 
beauty has secured for 
her almost as many 
admirers as her singing. 
Mme. Donalda is 
married to a French 
gentleman, M. Paul 
Seveilhac, and is pas- 
sionately fond of 


Madame Donalda 
EllioU &- Fry 


IT was quite by accident that the 
popular Canadian prima-donna 
became a singer. As a matter of 
fact, she intended to follow medicine 
as a profession, but one day in Mon- 
treal a musical friend happened to 
hear her singing, and was deeply 
impressed with the richness of her 
voice. Mme. Donalda, however, 
laughed heartily when first told she 
ought to take up singing as a pro- 
f essioni However, she was persuaded 
to do so, and studied first at the 
Royal Victoria College, Montreal, and 
later in Paris, making her d^hut 

T T was in order to gather material for a book on 

*■ the old forts along the West Coast of Africa 

that Mrs. Mary Gaunt, the well-known novehst, 

made a trip of 1,500 miles through tropical Africa, 

700 miles being accompUshed in a hammock. 

She penetrated regions where a white woman had 

never before been seen, her journey, which 

occupied eight months, providing another 

illustration of that daring, venture- 

; some spirit which characterises 

modern women. Mrs. Gaunt is an 

Austrahan by birth, and in private 

life is Mrs. H. Lindsay Miller. Her 

first book, " Dave's Sweetheart," 

was pubUshed in 1894, and since 

then she has written a number of 

successful books. She is passionately 

fond of travel. "It is in the 

blood," she says. " My mother, 

when at seventy years of age she 

was left a widow, sold all she 

possessed in Austraha, and went 

Mrs. Mary Gaunt travelling in Rhodesia." 



Madame Rejanc 

Ma ft lie I 


THE career of the famous French comidienne 
furnishes a notable example of the trmmph 
of genius over adverse circumstances. Her real 
name is Gabrielle Reju, her father being an un- 
successful shopkeeper, who tried actmg, and 
failed, and eventually 
n became a ticket-col- 
lector at the Ambigu 
Theatre, in Paris, 
while her mother at- 
tended to the buffet 
in the foyer. Life was 
one long struggle, and 
when her father died 
Mme. Re jane lived by 
making fans at 2S. the 
dozen. Things grew 
a little easier, and 
Mme. R^jane narrowly 
escaped becoming a 
school-teacher. She 
went home from the little boarding-school 
she attended one day, and found her mother 
overjoyed. The principal of a local school 
had come to offer her a position as teacher 
with a salary of £2 a month, and board. Her 
mother wished her to accept the offer, for she 
knew too much of the trials and difficulties of 
a theatrical life to encourage her child's aspira- 
tions to become an actress. But persistence 
gained the day, and little Gabrielle, more than 
thirty-six years ago, made her dibut at the 
Vaudeville, Paris, and caught on immediately. 
Since then she has passed from ^triumph to 
triumph, and of all the famous roles she has 
played, she confesses that Madame Sans- 
Gene is at once her own and the public 


'X'he eldest of six beautiful and gifted daughters 
*■ of the seventh Duke of Marlborough, Lady 
Wim borne was married, when only twenty, in 
1868, to Sir Ivor Guest, Bart,, who was elevated 
to the peerage in 1880. She very soon became 
recognised as one of the most brilliant political 
hostesses of the day. In fact, it was the number 
of distinguished people to be met with at Wim- 
borne House, one of the finest mansions in 
London, which led one prominent statesman to 
describe the residence as the " centre of the 
universe." Many years ago, Lady Wimborne 
interested herself a good deal in the Primrose 
League, and was a member of the Ladies' Grand 
Council. She is a great enemy of ritualism, and 
startled society some time ago by opening a 
bookshop in Piccadilly for the sale of "sound 
Protestant works." Lord and Lady Wimborne 
are the parents of nine 
children — five sons 
and four daughters, 
and it was quite in 
keeping with the tra- 
ditions of the Marl- 
bo r o u g h s that the 
three elder sons should 
be found serving their 
country at the same 
time in the South 
African War. Lady 
Wimborne shares her 
husband's love of col- 
Lady Wimborne lecting art treasures, 
y. Russell &■ Sons especially china. 

Mrs. Jopling'Rowe 

EllioU & Fry 


No one has done more to encourage art among 
women than Mrs. Louise Jopling-Rowe, 
the well-known and exceedingly popular artist, 
whose pictures have not only been constantly 
exhibited at the Academy, but are also well 
known at the Paris 
Salon. Mrs. Jopling- 
Rowe not only founded 
the School of Art in 
London, but has 
written a volume, 
" Hints to Amateurs," 
which is very valuable 
to students. And men- 
tion of this literary 
effort reminds one that 
she finds chief recrea- 
tion in literary work — 
articles and stories. As 
a matter of fact, the 
publication of a short 
story when she was fifteen years of age was her first 
experience of fame. She is a beautiful as well 
as talented woman, and her portrait by the late 
Sir John Millais created almost as much sensa- 
tion as his equally famous one of Mrs. Langtry, 
" A J ersey Lily. ' ' Among the best-known pictures 
by the lady herself are " Auld Robin Gray," 
" Five O'clock Tea," and her portrait of Miss 
Ellen Terry. Mrs. Jopling-Rowe is a native of 
Manchester, and married, when very young, Mr. 
Frank Romer, who afterwards became private 
secretary to Baron Rothschild. Her second 
husband was Mr. Joseph Jopling, of the War 
Office, winner of the Queen's Prize at Wimbledon, 
and himself a painter in water-colours. Her third 
husband, Mr. George W. Rowe, is a lawyer. 


CiXTY-EiGHT years ago there was born in 
•^ Prague to an old aristocratic family a girl 
who was destined to become one of the world's 
greatest apostles of peace, who, in fact, won 
the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905. When she was 
thirty-three years of age, this girl became the 
wife of Baron Gundacar von Suttner, who died 
in 1902, and in collaboration with whom she 
used to write, under the pseudonym of " B. 
Orlaff." Curiously enough, it was not until 
1887, when she was forty-four years of age, that 
the Baroness discovered the mission of her life. 
For some time she had been travelling over 
Europe, and then she heard of the existence of 
the National Peace and Arbitration Association 
of London. She had already done some novel- 
writing, but now, fired by her new ideal, she added 
to the book on which she was at that time engaged, 
" Age of Machinery," a last chapter dealing with 
the international peace idea, and describing; the 
London Association. 
Her next book, how- 
ever, was the one which 
brought her into the 
front ranks of living 
writers. In 1890 ap- 
peared her " Lay Down 
Your Arms " — a book 
that has been trans- 
lated into all European 
languages, sold in 
hundreds of thousands 
of copies, and which 
induced the Tsar to 
issue his famous peace 

Baroness von Suttner 



Women Pioneers of Africa— Lady Baker*s Great Achievement — Charles Kingsley's Niece among 

Cannibals— Amazing Journeys from the Cape to Cairo — Through the Congo Regions — The First 

Woman Appointed a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society— Love Romances which Led to 

Dangerous Expeditions— A Ten'thousand^mile Journey — Daring Lady Mountaineers 

T"HE remarkable achievements of women were lying everywhere along her route. 
* provide a chapter of absorbing interest She even • inspected their larders, where 
in the story of modern exploration. Men human limbs were hanging like so many 
have stood amazed at their daring. And, by joints of mutton, and she taught them how 
scientific societies, no names are more to play cricket and other English games, 
honoured than those of these brave and There was one occasion when she lay 

strenuous women. with her native escort in the thick grass, 

A tribute must be paid in the first place and wondered, as she quaintly put it, 
to those women pioneers of 
Africa — Mary Moffat, Lady 
Baker, and Miss Mary Kingsley, 
niece of Charles Kingsley. It 
was Mary Moffat who accom- 
panied the famous missionary 
Robert Moffat on his remark- 
able journeys through Africa in 
the days when the white man 
was practically unknown in the 
interior of the Dark Continent. 

And then there was Lady 
Baker, the wife of Sir Samuel 
White Baker, the famous African 
traveller. Lady Baker was a 
Hungarian lady of great talent 
and enterprise, and it was she 
who accompanied her husband 
when he undertook a journey of 
exploration at his own cost in 
1 861 for the discovery of the 
Nile sources. The daring couple, 
entirely alone, crossed the 
Nubian Desert in the glare of a 
scorching sun with the thermo- 
meter at 1 14 degrees. 

Beyond Khartoum — which, 
they found " sacred to slavery 
and to every abomination that 
man can commit " — they pushed 
weariedly up-Nile against adverse 
winds, fierce rapids, and tortuous 
streams. They both fell ill with 
fever, so that neither could rise to nurse the 
other. But at last they reached their goal, 
the magnificent lake which they named the 
Albert Nyanza. 

Some years later, Miss Mary Kingsley, 
who fell ill nursing sick Boer prisoners 
during the South African campaign and 
died in hospital in Simon's Town, commenced 
her travels through Africa. And it is no 
exaggeration to say that in sheer daring 
no explorer has surpassed her. 

During her last journey she paid a visit 
to a nation of the fiercest cannibals in 
Africa. She mixed fearlessly with them, 
although she was the only woman in the 
small party, and the bones of their victims 

D a8 

Mrs. French Sheldon, a most daring American lady explorer, arid the first woman to 
be appointed a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society 

Photo, E. H. Mills 

when some of the arrows that were being 
shot into the bush to try to discover their 
whereabouts would hit one of them. They 
escaped, however, and when the enemy 
had gone farther down the stream, and 
were testing another bit o^ bush, the fugitives 
went calmly on their way. And yet this 
fearless woman explorer was one of the 
most gentle and refined of women, whose 
natural sphere appeared to be her drawing- 
room rather than African wilds. 

It is somewhat curious that African 
exploration seems to exercise the same 
fascination over women as it does over 
men, and since the expedition of Miss 
Kingsley a number of women have followed 



Miss McLeod, who traversed four thousand miles of savage Africa. 

During her travels she made a wonderful collection of curios, and 

of botanical and zoological specimens 

Photo, L.N. A. 

in her footsteps, and made many discoveries 
in the Dark Continent. Probably the jour- 
ney of Miss Charlotte Mansfield is still fresh 
in the minds of many, for, unaccompanied 
by any other white person, she journeyed 
from the Cape to Cairo, covering 16,728 
miles in seven months. She took only 
natives with her, and had to traverse many 
hundreds of miles on foot or in a hammock 
slung on a pole and carried by native 

An equally remarkable trip was that 
made by Mrs. Marguerite Roby, one of the 
most travelled women of the world, who, 
at the beginning of 191 1, returned from 
Africa after spending five months in the 
Congo region attended only by black porters. 
Mrs. Roby, who is the wife of a distinguished 
American brain specialist now residing in 
Japan, has not only explored much of 
Africa, but also many districts in China 
where no white woman had ever been before, 
and has been everywhere in Japan, Aus- 
traha, and America. While in Africa she 
saw more than five hundred villages, 
traversed all the country in the neighbour- 
hood of the great lakes, especially making 
a study of native conditions in the. tongo 
State. Some idea of the perils of her 
journey may be , gathered , f 1:0m her con- 
fessions to the \yTit'er during the course of 
an interview. - 

A Passajre Perilous 

*' Frequently," she said, " my bearers 
became mutinous, and 1 had to deal with 
them unaided. One of my boys, however, 
named Thomas, was very faithful to me, 
and 1 owe my life to him, for when 1 had 

a bad attack of fever and my temperature 
was 107 degrees he saved me from death 
by persistently pouring cold water over my 
head after letting down my hair. I was 
quite unconscious, and had given myself 
a dose of morphia in the hope that if I 
was to die I might pass away easily. And 
1 shall never forget the look of joy on 
Thomas's face when, after a, sleep of five 
days, I opened my eyes. Altogether I had 
three attacks of fever, and the last was so 
bad that I had to make my way when I 
was convalescent from Lake Victoria Nyanza 
to Mombasa, and thence by steamer to 

" Always when I was on the march I 
slept with my guns loaded by my side and 
my revolver under my pillow, as much 
to intimidate my bearers as to protect 
myself against wild animals. Sometimes 
the bearers grew sulky and would not put 
up my tent, but, on the whole, they served 
me very well indeed." 

Undeterred by the perils through which ' 
she has passed, Mrs. Roby intends to start 
on another African expedition as soon as 

An American Explorer 

She reminds one very much of Mrs. 
French Sheldon, also an American lady, 
who is one of the most daring women living. 
Mrs. Sheldon enjoys the distinction of being 
the first woman to be appointed a Fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society. Slie 
has specialised in exploration on the African 
continent. Unaccompanied by any white 
person, she has penetrated the country 
between the Stanley Falls and the Kasai 
district, and on one of her journeys she 

Miss A. D. Cameron, an intrepid lady who undertook a ten-thousand' 

mile journey from Chicago to the Arctic regions 

Photo, Elliott Gr Fry 



marched more than 6,000 miles on foot, 
carrying a rifle, and clad in attire that 
closely resembled that of a man. 

For days she would tramp along without 
seeing a human being. She has camped 
in the midst of cannibals, been through 
regions where the men ranged upward in 
height from 6 ft. 4 in., and in order to 
learn all about fetishism and cults and 
secret societies in East Africa and the 
Congo, actually entered into a blood brother- 
hood with about thirty tribes with whom 
she came into contact during her travels. 

The African natives called her Bibi Baana 
Pemba, meaning White Women Master, or. 
Bibi Bula Matari, meaning the Rock Breaker. 
And she deserved those complimentary de- 
signations, for no difficulties daunted her. 
Often she would wade waist deep through 
dangerous, unhealthy swamps, and once her 
tent was invaded by myriads of ants, which 
crawled all over her, and entangled them- 
selves painfully in her hair. On another 
occasion a wild leopard-cat leaped right on 
her head, and was with difficulty dis- 
lodged. Her various journeys resulted in 
some valuable ethnological discoveries, which 
are recounted in detail in her books. 

Reference has already been made to the 

journey from the Cape to Cairo accomplished 
by Miss Mansfield. The journey was also 
undertaken and completed some time before 
by Miss Mary Hall, who, in her book, 
" A Woman's Trek from the Cape to Cairo," 
gives a striking description of the perils and 
hardships which such a journey entails. 
She travelled through thousands of miles of 
forests, plain, rivers, and lakes, and was 
known to the natives as the " Jungle 
Woman." Curiously enough, Miss Hall 
was first led to pursue the adventurous 
calling of explorer through a voyage which 
she undertook in search of health after a 
prolonged illness. 

The last British lady to journey through 
African wilds was Miss Olive McLeod, a 
daughter of Sir Reginald McLeod, late 
Permanent Under-Secretary for Scotland. 
It was not, however, for the glory and 
honour to be won as a lady explorer that 
Miss McLeod traversed 4,000 miles through 
savage Africa and won for herself the 
applause of scientific societies. The primary 
object of her mission was to visit the grave 
of Lieut. Boyd Alexander, the explorer, to 
whom she was engaged to be married, and 
who had been treacherously murdered by 
natives in the French Soudan. 

Mr, and Mrs. Peary and their little son. No woman has been so far north as Mrs. Peary, whose little daughter was bom in the 

heart of the Polar regions 
Photo, G. Haeckel 



She fulfilled her mission, and decorated her 
lover's grave with a wreath of English 
flowers which she had carefully preserved 
through all the vicissitudes of that long 
journey ; but from that hour she was a 
genuine and enthusiastic explorer, fired with 
a desire to add to the world's knowledge 
of the Dark Continent. Speaking of her 
experiences with natives. Miss McLeod said : 

" From start to finish we never experienced 
the slightest difficulty with them, although 
many of the tribes we visited were wild, and 
contained people the great majority of whom 
were little known, and certainly had never 
seen a white woman. At first they ran away, 
but afterwards returned, and their chief 
seemed to be 
caused by the 
appearance of my 

During her 
journey Miss 
McLeod collected 
a large number of 
curios, which 
included many 
quaint musical 
instruments, while 
a botanical collec- 
tion of several 
thousand speci- 
mens has been 
sent to the British 
Museum, and a 
number of birds, 
beasts, and rep- 
tiles, including 
two fine lion cubs. 
It was a motive 
somewhat similar 
to that which 
incited Miss 
McLeod to under- 
take her danger- 
ous mission which 
led another young 
woman of equally 
gentle and retiring 
disposition— Mrs. 
Leohidas Hub- 
bard — t o p e n e- 
trate unknown frozen Labrador, where her 
husband succumbed to cold and starvation in 
1903, a doom which has overtaken so many 
brave Arctic explorers. She, too, returned to 
find herself in the front rank of women ex- 
plorers. With a couple of companions Mr. 
Hubbard had pushed into the utterly barren 
country, when provisions gave out, and the 
party were faced with starvation. Mr. 
Hubbard was the first to collapse, and his 
companions, leaving him in a tent, went in 
search of food to a provision depot, which 
they had previously established. They got 
back too late to save Mr. Hubbard's life. 

Two years later, Mrs. Hubbard decided 
to visit her husband's grave and complete 
his work. Fearing opposition, she kept 

Miss C. Gordon Cumming, who holds a magnificent record of daring and 

adventure in strange lands, and once checked a rebellion in Samoa 

Photo, Elliott Sr Fry 

her intentions secret, setting out with three 
Indian • guides and an Eskimo boy. It 
was her secret disappearance which led to 
the report of her death, but ultimately 
she returned, after passing through some 
thrilling adventures. 

Lecturing before the Royal Geographical 
Society afterwards, Mrs. Hubbard said that 
she started from the North-West river post 
with a. crew of four men, one being a Canadian 
and the others Indians or half-breeds. Her 
courage was equal to all the difficulties 
and dangers of such an enterprise. Half- 
way on their journey they arrived at Height 
of Land, where she found the sources of the 
two rivers, the Nasaupee and the George, 

which were only 
300 yards apart. 
She was the first 
of the white race 
to set foot on the 
Great Divide 
between theses 
two rivers. Near 
here they saw the 
first Indian camp. 
A large crowd 
assembled on the 
shore, firing guns. 
They were all 
women and 
children, Mon- 
tagnias Indians, 
the women being 
in a state of terror 
and shouting, 
" Go away, we are 
afraid of you ; 
our husbands are 
away." One of 
Mrs. Hubbard's 
understood the 
language, and 
when he said, " We 
are strangers, and 
are passing 
through your 
country," the 
shrieks of the 
women were 
turned into 
laughter, and the 
travellers were invited to the camp. 

A ten- thousand-mile journey from Chicago 
to the Arctic regions, traversing Canada 
from the southern boundary to the northern- 
most, mainly on foot, horseback, and in 
bullock waggons — such is the record of Miss 
Agnes Deans Cameron, another intrepid 
lady explorer. A quiet, sweet-faced, middle- 
aged lady. Miss Cameron's feat ranks as one 
of the most remarkable accomplished by the 
steadily growing band of women explorers, 
who vie with men in discovering new wonders 
of the world. 

Many an exciting incident happened during 
her 10,000 mile trip. On one occasion she 
had to traverse over 100 miles of rapids, and 
narrowly escaped drowning through her 

Mrs. Bullock Workman, who probably knows more about the Himalayas 

than anyone in the world 

Photo, Elliott & Fry 

boat capsizing. She passed through country 
where no woman had previously trod. 

No woman, however, has been so far north 
as Mrs. Peary, who as a bride followed her 
husband to the Arctic regions, and is . the 
only woman who has ever wintered with an 
expedition in that portion of the globe ; 
her daughter, indeed, was born in the Arctic 
regions. It is concerning this event that 
Commander Peary writes in his book 
" Northward over the Great Ice " : " On 
September 12 (1891) an interesting event 
occurred at Anniversary Lodge in the arrival 
of a little nine-pound stranger, Mary An- 
nighito Peary. This little blue-eyed snow- 
flake, born at the close of an Arctic summer 
day, deep in the heart of the white north, 
far beyond the farthest limits of civilised 
people or habitations, saw the cold grey 
light of the Arctic autumn once only before 
the great night settled upon us." 

Two of the most notable lady explorers 
have yet to be mentioned — viz., Mrs. Theodore 
Bent and Miss Gordon Gumming. The latter 
has a magnificent record of daring and 
adventure in strange lands, and there are few 
dark corners of the earth into which she 
has not penetrated. An invitation to spend 
a year with a married sister in India awoke 
her taste for travel, and led to further exten- 
sive wanderings extending over twelve years. 
From California to Ceylon, from Tibet to 


Africa, Miss Gumming has been 
everywhere. She has played at Crusoe 
on almost every island in the South 
Pacific ; she has climbed the Hima- 
layas, and feasted with the Fijians ; she 
has checked a rebellion in Samoa ; she 
has explored New Zealand and climbed 
Calif ornian crags. In fact, it would 
be easier to say where she has not 
been than to say where she has 

Asia Minor, Persia, Mashonaland, 
Abyssinia, Eastern Soudan, and South 
Arabia. These are some of the out-of- 
the-way corners of the globe which 
Mrs. Theodore Bent has penetrated 
when she accompanied her late 
husband on his archaeological expedi- 
tions. She has had several narrow 
escapes from death. In South Arabia 
she was nearly shot by bandits, while 
on another occasion she was ordered 
to dismount " in order that her throat 
might be cut." 

This article would scarcely be com- 
plete without mention of those en- 
thusiastic mountaineers Mrs. Bullock 
Workman and Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond. 
While the latter has climbed nearly 
every peak worthy of the name in 
the Swiss Alps, Mrs. Bullock Workman 
probably knows more about the Hima- 
layan mountains than any other person 
in the world. Mention might also be 
made of Miss Friere-Marreco — well 
known at Somerville College, Oxford, 
where she holds a research fellow- 
ship — who is at present living with a 
tribe of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico. 

Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond, who has climbed neai ly every notable peak 

ill the Swiss Alps 

Photo, Kate Pra^tttU 






CoHtimied from page 37S2, Pari 31 

A Gi-ls' ** Help One Another " Club— The Small Beginning of a Great Work— A Society without 
Fees or Regulations— Its Manifold Activities— How the Kindly Instincts of Girlhood are Utilised 

A WIDELY-SPREAD society that has done 
much to help girls is the " Forget-Me- 
Not " Club. Like many other institutions, it 
had a very small beginning. 

About six years ago the editress of 
" Forge t-Me-Not" (the weekly girls' paper 
which has given its name to the club) made 
a tentative effort through her pages to 
find friends for lonely girls who from force 
of circumstances had few or no friends of 
their own age. 

The Beginning of the Work 

For it was as a correspondence club only 
that the " Forget-Me-Not " started. 

To-day its membership is world-wide. 
It owns ninety-three hostels, scattered all 
over the United Kingdom, kept by ardent 
club members, who make the hostels what 
they profess to be — " Homes away from 
home " — to their fellow members. Besides 
these there are twenty " Forget-Me-Not " 
tea-shops and a hundred and forty club- 

The club-rooms are generously lent by 
members for weekly meetings — guests merely 
paying a very small sum for tea and refresh- 
ments. In connection with them are number- 
less whist-drives and dances, which are 
arranged in the winter, whilst picnics and 
rambles make Saturday afternoons something 
to be looked forward to by club members. 

In this unique club there are no fees, 
no regulations — except the ordinary ones 
dictated by politeness and common-sense — 
and only one rule, the club motto, " Help 
one another." 

Absolutely on their own initiative, the 
"Forget-Me-Not" girls started a Christmas 
" bundle," to aid the invalids and poorer 
members of the club. 

Last year the " bundle " contained nearly 
two thousand garments, a free-will offering 
of which the club has reason to be proud. 
In the same way members of the club 
started an " invalid fund," and as " many 
a mickle makes a muckle," numberless poor, 
brave things have received timely help. 

A Friendship Club. 

In calling the " Forget-Me-Not " a 
" friendship club," one is using no pretty 
sounding, idle phrase. The girls undoubtedly 
regard the founder as a very real friend, 
and truly the bond that unites the whole 
club is a triumphant contradiction to the 
saying that women are not clubable. 

"We are just one awfully large family, 
all eager to rejoice in the roses or pick out 
the thorns from one another's paths," the 
editress said lately, and with truth. 

In the atmosphere of friendship and good 
feeling, kindly deeds follow as a matter of 

course, and get themselves done without 
any of the forms and ceremonies that attend 
and hamper so many excellent institutions. 
To a recent gathering organised in London 
by some of the members, enthusiastic 
supporters travelled from all over the 
kingdom. Such is the keen fellowship of 
the members. 

Not long since the hostess of one of the 
best attended club-rooms was asked — 
apropos to some of the girls' kindly deeds — 
who was on the charitable committee ? 

" We don't need a committee, because 
we haven't anything with such an odious 
name as charity, ' ' the hostess rather brusquely 
retorted. And then she grew kind again, ^ 
and explained that if any club member 
heard of the illness or trouble of a fellow- 
member, she invariably acquainted the 
editress — unless she herself could go and 
see her, or get someone to go. 

"If I hear about anyone I just say, 
' Oh, girls, So-and-So's ill. Who is going 
to cheer her up ? ' And always half a dozen 
dears volunteer ! " the lady finished. 

The Club Organ 

In the pages each week devoted to the 
club use in "Forget-Me-Not" members can 
learn all the doings of the club, and, still 
quite free of charge, are able to advertise 
their work, or obtain situations. No trade 
advertisement is, of course, given. 

So many members produce exquisite 
lace and embroidery, that the club contem- 
plates a shop of its own some day, supplied 
and managed entirely by Club girls. 

And who are the " Forget-Me-Not " 
girls ? In answer to the question, the 
founder once jokingly replied, " Everyone — 
from a duchess to a dairymaid ! " The 
duchess is yet to come, but the peerage is 
not unrepresented, and the list ranges 
(socially) downwards through the profes- 
sions to every grade of woman's work. 

As members, it goes without saying, all 
are equal, but when a girl writes to the 
editress after joining the club, and asks 
for a friend, infinite pains are taken to 
find one for her whose tastes and sur- 
roundings are likely to make her a congenial 

One of the great benefits of membership 
to a girl in this excellent club is that, no 
matter into what quarter of the globe fate 
may lead her, it is almost always possible 
for her to find a friend awaiting her. 

It needs no words to tell what this means 
to a girl in a strange country, and so hospit- 
able are Colonial club members that, more 
often than not, the shelter of a home is 
extended to the young emigrant until she 
can look round her. 




All matters pertaining to the kitchen and the subject of cookery in all its branches are being fully 
dealt with in Every Woman's Encyclopedia. Everything a woman ought to know is taught 
in the most practical and expert manner. A few of the subjects are here mentioned : 


Gas Stoves 


The Theory of Cooking 

The Cook's lime -table 

Weights and Measures, etc. 

Recipes for 






Preserves, etc. 

Cookery for Invalids 
Cookery for Children 
Vegetarian Cookery 
Prepai'ing Game and Poultry 
The Art of Making Coffee 
How to Carve Poultry, Joints, 

For the sake of ensuring absolute accuracy, no recipe is printed in this section which has not been 
actually made up and tried. 

CoHtimted from pa^e 37S6, Part 31 

Choppers and Knives — Cherry'Stoner— Weights and Scales — Sieves — Pastry'making Requisites— 
Griller — Chafing-dish — Spice-box — Fireproof China Utensils 

A MONG absolute essentials must be in- 
eluded a meat chopper, a good assort- 
ment of cook's knives — among them, being 

two or three good chopping knives — a long 
larding knife, some root knives, which are 
used for peeling and trimming vegetables, 
and some palette knives, which, among othei 
things, are use- 
ful for spread- 
ing icing on 
cakes. Then 

J- . . , . Cutlet'bat for flattening ste&ks and cutlets 

forget the meat- 
saw, and also a larding and a trussing needle. 
A potato-peeler is an excellent little con- 
trivance, and soon repays its original cost by 
what it saves. The potatoes are also more 
evenly peeled than if done with a knife. 

A case in which basting spoons, ladles, and slice can be hungeosurcs 

•heir being to hand when wanted. The case should be fixed to the 

wall near the stove 

A potatO'peeler removes the peel more neatly and evenly 
than an ordinary knife 

A cherry-stoner is somewhat of a novelty. 
It is a great improvement in preparing 
tarts, fruit salads and the like to have the 
fruit stoned, but it is an almost endless 
piece of work if it is done by hand. 



A cutlet-bat is useful for flattening cutlets 
or steaks, but a heavy cook's knife answers 
the purpose very well. 

When beating more than two or three eggs 
at a time it is best to use an egg-whisk, 
either one having a wooden handle or one 
made entirely of wire. It is well to have 
two or three of different sizes as they are 
not expensive. 

It is a great improvement- to fruit salads and tarts if the 

stones are removed from cherries. This can be quickly 

don3 by using a cherry'Stoner 

A round metal grater is invaluable, and 
one with graters of different coarseness is 
the best kind to buy. It is then possible 
to grate either nutmegs, cheese, lemons, or 
bread on it. 

The " potato ribbon " cutter is an ex- 
cellent device which saves time and wastes 
no potato. Potatoes cut with it make a 
pretty garnish besides being delicious when 
served as a vegetable. 

Egg'whisks are a great convenience when beating 
more than two or three eggs 

If by any means possible, weights and 
scales should be found in every kitchen. 
Much good food is spoilt and wasted through 
the popular but often fatal practice of 
guessing the quantities of the various in- 
gredients required — in other words, by 
cooking by " rule of thumb," as it is called. 
If through lack of space or money a large 
set of scales are out of the question, then 
procure a good " spring balance." 

of composition with wooden handles are apt 
to come apart and sometimes even to break. 

Needless to say, hair and wire sieves 
should be found in every kitchen. If both 
cannot be obtained, a fine wire one is the 
best to have. It is, of course, convenient 
to keep some of different kinds both as 
regards the fineness of the mesh and the 
size of the' sieve. One measuring ten inches 
across is a useful and convenient size. 

Sieves are used for a number of purposes, 
for passing various soups to form a puree, 
such as puree of artichokes, potato soup ; 
for making breadcrumbs, when they are far 
superior to a grater, as all the crumbs are 
bound to be of the same size ; for sieving 
flour so as to get the air entangled in it and 
thus lighten it ; and for many other purposes. 

A pzstle and mortar is useful not only for pounding 
mixtures, but for crushing dried breadcrumbs 

Colanders are required for straining 
vegetables out of the water after they have 
been cooked. They are made either of tin 
or enamelled iron, the latter being more 
easily kept clean as they require no polishing. 
A metal flour- dredger, a castor sugar- 
dredger and pepper-box are all necessary. 

Meat skewers should be strong and well 
made, but not too thick or they disfigure 
the meat by making large holes, through 
which much of the flavour and goodness of 
the meat can escape. 

A copper sugar-boiler is very desirable if 
sweet-making is done at 
3 home, as there is much 
less risk of the sugar burn- 
ing than if a tin or enamel 
pan were used. 

By the use of copper fritter-moulds in varying designs, battel 
cases for sweets and entrees can be quickly prepared 

If much pounding is done, a pestle and 
mortar are essential. Mortars made of 
marble are the best as they are more durable, 
heavier, and consequently more steady, but 
naturally they are the " most expensive. 
In a small kitchen, mortars made of com- 
position do very well. 

Pestles made of hard wood are very good, 
and last practically for ever; while those 

For pastry making a marble , 
slab is, par excellence, the thing 
on which to roll it out but is 
rather expensive. The best sub- 
stitute is a white wood pastry-board, and a 
boxwood rolling-pin, though there are several 
excellent kinds made of white composition. 

A pastry-brush is a necessity, being used 
not only in making pastry, but in almost 
every branch of cookery; for example, for 
" egging " cutlets, rissoles, etc., for greasing 
cake-tins, for glazing tongues, and for many 
other purposes. 


Copper Jritter-moulds of 
various sizes and designs are 
useful for making cases of 
batter which can be filled 
with sweet or savoury mix- 
tures for sweets or entrees. 

Every kitchen should con- 
tain a good selection of 
basins of all sizes and kinds, 
including a few enamelled 
ones. These are more expen- 
sive to buy than china ones, 
but they are unbreakable. 

A mincing machine is a 
great convenience and also a 
great saving, as frequently 
meat, etc., when minced, can be turned into 
dainty little dishes. They are also a saving 
of time, as chopping by hand is a tedious 
and long process. 

A good griller is an excellent investment. 

A mayonnaise mixer saves time, and greatly 
aids in the blending of the ingredients 


must be eaten very hot, may 
be sent to table in it. 

A spice-box having each 
division neatly labelled is a 
great convenience. Spices 
should never be kept in 
paper, or they will soon 

A wire pastry-stand is 
useful when making cakes 
which are to be iced, or 
sweetmeats of any kind, or 
for putting cakes and pastries 
on when they are taken out 
of the oven. 



A folding griller is an excellent cooking utensil 

There are various shapes, but a folding one 

is the most convenient. 

A brawn-presser with a screw should be 

found in ever}^ country house. It will 

greatly simplify brawn making. 

A mayonnaise mixer is one of the latest 

contrivances. It is a great saver of time 
and trouble, and obviates 
all chance of curdling 
mayonnaise sauce. The oil 
drops through mechanically, 
and all that the operator 
has to do is to turn the 
handle. This is a decided 
advance on the old method, 
when the oil had to be 
poured, literally, drop by 
drop from the bottle, no 
small matter when a large 
quantity of the sauce had 
to be made. 

A chafing " dish, though it 
does not, strictly speaking, 
come under the heading of 

For making brawn at kitchcu utCUSils, is iuvalu- 

hcme, a brawn-presser able tO the COOk, for thoSe 

with screw should j- , l • i. j. i, „j 

always be used dlShcS, whlCh tO be gOOd 

Fireproof China and Earthenware Vessels 
Nowadays it is possible to purchase in 
England the excellent fireproof china and 
earthenware utensils which are so much 

A steel brush for saucepans enables the cook to keep these 
utensils clean and bright 

used in France. For stewing there is no 
comparison between the earthenware and 
metal pots. 

Marmites can be bought in all sizes, from 
the large ones which would hold a large 

A wire stand on which pastries or cakes can be placed when hot 
prevents them from getting heavy 

family stew, to the tiny ones which are used 
for soups, etc., and are served one to each 
person. All ragouts, stews, salmis, and 
" hot-pots " can be made in a marmite or 

The dainty little ramaquin cases in white 
china are particularly effective for small 
souffles, creams, etc. They are also made 
in brown or green fireproof ware. 

White china scallop shells are very 
effective for scallops of meat, fish, game, or 
vegetables. The natural scallop shell can 
also be used. 

Eggs are most delicious and delicate of 

A casserole in fireproof ware is one of the most useful utensils 
the cook has at her disposal 



flavour when steamed in the fire- 
proof ware egg-poachers, and they 
make a pleasing change from the 
more ordinary poached egg. 

" Au gratin " dishes of various 
shapes and sizes are very con- 
venient. In them can be made all 
dishes "au gratin," which are, 
correctly speaking, those dishes 
which are baked in the oven 
and sprinkled over with browned 
crumbs, such, for instance, as " cauliflower 
au gratin," " sole au gratin," etc. 

An apple baking-dish is most dainty. 

Fireproof ware stewing jar 
for fruit or meat stews 

Covered pipkin in fireproof ware is convenient for 
use in preparing many dishes 

and adds greatly to the appear- 
ance of roast apples. It is made 
in white china. 

The green fireproof ware entree 
dishes are very pretty and effective, 
and are invaluable in houses 
where meals have to be kept 
waiting, as they will not break 
if put in the oven to be kept 

Space will not allow us to describe 

all the many excellent and dainty devices 

which are now made in fireproof ware. 

Not the least point in its favour is that 

it is easy to wash 

and keep clean, re- 
quiring no scrubbing 

or polishing. 

Thorough washing 

in soap-and-water , 

or, when stained, 

soaking in soda-and- 

water, will suffice to 

keep fireproof ware 

in order. Rubbing 

with a little fine sand 

will remove any marks 

of burning from the 


Milk boiler m ware; 

having a handle and spout. 

the contents are easily poured 

out as required 










Salmon, Dutch 





Mullet (red) 
and Canadian 


House lamb 



Wild ducks 


Chickens Capons 

Fowls Geese 

Rabbits (tame) Turkeys 

Black Game 







Artichokes (globe and Jerusalem) 
Brussels sprouts Beetroot 
Cabbages Carrots 

Celeriac Celery 

Chillies Chervil 

Corn-salad Endive 

Horseradish Leeks 

Mushrooms Onions 

Pickling onions Parsley 
Radishes Salsify 

Shallots Seakale 

Spanish onions Spinach 
Turnips Turnip tops 









Scotch kale 

Partridges Pheasants 

Plovers Pintail ducks 

Rabbits (Ostend) Rabbits (wild) 










Nuts (walnuts, 
chestnuts, Brazil, 




Vienna Bread — How to Shape a Twist or Plait— Horseshoes and Crescents — Brioches— Bakings 

Powder Bread 

HThe making of " Standard " bread will 
present no difficulty to the cook who 
has mastered the directions for breadmaking 
given on page 3534, vol. 5, Every Woman's 
Encyclopedia, as the process is exactly as 
therein described. 

The success and value of a Standard 
loaf depend upon the flour used. This 
should be unadulterated, ground from 
good, well-cleaned wheat, in which the 
germ and inner layer of bran are pre- 
served, and not refined away by bleaching 

When baked the resulting loaf should be 
of an appetising, deep creamy tint, with a 
sweet nutty flavour, and of a fine, light 

The advantages and benefits derived from 
eating bread made from pure, unadulterated 
flour were fully discussed in Every Woman's 
Encyclopaedia, Vol. 3, page 1976. 

Fancy Bread 

Though it would not be desirable or whole- 
some to live entirely on fancy breads, yet at 
times a change of bread is really good and is 
always greatly appreciated. 

The dainty, shiny rolls and twists to be 
seen in bakers' windows are by no means 
difficult to make at home, and amply repay 
any trouble they may entail. 


Required : One pound of Vienna 

Two level teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One ounce of compressed yeast. 

Two teaspoonfuls of castor 

One ounce of butter. . 

Half a pint of milk. 

One egg. 

Warm the flour, then sieve 
it and the salt into a basin. 
Put the yeast and sugar in 
a small basin, and work 
them together with a spoon 
until they are liquid. Melt 
the butter in a saucepan, 
add the milk, which should 
be just tepid. Next beat 
up the egg, and add to it 
the warmed milk. Pour 
them on to the yeast and 
mix well. Make a hole in the 
middle of the flour, stir into it the milk and 
yeast, then work in all the flour. Knead the 
mixture well, put it in a basin, cover it with 
a clean cloth, put it in a warm place, and 
leave it to rise for two hours, or until the 
surface is covered with cracks. It is then 
ready to shape. 

Divide the dough on a floured board into 
eight or nine pieces. 

To Make a Twist or Plait 

Take one of the pieces, cut it into three, 
roll out each with the hand to about six 
inches long, place them together, and plait 
them as you would hair. Pinch the be- 
ginning and end together, then lay the plait 
on a greased baking-tin. 

To Make Horseshoes or Crescents 
Roll one piece of dough out into a square, 
cut this square across from corner to corner, 
so as to have two triangular pieces. Roll 
these up lightly with the hand, beginning 
with the side that has two points, draw the 
single point over like a flap, lay the roll on the 
tin, curving it like a crescent. Rolls are 
made by shaping the dough into neat 
balls, then cutting them across twice with 
a knife. The dough can be shaped in any 
form that occurs to the cook, but in all 
cases put it on a greased tin in a warm 
place, and let it rise for twenty minutes. 
Bake the rolls in a quick oven until they 
sound hollow when tapped underneath. Then 
brush them over with a little warm milk 
and butter to glaze them, and leave them 
on a sieve until cool. 

A second method is to make the dough up 
into one loaf. Cut off about a quarter of 
it, work the rest on a floured board into a 
neat oval shape, divide the smaller piece into 

Vienna bread is much liked for afternoon tea, and a plait loaf of 
this bread is appetising in appearance 

three, and make it into a plait as already 

Lay the plait across the top of the d.ough, 
pressing it well on to it, then proceed as 
already directed. Cost, 6d. 

Vienna bread in the form of rolls is always 
welcome on the breakfast table. When 
made into loaves it cuts up particularly 
well into thin slices for bread-and-butter. 



This is a rich variety of bread much liked 
for afternoon tea. 
Required : One pound of flour. 

Two and a half ounces of castor sugar. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Ten ounces of butter. 

Quarter of a pint of milk. 

Half a gill of water. 

Half an ounce of compressed yeast. 

Seven eggs. 

Vienna bread made into crescents, twists, and other shapes makes 
light breakfast rolls 

Put four ounces of the flour on a plate, 
make a hole in the centre. Mix the yeast 
with half an ounce of sugar until it is liquid, 
then mix with it half a gill of tepid water. 
Strain this into the flour, mix all into a 
smooth paste. 

Cover it, and put it to rise in a warm place 
for about an hour. 

In another basin mix together the rest of 
the flour and sugar and the salt. Make a 
well in the middle, and pour the butter in 

gradually, having first melted it gently, also 
the milk, which should be just lukewarm. 
Next beat up the eggs, add them, and mix 
all very thoroughly together. Then take the 
dough" from the plate, and knead it very 
thoroughly into the other dough. Let it 
stand in a cool place for quite twelve hours. 
Next day form it into balls or quite tiny 
loaves, and bake in a quick oven for about 
thirty minutes. 

Brush them over with a 
little warm milk and butter 
to glaze them. Cost, is. 6d. 


Required : One pound of flour. 
About one and a half gills of 

Two rounded teaspoonfuls of 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Sieve together the flour, 

salt, and 

Mix them with the milk to 

as soft a dough as possible 

without it being actually 

sticky. Do this very quickly, 

and knead it lightly together. 

Divide it in four, and shape 

each into a neat little loaf — a cottage loaf 

is the most usual shape. Put the loaves 

on a floured tin, put them at once into a 

quick oven, and bake them for about 

twenty minutes. Brush them over with a 

little warm milk to give them a shiny 


N.B. — The quicker this bread is handled 
after adding the liquid the better it will be. 
It is very useful in places were yeast is hard 
to get. Cost, 3d. 

Tomato and Ham Pie— Braised and Stuffed Shoulder of Mutton— Stewed Ox Tails— Mutton Fritters 
k la Diable — Haricot Mutton— Fritters a la Villeroy — Steak and Mushroom Pie — Fillets of Beef 

-Grenadines of Veal — To Boil a Ham 

Well butter 

with Mushrooms— ** Hot Pot' 

Required : One pound of tomatoes. 

Half a pound of raw or cooked ham. 
One teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 
One teaspoonful of chopped onion. 
Two ounces of butter or dripping. 
About a breakfastcupful of crumbs. 
Salt and pepper. 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

Shoulder of mutton braised and stuffed is a welcome change from 
the usual roast shoulder 

a pie-dish, and shake some 
crumbs all over the inside, leaving a layer 
of them in the bottom of the dish. Slice the 
tomatoes in rounds about a quarter of an 
inch thick. If the ham is raw, fry or toast 
it slightly, then cut it up into rather large 
squares, and put it into the pie-dish. Mix 
together the parsley and onion. 

Now put a layer of sliced 
tomatoes in the dish, 
sprinkle it over with salt 
and pepper, parsley and 
onion, and cover it again 
rather thickly with crumbs. 
Repeat these layers till 
the dish is full, finishing 
off with a thick layer of 
crumbs. Put the rest of 
the butter, in tin)^ bits, all 
over the top of the pie, and 
bake it in a quick oven for 
about half an hour, or till it 
is a nice tempting brown. 



and serve the 

IS. 2(1. 


Put a frill round the dish, 
pie as hot as possible. Cost, 


Required : A shoulder of mutton. 
For the stuffing : Four ounces of breadcrumbs 
Three ounces of bacon. 
One teaspoonful of chopped onion. 
One teaspoonful of chopped parsley. 
One teaspoonful of mixed herbs. 
Two teaspoonfuls of mushrooms. 
One egg. 
Salt and pepper. 
For braising: A bunch of parsley and herbs. 
Two quarts oi stock. 
One large carrot, turnip, 
(Sufficient for ten to twelve.) 
Bone the mut- 
ton, but leave in 
the knucklebone, 
sawn off to a neat 
If you 
bone the 
ask the 
to do so ; 
is quite 
a sharp 

and onion. 

Wash the tails and divide them at the 
joints. Put them into a pan with cold water 
to cover them, and bring them to the boil. 
Skim the pan and continue boiling the ox 
tails for ten minutes ; then strain off the 
water and trim all rough-looking pieces off 
the joints, so that they have a neat, round 

Put them into a saucepan containing 
about two pints of water, with the onion, 
the carrot and turnip cut into neat dice, 
also the herbs and spice. Cover the pan 
and simmcF it very gently for about two ahd 
a half hours or till the meat is tender. 
Strain off the gravy into a basin, let it get 
cold, and then skim off the fat. 


j oint, 
but it 
easy with 

Mix together the 
crumbs, bacon, 
mushrooms, herbs, 
onion, and parsley, 
seasoning highly, 
and binding the 
mixture rather 
stiffly with beaten 
egg. Push this 
stuffing into the 

cavity made by removing the bone, and 
with a trussing needle and fine string 
sew up the edges. Tie the joint into a neat, 
narrow shape with tape. 

Well butter a deep stewpan, put in the 
bones from the mutton, and the carrot, 
turnip and onion cut in slices, also the 
parsley and herbs. Lay the joint on the 
vegetables, pour in the stock, put on the lid, 
and let it simmer very gently from about 
one and a half to three hours. 

When done, place the meat on a hot dish, 
and brush it over with a little melted glaze 
to brown it nicely. 

Serve it with nice brown sauce poured 

Note. — If preferred, the shoulder may 
be merely braised without first being stufied. 
In that case, cut the vegetables into neat dice, 
and serve them in little heaps round the dish. 

Cost, from 4s. 6d. for 5 lb. 


Required : Two ox tails. 

One onion, carrot, and turnip. 
Four cloves. 

A bunch of parsley and herbs. 
Twelve peppercorns. 
Three allspice. 
The juice of half a lemon. 
One ounce of butter. 
One ounce of flour. 
One pint of stock. 

One tablespoonful of Worcester or other sauce. 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

and-tnushroom pie. A meat pie is always a favourite dish, and the 
addition of mushrooms gives a rich flavour to the gravy 

Take out the onion, herbs, and spice, and 
save the cut carrot and turnip. Melt the 
butter in the saucepan, stir in the flour 
smoothly, and fry it a nice brown. Add a 
pint of the stock in which the tails were 
cooked, and stir the whole over the fire till 
it boils. Add the lemon-j nice and sauce, and 
season this carefully. Put in the pieces of 
tail and warm them gently in the sauce for 
about fifteen minutes. 

Then arrange the pieces neatly on a hot 
dish, and strain the sauce over them. In 
the centre put the carrot and turnip in a 
little of the sauce, which has been re- warmed. 

Note. — Green peas, fresh or bottled, or 
cooked spinach, can be put in the centre, 
and are excellent. Cost, 4s. 6d. 


Required : Half a pound of thialy sliced cold mutton. 
Two tablespoonfuls of chutney. 
A little cayenne and curry powder. 
For the frying ' hatter : 

A quarter of a pound of flour. 
A quarter of a teaspoonful of, salt. 
A quarter of a pint of tepid water. 
One tablespoonful of melted dripping. 
The, whites of two eggs. 
(Sufficient for four to six.) 

Mix the flour and salt together in a basin, 
then stir smoothly into it the tepid water 
and melted drippmg. Beat the whites of 
the eggs to a very stiff froth, and lastly add 
them very lightly to the batter. 



Have the mutton cut thinly, trim the 
sHces neatly, spread each slice over with 
some chutnev and roll it up. Dip each roll 
into the frying batter, using a skewer for 
the purpose. 

When a faint bluish smoke rises from the 
frying fat put in a few rolls and fry them a 
golden brown. Drain them on kitchen 
paper, and sprinkle each fritter with some 
currv powder and a little cayenne. 

Serve them piled up on a lace paper, and 
hand with them brown or tomato sauce. 

Cost, IS. 2d. 


Required: Two pounds of the best end of neck of 
Three ounces each of onions, carrots, and turnips 

cut into dice. 
Two ounces of butter. 
A bunch of parsley, thyme, and marjoram. 
One pint of stock. 
One ounce of flour. 
Salt and pepper. 
A dust of castor sugar. 
{Sufficient for four to six.) 

Cut the mutton into six cutlets, trimming 
off all but a narrow vein of fat, and chop the 
bones to within an inch of the meat. Put 
all the bones and trimmings into a pan with 
the stock and boil them gently while the 
vegetables are being prepared. 

Melt the butter in a stewpan, put in the 
vegetables, fry them till slightly browned; 
then put in the meat and fry that also 
slightly brown. Lift the meat and vege- 
tables out on a plate, draining them well as 
you do so. 


Required : Thin slices of tongue. 
A small tin of pate de foie gras. 
Half a pound of mashed potatoes. 
One egg. 
For the batter : Two teaspoonfuls 01 cnopped 
Salt and pepper. 
Four ounces of flour. 
Two yolks and one white of egg. 
Four teaspoonfuls of stale beer. 
One tablespoonful of salad oil. 
(Sufficient for about four.) 

Cut "Some thin slices of rolled tongue, and 
stamp them out into neat rounds with a 
cutter. Take off the lard from the top of the 
pate de foie gras, and cut the pate into pieces 
the shape and size of the tongue. 

Mix together the mashed potatoes, the 
yolk of an egg, parsley, and salt and pepper 
to taste. Stir the mixture over the fire till it 
is hot, then turn it out on a floured board, 
roll it out lightly, and stamp out rounds of 
it, the same size as the tongue. Place a 
round of pate de foie gras on a round, of 
potato, cover it with another round of 
potato, and then put on one of tongue. 

Now make the batter. Sieve the flour into 
a basin, make a hole in the centre, drop in 
the yolks of the eggs ; stir the beer and salad 
oil together, then add them to the yolks, and 
stir them gently into the flour, taking care 
not to get it lumpy. Beat the white of one 
egg to a very stiff' froth, stir it lightly into 
the batter, and then use it at once, as it 
soon sinks after the white of egg is added. 
Dip each pile- of potato, pate de foie gras, 
and tongue into the batter, and when 
a faint bluish 
smoke rises from 
the frying fat, fry 
them a pretty 
brown. Drain the 
fritters on paper, 
arrange them on a 
lace d'oyley, and 
garnish them with 
slices of lemon. 

Tomato sauce is 
a nice accompani- 
ment to this dish. 
Cost, 2S. 

Fillets of beef with mushrooms. For a small party this dish would be very 
suitable and easy to cook 


Next fry the flour carefully, strain in the 
stock, and stir it over the fire till it boils. 
Now put back the meat and vegetables, add 
the herbs, seasoning, and a dust of castor 
sugar, and simmer these very gently for 
about one hour, or till the carrot is soft, 
skimming the surface frequently to remove 
all grease. 

Serve the haricot mutton in a hot entree dish. 

Note. — If preferred, after frying the 
various ingredients they can be put into a 
casserole, cooked in the oven, and served in 
the casserole. 

Cost, 2S. 3d. 

Required : Two pounds 
of buttock steak. 
One pound of mushrooms. 
One tablespoonful of flour. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 
Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 
Two teaspoonfuls of chopped parsley. 
One teaspoonful of chopped shallot. 
Stock or water. 

Rough puff or short-crust pastry. 
The yolk of an egg. 
{Sufficient for eight to ten.) 

Cut the meat into pieces about two inches 
square. Stalk, peel, and carefully look over 
the mushrooms. Mix on a plate the flour, 
seasoning, parsley, and shallot. Roll the 
pieces of steak in this mixture. 

Put a layer of meat in a pie-dish, then one 

of mushrooms, and so on till the dish is quite 
full. Next fill the dish two-thirds full of 
stock or cold water. Cover it with the 
pastry, ornament it prettily with leaves, and 
brush it over with beaten yolk of egg. Bake 
it in a moderate oven for two and a half 
hours. Should the crust be getting too dark, 
cover it over with paper. 

Before serving, carefully remove the 
centre ornament and fill the dish up with 
some well-flavoured stock. Put a dish frill 
round the dish, and serve it. 

Cost, 3s. 6d. or 4s. 


Required : Two pounds of fillet 
of beef. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salad oil. 

One tablespoonful of vinegar. 

One onion. 

Two teaspoonfuls of chopped 

A little grated lemon-rind. 

Two cloves. 

Pepper and salt. 

Mushrooms and a little glaze. 
{Sufficient for six.) 

Cut the meat into fillets 
three-quarters of an inch 
thick, and the size of the 
top of a tumbler. Lay them for four hours 
in the oil, vinegar, lemon-rind, sliced onion, 
and chopped parsley ; then lift them out, 
drain them, and dust with pepper and 

Lay the fillets on a greased and heated 
gridiron, with an equal number of peeled 
mushrooms, and grill them over a clear fire 
for about eight minutes, turning them over 

Brush each fillet on one side with a little 
glaze, and arrange the fillets and mushrooms 
alternately in a circle on a hot dish. 

Put a bunch of watercress in the centre 
of the dish, and pour over it a little melted 
glaze. , 

Cost, 3s. 3d. 

Required : One pound of neck chops. 
One and a half pounds of potatoes. 
Two large onions. 
Salt and pepper. 
A little flour. 
Half a pint of stock or water. 

{Sufficient for six.) 

If possible, have a large jar with a lid ; or 
"hot pot " dishes in white china or earthen- 
ware are not at all expensive. Cut the chops 
into convenient pieces, and peel and slice 
the vegetables. Put a layer of meat at the 
bottom of the dish, then a layer of onion, 
and next a layer of sliced potato. Sprinkle 
over this a little flour, pepper and salt ; then 
again put in a layer of meat, then onion, and 
so on till the dish is nearly full, ending with 
a layer of potatoes, not sliced, but cut in 
halves, unless they are very large. In that 
case cut them in quarters. Sprinkle them 
over with flour, pour in the stock or water, 
put on the lid, and place the jar in the oven. 
When the stew is nearly done, remove the 
lid and allow the potatoes to brown. 


Note, — If you are in a hurry, it is best 
to parboil — tnat is, half cook — the potatoes 
and onions before putting them with the 
meat. Cost, is. 3d. 


Required : One pound of fillet of veal. 
Larding bacon. 
Half a pint of stock. 
One carrot and turnip. 
One onion. 
A piece of celery. 
A small bunch of mixed herbs. 
Salt and pepper. 
{Sufficient for four to five.) 

Grenadines of veal. Cutlets of veal braised and browned in the 
oven are the foundation of this entree 

Cut the veal up into neat cutlets and lard 
them. To do this you will require a larding 
needle. Cut the larding bacon into tiny 
strips, put one in the needle, and draw it, in 
large stitches, through the cutlet. Do this in 
three or four rows on one side of each cutlet. 

Then braise the cutlet for about half an 
hour. To do this, put the stock in a pan 
with a layer of the vegetables at the bottom, 
place the cutlets on these, season them, 
cover, them over with a piece of greased 
paper, and allow them to simmer gently, 
basting them frequently. When they are 
cooked sufficiently, put them into the oven 
to get brown. While they are doing so, 
strain the stock and boil it fast till there is 
only a gill left. 

Make a bed of mashed potatoes on a hot 
dish, arrange the cutlets ne^-tly on it, and 
pour the stock over them. Cost, is. gd. 

Saw off the bone close to the knuckle. 
Soak the ham for about twelve or fourteen 
hours, according to the time it has hung, 
and its saltness. Wash and scrape it 
thoroughly ; and trim away over-smoked or 
rusty pieces. 

Put it into a large pan of cold water, and 
see that it is quite covered. Bring it to the 
boil, well skim, and let it simmer very 
gently till quite tender. Let it remain in 
the liquor till nearly cold ; then lift it out, 
pull off the thick outside skin, smooth the 
fat over with a knife, and trim off corners if 
necessary. Sprinkle all over with browned 
crumbs, or brush over with melted glaze, 
and pin a paper frill round the knuckle-bone. 

A ham from ten to twelve pounds will 
require about four hours slow simmering ; a 
very large one will take six. 

Average price, iid. per pound. 



Snipe Pudding— Roast Woodcock with Oyster StuEfing— Partridge Salad a la Russe 


Required : Six snipe. 

Half a pound of lean veal. 
One onion. 

One tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 
A bunch of parsley and herbs. 
One ounce of butter. 
Half an ounce of flour. 
One pound of suet pastry. 
Half a pint of brown stock. 
A piece of glaze the size of a walnut. 
Salt, pepper, and lemon-juice. 
Six mushrooms. 
Cut the snipe in halves, and dust each 
piece with salt, pepper, and a few drops of 
lemon-juice. Peel and slice the onion thinly. 
Melt the butter; when it is hot put in the 
onion, and fry it a few minutes, then add 
the flour, and fry that. Next put in the 
chopped mushrooms, parsley, and the herbs 
tied together. Fry these for a few minutes, 
then add the stock. Let all boil gently for 
ten minutes, then take out the herbs, and add 
the glaze, and seasoning to taste. 

Well grease a pudding-basin. Roll the 
suet crust out to about a quarter of an inch 
thick. Line the basin carefully with it. Cut 
the veal into dice, then pack it and the snipe 
into the basin. Pour in the gravy. Roll 
out the rest of the pastry into a round to 
fit the top of the basin; brush the edges 
with a little water, put the pastry over the 
pudding, and press the edges together. Tie 
a scalded and floured cloth over the top of 
the • basin, taking care to make ' a pleat 
across the top of the pudding to allow room 
for it to rise. Place the basin in a pan of 
fast-boiling water, and boil it for two and a 
half hours. Serve it in the. basin with a folded 
napkin pinned round it. • 

Hand with it a tureen of good gravy made 
from the giblets and trimmings of the birds. 
Cost, from 6s. 6d. 


See Every Woman's Encyclopedia, Vol. 
3, page 1857, under the heading "Boiled 
Gooseberry Pudding." 


Required : A brace of woodcock. 
Two slices of fat bacon. 
A dozen oysters. 
One ounce of butter. 
Two ounces of breadcrumbs. 
Half a teaspoonful of lemon-juice. 
Half a gill of milk. 
The yolks of two eggs. 
Salt and pepper. 

Beard the oysters, then cut each in 
quarters. Put the crumbs in a basin ; warm 
the butter slightly, add it, with the beaten 
yolks and enough milk to bind the mixture. 
Next add the oysters, lemon-juice, and salt 
and pepper to taste. After drawing the 
birds, stuff them carefully with the mixture, 
and sew the opening up. Slit the slices of 
bacon here and there to prevent them 
curling up. Tie a slice over the breast of 
each bird. Then roast them either before a 
clear fire or in a quick oven from twenty to 
thirty minutes, keeping them well basted. 
For the last ten minutes of cooking, take off 
the bacon so that the breast may brown 

Arrange each bird on a slice of hot buttered 
toast, and hand with them some bread 
sauce, good gravy, and fried crumbs. 

Cost, from 4s. 4d. . ^ 


Required : Three roast partridges. 

Half a pint of good brown sauce. 

One gill of cream. 

One and a half gills of mayonnaise sauce. 

One glass of sherry. 

One and a half pints of aspic jelly. 

About one and a half inches of cucumber. 

One lettuce. 

Two tomatoes. 

Two tablespoonfuls of cooked peas. 
{Sufficient for six.) 

Coat a plain border mould with aspic jelly. 
Cut the birds into neat joints, and take 
off the skin. Heat the brown sauce in 
a saucepan, add the glaze, and let it 
dissolve ; then add the wine and half 
a pint of the aspic. Strain this sauce, then 
coat each joint completely with it. Leave 
them until the sauce is set, then pour a little 
warmed aspic over each to glaze it. Add the 
remains of the aspic, after it has cooled, to the 
mayonnaise. Cut the cucumber into shreds, 
add these and the peas to the mayonnaise', 
also the cream, after whipping it slightly.' 
Season it carefully with salt and pepper. 
Pour this mixture into the prepared mould, 
and leave it until set. Then dip the mould 
into tepid water, and turn the contents on 
to a pretty dish. 

Arrange the joints of partridge tastefuJlv 
in the centre, with a border of lettuce"^- 
leaves round. Garnish with the tomatoes 
cut in quarters, and serve as cold as possible. 

Cost, from 5s. gd. 



( Barrister- at-Law) 

Legal terms ar 
be no mystery sur 
legal problems arc 
stand every aspec 


id legal language make 
rounding the subject, an 
; propounded in the simp 
•t of the law with regar 

Money Matters , ; 



the law a mystery to most" people. Yet there need 
d in this section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia 
)lest and clearest language, so that readers may under- 
d toj— .> - ^ 

Employei^s Liability Taxes 
. Lodgers Wills 

Sanitation Wife's Debts, etc., etc. 


Continued from pa^e 37 g4. Part 31 

The Curate and His Grant— Foreign Insurance 
Keepers — Easter Offerings— 

/Contributions paid by colliery owners to 
an association for the purpose of securing 
an indemnity from loss occasioned by strikes 
are not moneys " wholly and exclusively 
laid out or expended for the purposes of 
trade " within the meaning of the rules 
applpng to the section, and do not, there- 
fore, form a proper subject for deduction in 
sstimating the balance of profits of the 
colliery for income-tax purposes. 

Qrant to Curate 

In recognition of faithful service for more 
than fifteen years, the Council of the 
Curates' Augmentation Fund made a grant 
to a curate of £50. The grant was renewable 
at the discretion of the council, but only 
upon the condition that the curate obtained 
donations to the fund to half the amount of 
the grant. It was held that iii these circum- 
stances the curate was not assessable to the 
income tax in respect of the sum granted. 

PoreiKii Life Insurance Company 

No deduction from an assessment for 
income tax was allowable in respect of 
premium on policies of life insurance effected 
with foreign insurance companies. The 
abatement provided for by the Act was 
only applicable to policies effected with 
insurance companies in the United Kingdom 
which are properly subject to the jurisdiction 
of the English Parliament. On this ground, 
the abatement of a claimant insured with a 
New York insurance company having an 
office in England was not allowed, but the 
provision has now been extended to any 
insurance company " lawfully carrying on 

D 28 

Companies— The Hard Case of Boarding'housa, 
■Allowances and Exemptions 

business in Great Britain or Ireland," so 
that those insured with American and 
other companies carrying on business in 
this country would appear to be entitled to 
the abatement. 

House Duty 

As a general rule, income tax is chargeable 
upon the occupier for the time being of a 
house or land, and the latter, if a tenant, is 
entitled to deduct the amount from the 
next payment of rent to his landlord, who 
must allow the deduction under a penalty 
of ;!^50 ; any agreement between landlord 
and tenant to the contrary is invalid. - 

In the case of flats and apartments 
occupied by two or more persons, the income 
tax is in the firstinstance payable by the 
landlord, but where "houses are divided into 
distinct properties and occupied by distinct 
owners, the tax is charged separately on the 
respective occupiers. 

How to Reckon Profits 

Profits are to be computed on a three 
years' average, but where the trade has bieen 
commenced within the three years, the 
computation is to be made on the average 
of profit for one year. In the. case, of a 
partnership, the predominant partner is to 
make the . return ; and in some cases . of 
married women and infants the return is to 
be made by their trustees. '- ■ 

A person carrying on two distinct trades 
may set off results.' No deductions .are 
allowed for any disbursements or expenses 
of maintenance of , the parties or . their 
families or establishments, nor for the rent 
or value of any dwelling-house or domestic 



offices, except such part as may be used for 
the trade or profession, not exceeding two- 
thirds of the rent bona fide paid for such 

Deduction from Rent 

In the case of a bank the annual value of 
that part of the bank which is used as a 
residence for the manager may be deducted. 
Where the clergyman or minister pays rent 
for a dwelling-house, and uses part mainly 
and substantially for the purpose of his duty 
as such, the commissioners may allow as a 
deduction such part of the rent, not exceeding 
one-eighth, as they think fit. 

Inhabited house duty is payable by 
boarding-house keepers and people who 
let lodgings, although the house may only be 
occupied for a short period of the year. 
The Scarborough Case 

Therefore, in the case of some houses at 
Scarborough which were generally let to 
three or four different families during the 
Spa season, between June and October, and 
were shut up and unoccupied from the end of 
the season until the beginning of the next 
Spa season — that is to say, for a period of 
about eight months in the year — during which 
time they were never entered to be aired by 
fires or otherwise, or used in any manner 
by the owners or their families or servants, 
it was held that they were chargeable to 
the assessed taxes for the entire year. This 
may be good law, but is undeniably hard on 
people who make a precarious income by 
letting lodgings. 

At Tunbridge Wells 

In the following cases, the Commissioners 
were willing to allow the abatement which 
was claimed, but the judges decided that 
they had no power to do so. In the first 
case, the owner of three lodging-houses at 
Tunbridge Wells, which were never let for 
a longer period than six months, paid three- 
quarters of a year's assessed taxes, and not 
unfairly claimed an abatement for the 
remaining quarter. It appeared that the 
season began in June, when the visitors 
arrived for the summer, and that they usually 
left between Michaelmas and Christmas. 
From January until after the commencement 
of April, the houses, which were furnished, 
were shut up and not used in any way. Never- 
theless, he had to pay for the full year. 

In the second case, which concerned a 
house let in Sussex, the claim was stronger 
still, for in this case the house was un- 
furnished for one entire quarter, and yet 
it was held that a person keeping a house 
for the purpose of being let as a ready- 
furnished lodging is chargeable for the 
whole year's duty, although it be unoccupied 
and unfurnished for one entire quarter. 

In the case of a clergyman living in 
Berkshire who occupied a house which 
belonged to him, and which he left upon 
June 26, the house remaining unoccupied 
and empty until April of the following year, 
it was held that he was chargeable for the 
assessed taxes for the remainder of the year. 

When houses have been unoccupied for 
a whole year, notice in writing should be 
given to the income-tax assessors. 

Profits upon all securities bearing interest 
payable out of the public revenue ; profit 
upon all interest of money not being annual 
interest ; home and foreign and colonial 
Government dividends and shares (except 
India stock in cases where the half-yearly 
payment does not amount to ^2 los.) ; 
interest or dividends paid or credited to a 
depositor in a savings bank whose income 
exceeds £1^0 ; annuities, etc., are all charge- 
able, and the duty is to be computed upon 
the profits of the previous year. 

Voluntary Gifts 

Voluntary gifts which are derivable from 
holding an office or being engaged in some 
employment are chargeable as emoluments. 
Thus, voluntary contribution to a beneficed 
clergyman from a fund designed to raise the 
income of the living to a certain sum, and 
voluntary Easter offerings made by parish- 
ioners and others, are chargeable, but not 
so presents of money made to a poor clergy- 
man in his individual capacity. 

A person is chargeable in respect of a sum 
placed annually to his credit as part of his 
salary under a provident fund, the payment 
of which is deferred. 

Allowances may be made for the main- 
tenance, including the replacement, of farm- 
houses, farm buildings, cottages, fences, and 
other works, and are made by way of abate- 
ment in the repairs of churches, ecclesiastical 
dues, taxes and parochial rates on tithe rent- 
charge, unredeemed land tax, drainage, 
fencing, and embankment rates, repairs of 
sea-walls, repairs of university- buildings, 
hospitals, public schools, and almshouses. 

Property Exempted 

Certain classes of property are exempted 
from income tax, including university build- 
ings, public buildings belonging to hospitals, 
public schools, and almshouses, buildings of 
literary and scientific institutions, rents and 
profits of lands, etc., belonging to hospitals, 
etc., or to trustees for charitable purposes, 
or to the trustees of the British Museum or of 
certain friendly societies. 

Incidental Expenses 

Expenses incidental to the performance 
of an office may be deducted, as, for example, 
the expenses of travelling in the performance 
of the duties of a public office or employment, 
or of keeping a horse to enable the holder 
to perform such duties, but expenses of travel- 
ling from a person's residence to his place of 
business are not deductible. 

Returns Required from Employers 

Every employer is required on recipt of 
notice from an assessor to make a return of 
the names and places of residence of persons 
employed by him, and to specify the amount 
of payments made by him to such persons. 
This requirement does not extend to such 
employees as are not employed in any 
other employment, and whose remuneration 
does not exceed ;^i6o. 



This section comprises articles 

showing how women may help in all branches of relijiious work. 1 

All the principal charities will be described, as well as home and forei^jn missions. The chief ( 

headings are : 


Woman's Work in Relifiion 




How to Work for Great 

How to Manage a Church 

Zenana Missions 



Home Missions, etc. 

Great Charity Ors^anisations 

What to Make for Bazaars 

Great Leaders of Religious 

Local Charities, etc. 

Garden Bazaa?-s, etc. 


The Women of the Bible 

How to Manage a Sunday-School 


Continued from page 3803, Part 31 

Queen Mary's Good "Work — The Personal Touch — Her Intimate Knowledge of Charit- 
able Organisations — How a Great Work was Begun — The Navvy Mission Society and the 
Christian Excavators' Union— The Story of Mrs, Charles Garnett and Her Lady Helpers — 
** Heathen Navvies "—Treated as Pariahs— What Women Did for Them— Splendid Work of 

the Pioneers 

QUEEN Mary's thoughtful care for the old 
may be illustrated by a single example. 
While still at White Lodge she concerned 
herself with the welfare of a number of old 
Avomen in the East End of London. There 
was, on the Duke of Cambridge's estate at 
Coombe, a keeper's cottage 
of which the Duchess of 
Teck obained the loan. It 
was just large enough to 
accommodate two persons, 
and it was the Princess's 
practice to invite certain 
deserving old women to stay 
at the cottage for a fortnight 
at a time during the summer 
months. She used con- 
stantly to go over to the 
cottage to visit them, to 
minister to their simple 
needs, and to cheer them 
with her bright and sym- 
pathetic nature. 

Mention of the East End 
reminds one that Queen 
Mary, who has always been 
interested in measures of 
social reform which had for 

their object the destruction Mrs. Charks Garnett, the pioneer of Chi 
of rookeries and the Substi- ^°''' *^°"8 navx^es, andjounde^^^^ 

tution of cheerful and whole- 

tian Excavators' Union 
Photo, ir. Clark, Bristol 

some dwellings, and the providing of play- 
grounds for the children in congested areas, 
was a frequent visitor to the poorer quarters 
of London, her guide, on several occasions, 
being the Bishop of London. Shortly 
after Queen Victoria's death she went over 
a factory in the East End of 
London, and at the dinner- 
hour went into a room 
where the factory girls had 
their meals. With her guide 
she talked to a number of 
the girls, none of whom, of 
course, had the slightest idea 
of the real identity of their 
visitor. One bright, pleasant- 
looking young girl informed 
the Princess that she was 
shortly going to be married. 
" I hope you will be very 
happy," said her Royal 
Highness, smiling pleasantly. 
" Oh, we'll get along all 
right," said the girl. " I know 
how to keep Bill in order." 
A few days afterwards the 
lady who had taken her 
Majesty over the factory 
called at the house where 
the girl lived, and handed 
her an envelope, which she 


said the lady who had recently visited the 
factory asked her to give to the girl who 
had told her she was shortly going to be 
married. The envelope contained a very 
welcome present and a sheet of notepaper on 
which was written : , ,. ,, . 

" Please accept the enclosed little present 
and my best wishes. — Mary." 

The Late Duchess of Teck 

It is by such practical experiences as these 
that her Majesty has endeavoured to get an 
insight into the lives and surroundings of 
those who live in poor places, in order that 
she may utilise her exalted position for 
their benefit. Indeed, a clergyman who has 
worked for many years in the East End 
remarked a short time ago that there were 
few district visitors who knew the poor 
quarters of London better than Queen Mary. 

We get another illustration of Queen 
Mary's practical Christianity in her work on 
behaif of the Royal Cambridge Asylum for 
the Widows of Soldiers at Kingston. This, 
too, was one of the Duchess of Teck's pet 
charities, and each year she gave the aged 
women of the institution a supply of fresh 
vegetables from the gardens of White Lodge, 
Princess May invariably helping in the dis- 
tribution. The old women would stand 
holding their aprons, while the future Queen 
of England filled them with the vegetables 
her mother handed to Jier. 

" Now, May," the Duchess would say, 
" give that dear old soul that cauliflower, and 
then come back for the potatoes. Be quick, 
or else I shall not recommend you for a 
stall at Covent Garden." Whereupon the 
Princess would run to and fro as if for 
all the world the stall at Covent Garden 
were a reality. If she slackened her speed, 
the Duchess would recall her with : " Attend 
to business. May, and bring me those onions. 
You don't like the smell of onions ? Then 
you won't do for a greengrocer's wife." And 
so on, until each old lady had her apron filled. 

Queen Mary's Hospital Work 

Mention must also be made of Queen 
Mary's hospital work. It was she who was 
mainly instrumental in raising ;^5,ooo for 
the endowment of a special ward at the 
Richmond Royal Hospital, which has proved 
such a boon to hundreds of little sufferers; 
and by every means in her power she has 
assisted in the campaign against consump- 
tion. Quite recently her Majesty heard that 
an improved form of shelter for a consump- 
tive had been provided at Crathie. She 
promptly made an inspection, and was so 
impressed with the shelter that she author- 
ised the provision, at her own expense, of 
a similar shelter for use on the Balmoral 
estates. The following is an extract from the 
letter in which this intimation was conveyed 
by Dr. Hendry of Balmoral to the medical 
officer : 

" The Queen has visited the patient at 
Crathie for whom you recently erected 
a shelter. Her Majesty, who was much 

interested, thoroughly examined the shelter, 
and was very much pleased <vith it. The 
Queen wishes me to say that when you have 
decided on the best method of heating for the 
colder winter nights, she would be obliged if 
you will supply, at her Majesty's expense, 
a similar shelter for the use of the patients 
connected with the Balmoral estates. The 
Queen wishes in this way to help you in your 
valuable work in the county." 

Whenever an important hospital appeals 
for funds it will" invariably be found that 
Queen Mary is among the most liberal sub- 
scribers and the most ardent workers in 
raising the money required. She has a very 
extensive knowledge of hospital work, and 
has often visited such institutions accom- 
panied only by her lady-in-waiting. Homes 
for crippled children appeal specially to her, 
while charities very dear to her heart are 
the Distressed Gentlefolks' Aid Society, and 
the Holiday Homes for Governesses. 

Her Majesty's fondness for British-n^ade 
goods, and her efforts at all times to support 
home industries, provide a striking illus- 
tration of her patriotic philanthropy. For 
instance, for many years Queen Mary has 
taken a very practical interest in the 
cottage industries in County Donegal by 
making extensive purchases at the annual 
exhibitions in London, and in November, 
191 1, she gave an order for a hand-knitted 
golf-coat, which she took with her on the 
Royal voyage to India. The coat, which was 
knitted by the cottagers in their own homes, 
is made of high-grade wool and silk thread. 

A Story from Buckingham Palace 

An instance may be given which furnishes 
another example of Queen Mary's thought 
for others. One day at Buckingham Palace 
she came upon a young housemaid whom 
she noticed had been crying. She inquired 
the reason, and the girl explained that her 
mother was in a London hospital about to 
undergo a serious operation that day. Her 
Majesty gave instructions that the girl was 
to be allowed to visit the invalid as often 
as the rules of the hospital permitted, and 
she telephoned to one of the surgeons in 
charge of the case, asking for special con- 
sideration to be shown the patient. 

Then, again, we find her Majesty taking the 
deepest interest in the work of the Church 
Army, and one may fittingly conclude this 
article on our benevolent Queen by quoting 
the reply she sent to Prebendary Carlile, 
after he had forwarded her a special report, 
prepared at her own request, on the condition 
of London's homeless people. 

" My sympathy," she writes, "goes out to 
all the" poor and distressed people whom you 
are helping, and to the great work you are 
doing for comforting them in their distress. 
Give a message of encouragement from me to 
all your workers, and tell them that I sym- 
pathise with them in their arduous and 
difficult work. May God bless you and them, 
and all the suffering men, women, and little 
children who are looking to you for help! " 



An example of the symbolic grain of mus- 
^*' tard seed which grows into a mighty 
tree is to be found in the story of the be- 
ginning of the work done by a great society 
for "navvies," a class of men hitherto out- 
side the pale of Christian benevolent effort. 
On a certain Sunday evening in the late 
autumn of 1871 a young lady, scarcely out 
of her teens, made a discovery. She was then 
living a few miles from Lindley Wood, a 
tree-covered vale in the heart of the hills, 
four miles from Otley and eight miles from 
Harrogate, where, at that time, the Leeds 
Corporation had commenced the construc- 
tion of an immense reservoir. 

A Young: Girl's Ideals 

Hundreds of navvies were engaged on the 
work, and, thanks to the combined efforts 
of the Rev. Lewis Moule Evans, rector of 
Leathley, the excellent manager of the reser- 
voir works, and the local squire, a Mr. 
Fawkes, these navvies had been provided 
with clean huts to live in, a little wooden 
church, a schoolroom for the children, and a 
reading-room and night-school for the men. 

The young lady in question, who after- 
wards became Mrs. Charles Garnett, was 
asked to visit the settlement. It was the 
only one of its kind in those days, and she 
learned with dismay that there were some- 
thing like 100,000 navvies leading a nomadic 
existence throughout the country, and 
regarded as a heathen class in our own 
Christian land. 

Good Christians regarded them as a moral 
pest, not fit for decent people to asso- 
ciate with. Farmers refused to give them a 
night's shelter even in a barn, or let them 
filthy stables at rack rents. Cottagers took 
them as lodgers, and crammed twelve men 
into a room barely large enough for the 
accommodation of five. They stood outside 
the parochial system. The local schools found 
it impossible to take in the children, while the 
parish clergyman, already fully occupied by 
his own people, and unused to navvies, found 
himself unable to deal with the situation. 

And what fearful strangers they were ! 
Not one in six could read. They were always 
drinking and fighting. Sunday, the one rest 
day, was known among them as " hair- 
cutting and dog-washing day," and ended, as 
a rule, with a fight. " 

Uphill Work 

WTiat could a woman do in the face of 
such circumstances ? It seemed almost 
hopeless to face this problem of bettering 
the conditions of the navvy's life. " You 
cannot go among such people," her friends 
said when she announced her intention of 
working for them ; while her parents set 
their faces very strongly against the idea. 
" Let me work among them for twelve 
months," their daughter replied. " and if 
at the end of that time I have not made any 
progress, I will give it up." 

And thus it came about that Mrs. Charles 
Garnett began by taking a class of navvies' 
boys in the Sunday-school at Lindley Wood. 
" They were very bad boys," she says, " but 
I like bad boys. And some of them turned 
out splendidly. One of them, I remember, 
became a clergyman, another a missionary, 
and another a sergeant in the Army. I 
found that the men and women were quite 
willing to listen to the Gospel, and eager to 
attend the little wooden church. 

" The great drawback to the work, how- 
ever, was the fact that we could not follow 
these men when they migrated to other 
work ; and, of course, through the influence 
of their mates, they quickly went back to the 
old ways — at least, in many cases. 

" Sometimes I would meet some of the 
navvies a few months later, and to my 
question, ' Do you go to church or Bible- 
class ? ' the invariable answer was ' No.' 
' You see. m'm,' they would say, 'there is 
nothing of this sort for us chaps elsewhere.' " 

Thus Mrs. Garnett came to the conclusion 
that it was no good teaching the men and 
then letting them vanish. She therefore 
decided to make a little investigation, and 
made out a list of works. She then wrote 
to the manager in each case, making such 
inquiries as, " How many men have you ? 
How many huts, etc. ? Have you a service, 
Sunday-school or day-school ? " And so on. 
In all, seventy-two managers were written to 
and " No " was the reply to every question 
in the seventy-two cases, save one. The 
outlook seemed hopeless. Mrs. Garnett had 
no money, and it was with the greatest 
difficulty that she could get anyone in- 
terested in the work. 

The Christian's Excavators' Union 

However, a little assistance was forth- 
coming, and Mrs. Garnett hit on the admir- 
able idea of forming what is known as the 
Christian Excavators' Union. The words of 
the card of brotherhood ran as follows : 

" I, , desire, by God's help, to serve 

the Lord Jesus Christ, and lead others to do 
so. To this end I promise to abstain from 
Drunkenness, Swearing, and Ungodly Living. 
I promise never to neglect praying each 
Morning and Night. I promise to keep the 
Lord's Day holy, and, when possible, attend 
a Place of Public Worship. 

" (Signed) 

" In the presence of " 

The union began with twenty-five navvy 
members and eight others. It now numbers 
over six hundred, the country being divided 
into districts, of which ladies are the head 
secretaries. These secretaries take upon them- 
selves the duty of visiting the various working 
stations from time to time, and encouraging 
the members under the persecution they have 
to endure, helping those who are in trouble, 
explaining the objects of the Christian 
Excavators' Union, and urging whole-hearted 
devotion to Christ. 




This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia tells what woman has done and is doing in 

the artistic world ; how she may study, and how attain success there. Authoritative writers are 

contributing articles on : 





Art Education in England 

Musical Education 

Famous Books by Women 

Art Education Abroad 

Studying Abroad 

.Famous Poems bv Women 

Schola r ships. Exhib ition s 

Musical Scholarships 

Tales from the Classics 

I\todern Illtistration 

Practical Notes on tJie Choice 

Stories of Famous Women 

The Aviateur Artist 

of Instruments 


Decorative Art 

The Musical Education oj 

The Lives of Women Poets, 

Applied Arts, etc. 

Children, etc. 

etc., etc. 



In this article, ivhich she has specially contributed to 
" Every Woman's Encyclopcedia^' Mrs. Seymour Lucas, 
herself a painter of renown aftd the wife of a great 
artist., gives valuable and helpful advice to those whose 
tastes and talents beckon them to the pursuit of art. As 
the writer remarks, '^ Art is a hard taskmistress^' and 
she does not shrink from showing its intending votaries 
plain facts. But, though candid, her words are full of en- 
couragement to those who have the necessary perseverance 


OTHING is farther from my thoughts than 
to attempt to lay down the lav^ for 
the guidance of others. I want that fact 
to be very clearly understood by everyone 
who reads this article. As a matter of fact, 
I have the greatest possible dislike to discuss 
in print the question of painting children — 
or, for the matter of that, the painting of 
anything else. My reason is the very simple 
one that people are so apt nowadays to 
misinterpret the motives which induce one 
to give even a reluctant consent to appearing 
in print at all. 

It is only the consideration which has been 
urged very strongly upon me by the Editors 
of Every Woman's ENCvcLOPiEDiA that my 
experience may possibly help other women 
in the pursuit of their art, that has induced 
nie to overcome the very grave objections to 
which I have referred, and to consent to fall 
in with their desires. 

A Popular Fallacy 

The embarking on a career in art is one 
which, in my opinion, should not be under- 
taken lightly. Many people, unfortunately, 
start in the belief that the artist's is an easy 

life, which gives plenty of opportunity for 
enjoyment, and is full of that free and easy 
" Bohemianism " which looks so attractive 
on the outside. 

Let me earnestly entreat everyone to 
disabuse his or her mind of this fallacy. • 

A Stern Truth 

Art is a hard taskmistress. The words 
have become a proverb. They are true. I 
have lived all my life in the world of art, and 
I have known the greatest painters of my 
, time. Yet I have seen the unceasing study 
these men devote to their work, for the 
earnest painter never ceases to be a student. 
Not only that, but I have seen the strain 
under which they live in their attempt to 
set down on canvas what their imagination 
has conceived and their eyes have seen. I 
have watched the difficulties they have had 
to wrestle with, and the problems they have 
had to solve by dint of long hours of hard 
labour, and I know how far from easy is the 
life. I know all this, not only as an artist 
myself and the wife of an artist, but also by 
having lived all m}^ life among artists. 

Very many people have a sincere taste for 



art. This begets a desire to practise art 
professionally, and they find out, only too 
late, that they have no talent for the voca- 
tion. The result is they are stranded early 
in their art Hfe. Perhaps that is better than 
being stranded later, for youth has a certain 
elasticity, and those who find out their 
mistake when they are young can turn to 
something else before it is too late. 

Unless, therefore, a girl has a true and 
decided bent towards art, and unquestionable 

sideration. I was a very little girl myself 
when I first began to develop a taste for art. 
My mother was a friend of that great artist, 
Rosa Bonheur, and was herself also an 
amateur artist of some merit. She was my 
first teacher, and she and my father gave me 
every encouragement, although I owe much 
also to my master, Mr. John Parker. 

I succeeded in passing from one of the 
Kensington Art Schools into the Royal 
Academy School. It was the time when 

Mrs. Seymour Lucas, the distinguished wife of a distinguished husband. Mr. and Mrs. Lucas are one of the rare instances of a gifted 
husband and wife following the same calling. Their artistic excellences are, however, in different fields of art 

Photo, E. H. Mills 

facility in her work, and has been told by 
someone whose opinion is worth having that 
she has a gift for it, it is far better for her to 
devote her attention to something else. 

I suppose the same thing might be said 
with equal justice as regards any other 
calling. As an artist, however, the question 
appeals to me in the strongest light in rela- 
tion to my own profession. 

Presupposing the possession of the qualities 
to which I have referred, the question of 
education must naturally then receive con- 

students took months to make a finished 
drawing from the antique, the stippling 
being done with what might be, and is now, 
regarded as unnecessary care, though person- 
ally I believe enormously in this method of 
training for the young student. I should 
like to see much more attention given to it 
than is done at present. 

I am convinced that it is impossible to 
improve on the old methods. To-day, 
however, is not the age of art. It is the age 
of science. 



The greatest age of art of which we know 
anything at present is that of the Greeks. In 
it there was no so-called " impressionism " 
or " post impressionism " to disguise the 
lack of ability on the part of the artist. 
Eccentricity is not art. 

It is as an artist that I feel strongly on the 
question of the true as against the false. 

Let me, therefore, entreat the young 
artist not to go wandering in the wilderness 
after these new and constantly changing 
fashions, but to keep to the simple, sane 
paths of art in which the best artists have 

The Appeal of Childhood 

In the Academy Schools I remained for 
three years. Then I married, and continued 
my studies at home. 

I have always liked painting children. I 
do not think that, apart from the work of 
the schools, I have ever painted anything 
else. My own children, being pretty and 
very " paintable," were my principal models. 
Childhood has always appealed to me as an 
artist. People constantly ask me whether, 
as I paint children so much, I am not a great 
lover of them. I suppose every healthy 
minded woman does love little children. 
Their helplessness when they are little, the 
infinite possibilities in their natures, even 
their ways of looking at things, all strike 
distinctive notes in our hearts. Yet I cannot 
confess to being a lover of children in the 
way that some women are. 1 cannot, for 
instance, pick up every dirty and untidy little 
child in the street and kiss and fondle it. 
Some women can do that. 

I mention this fact because I do not think 
it is necessary to have that sort of sympathy 
or affection for childhood in order to be able 
to paint them successfully. One characteristic, 
I think, the painter of children must have. 
That is patience. One must be able to 
adapt oneself to the mood of the child, and 
gradually direct that mood into the desired 
channel in drder to obtain the result one is 
seeking. Impatience would be fatal, for in 
all probability the child would either get 
angry or begin to cry, and that, I need hardly 
say, would put a stop to work for some time, 
if not for the rest of the sitting. 

How to Paint Children 

Another characteristic which I think valu- 
able is the habit of painting, or certainly of 
sketching, quickly, for children are pro- 
verbial fidgets. The great advantage of 
cultivating this rapidity is that one can seize 
an effect or expression at once. 

It is a good method, in painting pictures of 
children, to compose the picture without 
them, and paint them in bits, as it were, as 
one can catch them. It is, therefore, a 
great advantage to have studied children so 
carefully as to be able to draw them in prac- 
tically any position without the use of a 
model. When the drawing is finished, then 
the child may be posed to correct any errors 
in the design. 

The work itself is, I need scarcely say, 

exceedingly interesting. And it is little 
short of amazing to note how plastic is the 
child's mind, and how rapidly it is influenced 
by artistic associations. The difference 
between child models and their parents is 
really remarkable. His visits to the studio 
extending over years are a valuable part of 
the child model's education. My experience 
is that he learns to speak nicely, acquires 
good manners, and a refinement not common 
to his fellows, which goes to show that en- 
vironment in the matter of education is 
greater than anything else, and that book 
knowledge plays a secondary part in shaping 
the mentality and characters of the little ones. 
My life-size picture, "On the Threshold 
of Life," represents a young girl sitting on a 
doorstep, on one side of which grow poppies 
and weeds, and on the other beautiful flowers. 
It was, I need hardly say, intended as an 
allegory of life, to raise the question in the 
mind of the beholder as to which path the 
girl would choose. My child model might 
have been the daughter of a duchess, so 
refined was she through, I presume, living 
so much in an art atmosphere. Now she is 
married, and probably has children of her 
own, but I do not know what has become of 
her, for I have not seen her for some time, 
though some of her brothers and sisters are 
sitting to me now. 

Child Models 

The young artist will often be amused, as 
I have been, by the funny things these 
children say. I remember one day, as I was 
painting, that my little model was very 
interested. After a time she exclaimed, 
" My father is an artist, too, miss." Then 
she went on to tell me that there were times 
when he was very busy indeed, and with great 
pride vouchsafed the information, " Yes, 
miss. And when he's very busy my mother 
and I help him." 

" Help him ? " I asked incredulously. 

" Yes, miss. My mother does the yellows 
and I does the blues." 

Eventually she explained that her father 
was engaged in colouring the panoramic 
views of the Lord Mayor's Show — work 
which was then cheaper to do by hand than 
by lithography. 

The lives and habits of these children, too, 
affect their views in a decidedly humorous 
way. This is exemplified by a little boy 
who was one of the models for my picture, 
" We are But Little Children Weak " (see 
page 3918). 

My studio was on the top floor of the 
house, and my husband's was on the ground 
floor. One day, when the boy came in, 
Mr. Seymour Lucas gave him a tube of white 
paint to bring up to me. He marched into 
my room, and handed it to me, with the 
words, " The lodger on the ground floor 
sends you this." 

He exhibited something of the same feeling 
on another occasion when, as we were going 
upstairs together to my studio, I told him 
that if he would knock at a door on the first 

THE ARTS 3922 

floor, he would get a piece of cake. It was 
the door of the nursery. When the governess 
opened the door, the boy saw my httle son 
in the room, and as he took his piece of cake, 
he pointed to him and asked her, " Is that 
youm or the top lodger's ? " ^ , ^, • 

With regard to subject pictures, I feel this 
about them— that it is no good painting them 
unless they express an idea. It is the idea 
that people look for, the imagination which 
underlies the picture. Imagination is the 
soul of all art, and imagination is as rare as 
great art in painting. 

From the financial point of view, my advice 
to the young artist would be, " Never paint a 

subject because it is likely to be lucrative, but 
because you want to do it." Then it may be a 
lucrative piece of work. 1 will not go so far 
as to say that the artist who paints for money 
will not make it, but I feel this — that the 
ordinary artist who paints merely for money 
is not likely to go very far as an artist. 

Whatever she does, the artist is almost 
certain to be dissatisfied with her work. I 
know I always am, and so are all the artists 
of my acquaintance. It is a feeling which 
should not be allowed to depress one unduly, 
for, in any case, it is a wholesome senti- 
ment, which will spur the really ambitious 
girl to try to do still better in the future. 




Co much has been written about the 
*^ influence of the Yorkshire moors and 
Yorkshire people on Emily Bronte's mind, 
by way of accounting for the extraordinary 
work of genius called " Wuthering Heights," 
that mild folk living in the South may well 
have been scared ever to go near Yorkshire. 
As a matter of fact, the Brontes lived a 
secluded, reserved life, tormented by ill- 
health, and were of an odd nature them- 
selves, rather gloomy and fantastic. Emily 
read deeply and long in German literature, 
which in her day was just peopling the world 
with ghosts and goblins and ruined castles 
and shrieks heard on windy winter nights, 
and so forth. This influence she translated 
into a Yorkshire setting ; but the timid 
Southron may be reassured — ^the characters 
in " Wuthering Heights " are not typical 
Yorkshire people, and the manners of 
" Wuthering Heights " do not obtain in 
Yorkshire houses. 

The book, although it may rightly be 
called absurd and impossible from one point 
of view, with many technical faults, has 
amazing power, and the transient gleams of 
sun that pass across the canvas are delicately 
and truly put in. But the general effect of 
the book is such that one remembers with 
amazement that it has a " happy ending." 

The Hero of the Story 

A kind-hearted Yorkshireman one day, in 
a slum in a big town, came upon a neglected, 
homeless little boy^a " little black-haired, 
swarthy thing, as dark as if it came from the 
devil." He carried him home to his house 
on the moors, called Wuthering Heights. 
" Wuthering " is a local word, and anyone 
can find out what it means merely by saying 
" the wind was wuthering round the house." 
So the name of the house-in which the action 
passes already strikes the note of the book. 

The little waif is known as " Heathcliff," 
and he grows up a violent, gloomy, boorish 
lad, at war with everyone except the little 

wild-hearted daughter of the house, Catherine. 
Earnshaw is the name of the family into 
which he is introduced, and a more oddly 
constituted household it would be impossible 
to find. The elder Mr. Earnshaw is dead, 
and his wife dies before him. Hindley 
Earnshaw, the son, succeeds — a young man 
given to dissipation, and of no very pleas- 
ing character. His colourless young wife 
scarcely appears at all; she just fades away, 
after giving birth to a son, called Hareton. 
(All the men at Wuthering Heights have 
surnames instead of Christian names.) 
Hindley's young sister Catherine runs wild 
for years, for apparently education is hardly 
thought of, and Heathcliff is her chosen com- 
panion. The two are in a way kindred spirits. 
Hindley hates them both, particularly Heath- 
cliff, and treats the two children cruelly, 
partly out of ignorance and thoughtlessness. 

The Heroine 

After a while Catherine comes under the 
influence of two cousins, Edgar and Isabella 
Linton. These live in a sheltered grange 
under the moors, and they are really civilised 
people, which apparently made it difficult 
for Emily Bronte to tolerate them.. Catherine 
goes down to have lessons with them, and" 
comes back to the Heights a little, fine lady. 
She sneers at Heathchff's ignorance and 
boorishness, and drives him nearly mad. 
Yet his devotion to her never wavers. 
He would have murdered her at any moment 
with something approaching satisfaction, 
but that is merely his little way of loving. 

To tell the first part of the story briefly, 
Catherine grows up and marries Edgat 
Linton, who loves her, and would not dream 
of murdering her. For this she never for- 
gives him, as he seems to her tame and 
insipid after Heathcliff, who has now vanished 
from the scene. So Catherine is installed 
at Thrushcross Grange, and is just beginning 
to settle down when Heathcliff turns up 
again, with some appearance of cleanliness 



and education about him, but otherwise 
just the same as ever. 

The story now becomes obscure ; Heath- 
chff is always raving violently, but we cannot 
be quite sure what he would be at. But 
he has a power which seems to paralyse 
everybody ; instead of being horsewhipped 
for hanging round Catherine, it is her husband 
who creeps about like a culprit. Meanwhile, 
Heathcliff is busy killing Hindley Earnshaw 
up at the Heights, by way of paying off old 
scores ; and teaching his little son to swear. 

The Crisis 

One day Edgar Linton comes home and 
finds Catherine and Heathcliff locked in an 
embrace which seems to hold them as in a 
spell. (Previous to this Catherine has 
fallen into a half-tranced state, subsequent 
to an illness.) That night her little daughter 
Catherine is born, and the young mother, 
whom, with all her wildness, we cannot help 
liking, even in spite of her dreadful rudeness, 
slips away from the world. HeathcHff is 
really a madman from this moment. 

Hindley dies, and Heathchff, having won 
everything from him at cards, enters into 
possession of Wuthering Heights, where he 
lives for years, bringing Hareton up as even 
a greater savage than he is himself. But 
another thread has now entered into the 
story. Edgar Linton's sister has conceived 
an odd infatuation for Heathcliff, before 
Catherine's death, and with almost incredible 
brutality Catherine has told Heathcliff of 
this in the presence of Isabella. The next 
thing is the elopement of Isabella with 
Heathcliff, who thinks this a good move in 
the vengeance he has sworn to wreak on 
Linton for marrying Catherine. Of course, 
she cannot stand him, and runs away to a 
hiding-place, where a son is born. 

A Pause in ttie Story 

So now we have Heathcliff and young 
Hareton living like beasts up at Wuthering 
Heights ; Isabella bringing up Heathcliff 's 
son in the south country ; and Edgar 
Linton, broken-hearted and fragile, rearing 
little Cathy almost as a prisoner in Thrush- 
cross Grange. The story seems to pause, 
while the two cousins are growing up ; but 
with Isabella's death, and Linton Heath- 
cliff's consequent arrival at Thrushcross 
Grange, matters move again. Linton is 
a puling, peevish creature, who would be 
as brutal as Heathcliff if he were not too 
weak in body and mind. Brilliant little 
Catherine pities him from the bottom of 
her heart, and she dazzles him. Heathcliff 
insists on having him up at the Heights, 
and there matures a further scheme. He 
will marry Linton to Catherine, and thus 
get possession of all Edgar Linton's lands 
and money. So he would at last ruin the 
whole family of Earnshaw and Linton. 

This he brings about just before Edgar 
Linton's death ; and his son dies very 
shortly after. Catherine, cruelly used and 
penniless, lives on at the Heights. 

A Haunted Man 

But Heathcliff is a haunted man. The 
spiritual presence of the first Catherine, 
his only love, is for ever tormenting him. 
He feels always that she is just out of sight — 
that she is in the next room ; but she never 
vouchsafes him a ghmpse of herself. So 
strong is the haunted feeling about the house 
that a weather-bound stranger, sleeping in 
the room used by Catherine when she was 
a little girl, dreams of a child's face appearing 
outside the window, of a voice crying, " Let 
me in ! Let me in ! " in the moaning of the 
wind. He is so horrified that he dreams he 
breaks the window, catches hold of the child's 
wrists, and pulls it backwards and forwards 
across the broken glass. Even the dreams, 
in that house are violent and inhuman. 

The Vision 

After years of torture Heathcliff has his 
reward. Catherine appears to him, and for 
three days he gazes upon her presence in 
her old places. He eats nothing, speaks 
to no one. At the end of that time he is 
found dead, and is buried, as he had long 
ago arranged, next to Catherine, the two 
sides of the coffins being withdrawn so that 
their dust may mingle. 

And Catherine the younger and Hareton 
Earnshaw, who is softened and civilised by 
her, fall in love and marry, so that this wild 
and fearful story ends on a gentle note of 
happiness. But none who have not read 
it can appreciate its stormy grandeur. 

A Sister's Tribute 

In conclusion may be quoted the famous 
words of Charlotte Bronte, which so aptly 
describe the character of her gifted and 
dearly loved sister. 

" In Emily's nature the extremes of 
vigour and of simplicity seem to meet. 
Under an unsophisticated culture, in- 
artificial tastes, and an unpretending out- 
side, lay a secret power and fire that might 
have informed the brain and kindled the 
veins of a hero ; but she had no worldly 
wisdom, her powers were unadapted to the 
practical business of life, she would fail to 
defend her most manifest rights, to consult 
her most legitimate advantage. An inter- 
preter ought always to have stood between 
her and the world. Her will was not very 
flexible, and it generally opposed her 
interests. Her temper was magnanimous, 
but warm and sudden, her spirit altogether 

" Neither Emily nor Anne was learned, they 
had no thought of filling their pitchers at 
the well-spring of other minds ; they always 
wrote from the impulse of nature, the 
dictates of intuition, and from such stores 
of observation as their limited experience 
had enabled them to amass. I may sum 
up all by saying that for strangers they 
were nothing, for superficial obser\^ers less 
than nothing ; but for those who had known 
them all their lives in the intimacy of 
close relationship they were genuinely good 
and truly great." 




This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia gives instruction and practical information 

on every kind of recreation. 

The chief authorities 
articles every fortnight, 

an all such subjects have been consulted, and contribute exhaustive 

so that, when the Encyclopaedia is completed, the section will form a 

standard reference library on woman's recreation. | 





Laivn Tennis 


Card Gavies 

Chip Carving 



Bent Iron Work 

Fortune Telling by Cards 

Winter Sj'^orts 

Painting on Satin 


Basket Ball 

Pain tins; on Pottery 



Poker Work 





J\owing, etc. 

Cane Basket Work, etc. 

Cycling, etc., etc. 





Second, Prize Figure Skating Championship of the World, IQ02, London ; Lady Figure Skating Champion 0/ tJte International 

Skating Union, igod, Davos, IQ07, Vienna ; Winner of the Ladies' Figure Skating Competition, Olympic Games, igoS, London ; 

Figure Skating Champion 0/ Great Britain, IQOJ, IQ04, London, etc.. etc. 

CotUinued /ro>n pa^e 3S0S, Pari ji 

Some Further Figures — The Most Difficult of Changes — Double Threes— Brackets — Rockers and 


No. 4. The Back Inside 

T'his figure is com- 
menced with 
the free foot in 
front, as shown in 
the photograph, the 
right shoulder 
brought well back, 
knee of tracing leg 
deeply bent. When 
nearing the centre, 
the free^*:;.leg is 
brought back ready 
to take up the suc- 
ceeding stroke. 

The arms should 
never be raised high 
when skating the 
school figures. A 
reference to the 
photograph will 
show that the 
hands are not above 
the waist. 

Nos. 5a and 5b. Change 
of Edge Forwards 
I shall describe 
these figures as com- 
menced on the right 

No. 4- The back inside eisht, begun with the free foot in front, 
(.arms should never be raised high when skating school figures 

foot, but the same 
methods are to be 
applied when the 
figure is commenced 
on the left foot. 

The position for 
the first edge is the 
same as that for 
the forward outward 
edge; when a half 
circle is nearly com- 
pleted, the free foot 
is swung in front of, 
and a little across, 
the tracing leg, and 
immediately back to 
the first position for 
the forward inside 
edge. At the same 
moment the right 
shoulder is brought 
back and the left 

The second half 
of the figure is com- 
menced on the left 
foot in the forward 
inside position. 
When the half circle 
is nearly completed, 
the free leg is 



brought in front of, and well across the 
tracing leg. It is then swung back to the 
first position for forward outside, the left 
shoulder leading. 

The knee of the tracing leg should be 
springy when changing the edge in these 
figures; they are also helped by a sinking 
of the body immediately before each change 
and a raising of it immediately after it has 
been effected. 

Nos. 6a and 6b. Change of Edge Backwards 

This figure is commenced in the backward 
outside position ; to make the change of edge 
the free foot is swung behind the tracing 
foot, and immediately forward again. The 
knee of the tracing leg is strongly bent, and 
the left shoulder, which has been kept back, is 
brought slightly forward. The first curve 
of the second half of the figure is skated 
with the free foot in front as shown in No. 4 
It is then swung behind and across the 
tracing foot, and the left shoulder brought 
right back in the position shown in 
Mo. 5 (in which the skater is on the 
right foot). To effect the change from this 
position, the free foot is swung in front 
of the tracing foot, and the right shoulder 
thrown back to the position of No. 3. Half 
way round the curve the free foot is swung 
behind, ready to recommence the figure. 

The foregoing change of edge is very 
difficult, and but few skaters attain to pro- 
ficiency in it. It must be practised assidu- 
ously, and great care must be taken to ensure 
that the position shown in No. 5 is correctly 

No. 7. The Forward Outside Three 

The first half of the circle is skated in the 
forward outside position; as the skater 
nears the turn, the left shoulder is brought 
well round and the body rotated. 

This turn should be m.ade with an easy 
swing, and the left shoulder thrown back 
immediately after, with the head turned in 
the direction of progress. 

The position of the. free foot is not altered 
when skating the figure. 

Nos. 8a and 8b. The Forward Outside and Back 
Inside Threes 

The first curve and the turn in this figure 
are skated as No. i ; after the turn the position 
is held until the stroke is made on the left 
foot for the second half of the figure. 

The stroke from backward outside to 
backward inside having been taken, the free 
foot is held in front, and the left shoulder 
and head slightly turned in the direction 
of progress. 

When approaching and making the back- 
ward inside three, the skater should feel 
that she is travelling well back on the skate, 
otherwise a clean turn can never be made. 

The turn must be made with a rapid flick 
of the tracing foot. 

Nos. 9a and 9b. The Forward Inside and Back 
Outside Threes 

The inside edge is begun with the right 
shoulder forward. As the turn is ap- 
proached, the shoulder is brought further 

round, the free foot is held behind the 
tracing foot, and its position is not altered 
after the turn. The turn is to be made 
with an easy swing, and the left shoulder at 
once thrown back, with the head turned in 
the direction of progress. 

The second half of the figure is begun in 
the position of No. 3 ; the turn is assisted 
by an outward rotation from the hip of the 
free leg. It is made with a quick move- 
ment, not swung. 

After the turn the free foot is held in front, 
where it remains until the completion of 
the figure. 

Nos. 10, II, 12, 13. Double Threes 

These figures are continuations of the 
threes above described, and are similarly 

The learner will find that she has to over- 
come a tendency to make the second three 
too soon in all these figures. 

The name double threes is rather mis- 
leading. It refers only to the number of 
turns in each section of the eights. If two 
complete threes were skated, three turns 
would have to be introduced. 

No. 14. The Forward Outside Loop 

Loops are probably the most fascinating 
of all the turns, and learners are always in 
a great hurry to get to them. 

The forward outside loop should be skated 
slowly; indeed, all loops should be so skated, 
with a considerable bending of the tracing 
leg when commencing the figure, right 
shoulder in front. 

No. 5. The back inside change. The free foot is swung 
behind the tracing leg. 

Just before going into the loop the body is 
inclined strongly, with the left shoulder 
advanced, with deeply bent tracing leg. 

The body swing will take you into this 
loop, and all the others. Hold the free leg 



No. 6. Back outside bracket after the turn 

back as long as possible, and, when you are 
just about to come out of the loop, swing 
it boldly and freely to the front. This will 
give impetus and open out the curve to 
correspond to that which preceded the 
loop ; left shoulder back. In all loops the 
free foot describes in the air the same 
loop that the skate describes on the ice. 

Loops should be about fourteen inches 
long and shaped as in the diagrams of the 
school figures. 

No. 15. The Forward Inside Loop 

Commence with the left shoulder in front 
When going into the loop, bring the right 
shoulder forward. 

When coming out of the loop, the free foot 
is swung powerfully to the front, and held a 
little across the tracing leg, to counteract 
the tendency to fall inwards. 

No. 16. The Back Outside Loop 

This is commenced in the position of 
photograph No. 3. Very strong bending of 
the knee is necessary when going into the 
loop ; twist the right shoulder forward as far 
as possible, keeping the left foot in front 
until the loop is nearly finished ; then swing 
it back and keep it there until it makes the 
stroke for the second half of the figure. 

No. 17. The Bacl« inside Loop 

The back inside loop is commenced in the 
position of photograph No. 4 when going 
iito the loop ; the right shoulder is still 
farther brought back, and on coming out 
the free foot is swung back and held there 
ready for the next stroke. 

Nos. 18a and i8b. The Forward Outside and Back 
inside Brackets 

A bracket is composed of two curves in 
the same direction on different edges. 

This figure is commenced with the right 
shoulder in front and with the body and legs 

held as much as possible sideways to the 
direction of progress, the free foot behind 
when nearing the turn. The tracing foot 
must be kept well under the body, the turn 
must be made very quickly, the position 
ot the free foot being maintained, the right 
shoulder being well thrown back. 

When commencing the second half of the 
figure, the free foot is immediately swung 
back, the body held sideways to the direc- 
tion of progress, and the turn made by 
swinging the free foot in front of, and at 
once behind, the tracing foot, the right 
shoulder leading, body bent forward. 

Nos. 19a and 19b. The Forward inside and Back 
Outside Brackets 

For the first turn the body must be side- 
ways to the direction of progress, with the 
left shoulder leading and the free foot in 
front. The bracket is made by rotating the 
shoulders against the hips and swinging the 
free foot into the position of No. 3. 

The back outside bracket is commenced 
with the free foot behind ; when preparing 
for the turn it is swung forward and the 
bracket is made by a flick of the tracing 
foot, the position after the turn being as 
shown in photograph No. 6. 

Nos. 2oa and 20b. The Forward Outside and Back 
Outside Rockers 

The forward outside rocker is a most 
difficult figure to skate with accuracy. 

The difficulty is not in the first edge or 
the turn itself, but in holding the subse- 
quent curve on a true edge without change. 

The figure is commenced with the free leg 
behind. It is almost immediately brought 
forward into the position shown in photograph 
No. 7. It will be seen that the skater is here 
very hard on the edge, with the body strongly 
rotated. The skater was taken at the moment 
when he had lifted the free foot preparatory 
to making the turn and dropping it behind 
the tracing foot. The turn must be made 
very rapidly, and the left shoulder forced 
back as far as possible. 

At the take-off for the outside back rocker, 
the free foot is in front. It is then swung 
behind, with the right shoulder pressed well 
back. At the turn the free foot is swung 
forward and immediately back; the right 
shoulder must then be brought well forward 
in order to obtain a true curve, and the free 
foot held behind. 

Nos. 2ia and 21b. The Forward inside and Back 
inside Rockers 

The figure is commenced with the left 
shoulder leading, the free foot behind. Just 
before the turn the position is reversed — the 
right shoulder is brought well forward with 
the free foot in front. At the turn the free 
foot is swung back and immediately forward, 
and the right shoulder held in the direction 
of progress. At the finish of the curve the 
free foot is brought back to be in position 
for the take off of the back rocker. 

For the first curve of the second half of 
the figure, the free foot is in front, with the 
left shoulder leading. Immediately before 
the turn, the free foot is swung behind and 


across the tracing foot, the body strongly 
rotated, with the left shoulder still leading. 
The turn is made with a very sharp move- 
ment of the tracing foot, while the free foot 
is swung far behind and 
the left shoulder in front. 

Nos. 23a and 22b. The For- 
ward Outside and Back 
Outside Counters 

The figure is com- 
menced with the right 
shoulder leading, the 
free foot behind . At the 
turn the free foot is in 
front, with the body 
strongly rotated, the free 
foot is swung back and 
immediately forward. 
The left shoulder must 
then be pressed well 
back in order to get hard 
on the edge. For the 
second half of the figure, 
the right shoulder must 
lead with the free foot 
behind. At the turn the 
body is rotated, with the 
left shoulder leading ; 
the free foot is brought 
forward, and back, and 
the curve is finished 


of forward outside. 

The figure 

in the first position 

Nos. 23a and 23b. . The Forward Inside and Back 
Inside Counters 

commenced with the left 
shoulder leading and 
the free foot behind. 
Just before the turn the 
shoulders are strongly 
rotated, with the free 
foot in front of and in 
a line with the tracing 

At the turn the free 
foot is swung back and 
immediately forward 
again, with the left 
shoulder pressed back in 
the direction of progress. 

The second half of 
the figure is commenced 
with the left shoulder 
leading, the free foot in 
front. It is then swung 
back, and the right 
shoulder leads. At the 
turn the free foot is 
swung forward and 
back again, the body 
rotated, with the right 
shoulder leading. 

To be contintied. 


A Dainty Painted Satin Calendar — Charming Combination of Sequins, Jewels, and Beetles' Wings 

— Beautiful Art Shades in Drawing and Wall'papers for Covering Cardboard Calendars— Calendar 

with Inlet Viev/, Photograph, or Reproduction of Famous Pictures 

Deautiful and dainty little drawing-room a piece of clean paper upon which to work, 
^ and boudoir calendars can be made of some paste, with which the little wooden 
white satin ribbon of good quality, about rollers should be smeared all over to the 
5-V inches wide. width of the ribbon, leaving about three- 

The ribbon, if liked, could be of white quarters of an inch each end, which will 
cream, or a soft art shade to tone with the previously be painted with the gold paint, 
colour scheme of a room ; but 
for general purposes white 
is, if anything, quite the most 
dainty, and the drawing- 
room is rare in which a white 
satin calendar would fail to 
look attractive. 

To make this calendar 
about 12 inches of the ribbon 
are required (therefore a yard 
of ribbon would just cut 
three) . Also two little wooden 
rollers about 7 inches long 
(which may be had to order 
from a turner in wood at a 
very small cost), some gold 
paint, a piece of ribbon or 
cord, and a little calendar 

Having cut the required 
length of ribbon, a few inches 
from the top, paint a little 
scene, or some figures of any 
sort ; or, in fact, anything 

J £ • 1 J t- J. 1- J A pretty idea for a calendar is to take a piece of wallpaper with a pretty floral design 

design finished, have at hand and paste on to a card. Then affix the calendar block 


A paste such as is sold 
specially for photographic 
and other fine purposes, will 
be found excellent, as it 
does not soil the daintiest 
work. A large pot costs only 
4|d.. and will keep for any 
length of time. 

Having prepared the rol- 
lers, turn the ribbon the 
wrong side, and evenly turn 
over on the rollers until the 
cut edge of the ribbon has 
been folded out of sight. 
After it has been left 
to dry for a few hours, the 
little calendar block should 
be placed on the ribbon 
about three-parts down, 
exactly in the middle of the 
width, and fastened through 
to the satin with two midget 

The little calendar blocks 
are sold at any large firm of 
stationers for id. each, or 
more expensive ones can be 
got if required. It is, how- 
ever, quite a simple matter 
to make them at home, 
although perhaps scarcely 
w^orth the labour. To com- 
plete the calendar, the rib- 
bon or cord is tied in a small 
bow at each side of the top 

A further suggestion for a 
calendar of satin ribbon 
made on the same principle 
as the preceding one has an 
attractive form of decora- 
tion, which is so very simple 


A calendar of pastel blue paper upon cardboard, on 
which is painted a little Dutch scene 

that anyone 

A calendar of white satin with a design of flowers, leaves, and 
benies, for which sequins, jewels, and beetles' wings are used 

even unable to paint or 
embroider can make it. 

Choose a design composed 
of sprays or small flowers, 
with leaves and berries, 
using various coloured 
sequins and jewels (which 
have the holes ready for 
screwing on) for the flowers 
and berries, and beetles' 
wings for the leaves. 

The one illustrated has 
various coloured flowers 
and grapes as well as the 
leaves, and a stem of gold 
which can be done with a 
paint-brush, or it would look 
equally well worked in out- 
line-stitch in a very fine silk 
or thread, either of green 
or gold. 

And yet a third sug- 
gestion for this similar 
shape of calendar, is to 
make it of a piece of thick 
buff paper, such as is used 
for Christmas cards, attach- 
ing it to the rollers, and 
arranging in every other 
respect in precisely the 
same way as the ribbon 

A calendar which is most 
attractive, and has been 
found to be very popular, is 
of cardboard. Cut a piece 
of cardboard, measuring 
about 10^ inches long by 
5 inches wide, and a piece 
of coloured drawing-paper 
the same size. Suitable 
cardboard is sold in large sheets at 2d. and 
3d., while drawing-paper in a variety of 
lovely shades, as well as white, costs 4d. a 
large sheet. In place of the drawing-paper 
some of the self-coloured wallpapers have a 
beautiful effect. 

Paste the coloured paper on to the card- 
board with an ordinary strong paste made of 
flour and water. When perfectly dry, draw 
upon the top part of the calendar such 
design as would suit the taste of the person 
for whom it is intended. The one illustrated 
is a thick, silky paper of a beautiful art 
shade of pastel blue, having a little Dutch 
scene painted in water colours of contrasting 
shades upon it. 

The next thing to be considered is how to 
improve the bare edges. 

This can be done very effectively by 
burning the edge at regular intervals with 
a red-hot skewer, then painting the spaces 
between with gold paint, so that when 
finished it has the effect of a notched edge of 
brown and gold. 

All that now remains is to gum on the 
date blocks, and having made two holes at 
even distances at the top of the calendar, 
thread through them a piece of ribbon, 
and tie into a neat bow in the middle. 



This section gives information on gardening topics whicii will be of value to all women — the 
woman who lives in town, the woman who lives in the country, irrespective of whether she has a large 
or small purse at her disposal. The range of subjects is very wide and includes : 

Practical Articles on Horticul- 

Flower Grozving for Profit 
Violet Farms 
French Gardens 

The Vegetable Garden 

Nature Gardens 

Water Gardens 

The Windotv Gardejt 

Famous Gardens of England 

Bell Glasses 
Vineries, etc.^ etc. 




Diploma of the Royal Botanic Society 

Taking the Cuttings — How to Put Them in Out of Doors and Under Glass- 
Making a Well-drained Bed 

-Roses from Cuttings- 


HE method of raisinf trees and shrubs 
from cuttings is considered a simple and 
one, and should 
commend itself 
to the enter- 
prising worker 
who wishes to 
increase the 
stock of useful 
or ornamental 
shrubs in her 
garden and 

It has, in 
addition, the 
advantage of 
varieties which 
cannot with 
certainty be 


Cuttings of deciduous plants should always 

be taken, as shown above, with a " heel," 

or part of the parent growth 

depended upon 
true " from seed. 



Taking: the Cuttings 

Cuttings of ornamental 
trees, whether deciduous or 
evergreen, may be easily rooted 
in a propagating case with the 


aid of slight bottom heat. The growths 
should be firm and short-jointed, taken from 
wood in a half-ripened state. When growths 
of the proper length can be had with a 
'■heel" — that is, a piece of the parent 
growth attached to the stem — so much the 
better, as it will hasten rooting. 

In the case of deciduous cuttings, this can 
almost always be managed, as the top of the 
cutting will need to be cut back (above a bud), 
in order to check further growth until roots 
are formed. Be careful to remove with a 
sharp knife any eyes towards the base of the 
cutting, which would otherwise be covered 
with the compost on insertion and cause 
troublesome growth of suckers later on. In 
the case of deciduous flowering shrubs, the 
length of the cutting m ust vary a little with the 
character of the tree and shrub ; it is better, 
a,s a rule, not to exceed six or seven inches. 
Cuttings of the smaller-leaved evergreens, such 
as euonymus or osmanthus, 
should not exceed four inches 
in length, and not more than 
two pairs of leaves should be 
left below the shoot. In trim- 
ming cuttings, be careful not 
to wound the stem ; a little 
matter such as this may make 
all the difference between 
success and failure in striking 
the cutting. 

Trimmed cutting of Euonymus Japonicus. 

In trimming a cutting care must be taken not 

to wound the stem 

Inserting the Cuttings 

Having got ready some 
clean and well-drained pots, 
put in the compost, which 




should be light and sandy, and in a warm, 
friable condition. Peat Avill be introduced 
for subjects which appreciate this medium. 
The soil should be pressed in rather firmly, 
the surface being made even and covered 
with sharp silver-sand. Boxes or deep pans 
can be used for the smaller cuttings, if pre- 
ferred. Make roomy holes with a blunt- 
pointed dibber, 
and insert the 
cuttings firmly. 
They should clear 
the soil by not 
more than one 
quarter of their 
entire length. 
Their leaves 
should not be 
allowed to touch 
each other, as this 
would encourage 
damping-off. Be 
especially careful 
that the cuttings 
do not hang in 
the holes, but rest 
firmly on the 
bottom, forcallus- 
ing will be a cer- 
tain result. 

Cuttings under Glass 

Where a heated 
propagating case 
is available, see 
that it is filled 
with clean cocoa- 
nut refuse or other 
suitable material. 
Plunge the pots 
in this medium up to their rims, and 
put on the lights. The close atmosphere 
thus induced should be kept sweet by 
uncovering the case for about half an hour 
daily, and the inner sides of the lights may 
at the same time be wiped free of superfluous 
moisture. Sprinkle the cuttings after inser- 
tion, and shade the glass from strong sunshine 
for about a fortnight, when, with favourable 
conditions, the cuttings will be rooted, and 
ready for removal from the case. In course 
of time they will be potted off and gradually 
prepared for nursery quarters. 

Rose cuttings root very 
readily w^hen prepared and 
inserted in this way. If re- 
quired for forcing, these and 
other flowering subjects should 
be grown on vigorously for a 
year or two in order to increase 
their strength. 

Where bottom heat is not 
available, the cuttings may be 
struck indoors under hand- 
lights, or merely placed on a 
shelf in the greenhouse ; or, 
again, the pots can be put out- 
side in a cold frame. Such 
methods, although not rapid, 
will be found quite successful. 

Pot of cuonymus cuttings ready for the propagating case. The cuttings should 

clear the soil by a quarter of their length, and the leaves should not touch one 


Heaths, azaleas, and New Holland plants 
generally, are ready for propagation in heat 
in the way described above whenever the 
wood is in a half-ripened state. 

In the Open Ground 

Cuttings of hard-wooded plants may be 
struck successfully in the open ground. Choose 

a spot in the 
garden which is 
sheltered as far as 
possible from hot 
sunshine and cold 
winds, and make 
up a bed of good 
light soil, well 
drained with 
rubble and a layer 
of sifted coal- 
ashes, and slightly 
raised above the 
level of the soil 
around. Free 
drainage will "be 
further assisted 
by making up the 
bed on a decided 
slope from back 
to front. After 
raking level and 
surfacing with 
sand, the soil 
should be trodden 
firm with boards. 
Water the bed, 
if dry, with a fine- 
rosed can, but in 
this case do not 
put in the cuttings 
while the soil is 
in a sticky state. The cuttings will be 
prepared in the usual way, and will then 
be dibbled in, using a line to keep the 
rows straight, in alternating lines. Distance 
apart will vary with the subjects in hand ; 
all cuttings should stand clear of each 
other's leaves, and if they are going to 
remain in the same quarters for some length 
of time after rooting, a larger space between 
the plants should be allowed. Freshen up 
the cuttings with a sprinkling of water 
occasionally, when needed. ^ 

Cuttings inserted in raised border out of doors. The spot should be sheltered from sun 
•nd wind, and, to assist drainage, the bed should be on a slope from back to front 

393 1 



Continued from />a\;e 3S11, Part 31 


Author 0/ '■^ Small Holdings for Women" "Flower Culture /or Profit" etc. 

Cuttings — Grafting and Budding— Layering— Strawberries 

CuccESS with fruit cultivation must in- 
evitably depend upon the subjection 
of outgoing sums. First study how to pre- 
vent money from leaving the exchequer, and 
then endeavour to increase the 

So long as one can limit the 
expenses and preserve a tight 
rein upon the small amounts 
that dribble outwards, one will 
be on the right road to pros- 

Obviously, a lady starting on 
her career as a fruit-grower 
must purchase her initial stock- 
in-trade, her bushes and trees, 
from a nurseryman, but when 
she gets her undertaking into 
something approaching working 
order she should take steps to 
provide her own raw material. 
To be a fully fledged, business 
proposition, the holding should 
be very nearly self-supporting, 
and this can only be the case 
where propagation is success- 
fully carried out. 

The lay mind is surprisingly 
ignorant as to the art of pro- 
pagation. To the man in the 
street the question of how an 
apple-tree is grown is a profound 
mystery. Budding and grafting 
are unfathomable enigmas, and 
cuttings but little understood. Giving 
apples first consideration, seeing that they 
belong to the most important order of 
our native fruit, they are, in a wild state, 
the highly coloured crabs of our country 
hedgerows. As such, they are captured and 
tamed, to use a convenient simile, and 
brought up in the way they should go. 

The majority of our orchard apples are 
grown on the stock of the common crab. 
That is to say, small stems of crab apple are 
budded with cultivated varieties, and so form 
" maidens," which is the primary stage of 
the marketable apple-tree. 

•• Paradise " Stock for Apples 

For garden fruit and also for certain choice 
varieties, however, the buds are worked on to 
what is known as " Paradise " stock. This 
stock is the wood of a dwarf-growing wild 
apple, originally found in Palestine and the 
East, and its Biblical name is probably 
derived from its native land. At any rate. 
Paradise stock makes more fruit-bearing, 
fibrous roots than crab stock, is not so ram- 
pant in the formation of wood, has not the 
same gross tap-roots, and, in short, is more 

Both crab and Paradise stock are to be 


Cuttings of currants for the creation of 
new nursery stock 

increased readily by cuttings inserted in 

sandy soil, and kept thoroughly moist till well 

established. The cuttings should have their 

lower buds rubbed off, and should be set some 
five or six inches in the ground, 
preferably in the autumn. 

Then, again, apple stock may 
be raised from seed, and it is 
surprising how quickly one of 
these tiny pips will grow, three 
summers yielding a sapling of 
quite respectable proportions. 

Having obtained a suitable 
stock, the next matter is to bud 
it. Budding is preferable to 
grafting with maiden stock, and 
it is not so formidable a task as 
would appear at first glance. 
Indeed, anyone who has budded 
roses will experience little diffi- 
culty in performing a similar 
operation on a fruit-tree, though 
it is wise and judicious to ex- 
periment on some wild hedge- 
row growth before attempting 
to deal with a stock that is of 
some material value. 

Having obtained the required 
stocks to "work" (as a nursery 
foreman would express it), the 
next task is to get the buds. 
These are best if secured from 
strong, young wood of the same 
season's growth, and as budding 

is seasonable 

work early in 

August there 

should be little 

difficulty in this 

direction. If 

your own orchard 

does not furnish 

buds of the 

varieties you 

require, beg them 

from a neighbour 

or purchase them 

from a nursery- 

Having the 

buds by you 

(they must be 

kept moist) take 

the budding- 
knife — w h i c h 

may be obtained 

for eighteeh- 

pence from the 

cutler — and in 

the bark of the 

stock make an Gooseberry cuttings should be taken in 
inri«ir»n in an nr>- 'he autumn, and consist of straight, 
mcisionmanup ^j 3 shoots about fifteen inches .n 

ward direction, length 



and another at right angles, and work the 
knife well in under the bark so as to raise it 
bodily from the tissue of the stem. When 
planning to grow a standard apple, the 
incision should be made about eight inches 
above the ground, but the height should be 
less when bush or trained trees are required. 

Now take the bud, which will have been 
removed from its parent wood with a " tag " 
or strip of bark some couple of inches in 
length, and place it against the cut in the 
stock. Trim it up to fit beneath the bark, 
and, when it lies in place, take some bast, 
or raffia, and tie it round the stock, so 
that it completely covers the incision, ex- 
cepting just the bud. Then knot it tightly. 
If the weather is dry, efforts must be made to 
prevent the bud from shrivelling, but when it 
gives evidence that the joint has been made, 
the head of the stock may be cut off, and 
thenceforward, the growth from the bud 
must be trained as required. 

The great point to bear in mind is the pre- 
paration of the bud. It must be trimmed up 
in such a way that the green tip from which 
life springs is not damaged, and yet as much 
of the fibre under the bark as possible should 
be removed. Get the bud itself right, make 
it fit the stock neatly ; tie firmly, keep 
moist. These are the chief details to consider. 

Peaches and nectarines are usually worked 
on wild plum, such as the thorny Myrabella, 
and on almond ; pears are worked on quince 
stock, and in certain cases on pear stock it- 
self ; plums are budded on to stock raised 
from the plum-stones, and from the wild plum. 


Grafting is quite a different matter from 
budding. It is not often employed for 
converting stocks into maidens, except when 
budding has failed. Generally speaking, 
grafting is to rejuvenate old trees, and in 
certain cases to change varieties. 

The principle of grafting is to attach 
a healthy, vigorous shoot of a young tree 
to the stem of an old one. One must first cut 
down the old tree till it is practically nothing 

How to layer a strawberry runner, so as to ensure a strong, healthy 
is laid on.a flowerpot of light potting soil and kept in place with a 
severed from the parent plant 

but stump. The graft is then taken and cut 
away to a steady slope, and at the head of the 
old tree a corresponding slope is formed. 
The two sloping pieces are then laid together, 
bound in position, and to keep air from 
the joint a ball of clay is pressed round it. 

This grafting clay is formed by making a 
mixture of ordinary clay, a little cow-manure, 
and a little hair, damped with water, but graft- 
ing wax, such as is sold by all sundriesmen, is 
more cleanly and answers the same purpose. 

Cleft grafting is the method of splitting 
the old tree with the aid of a wedge and of 
filling the cleft with the shoot of new wood, 
or " scion " as it is generally called. 

Currants and gooseberries are easily pro- 
pagated by means of cuttings or strikings, 
and the autumn is the most favourable time 
for the work. Select straight, vigorous shoots 
about fifteen inches in length, and set 
them in a light, sandy soil in a sheltered and 
somewhat moist position. 

Red and white currants should have their 
lower buds removed, but in the case of 
black currants all the buds should be allowed 
to remain. The lower buds of gooseberry 
cuttings should be rubbed off, and in all 
cases the cutting should be trimmed at the 
top with the pruning- knife. The cuttings 
should be inserted a foot apart, and about 
four inches deep in the soil. 

Layering: Strawberries 

Strawberries, in the natural order of things, 
throw runners from which tiny plants 
appear. In the ordinary way these tiny 
plants will increase and multiply, till, in the 
course of a couple of years, the bed is choked. 
The proper treatment is to layer the young 
runners carefully, so that efficient propa- 
gation may take place. The best runner of 
all is the one nearest the parent plant, and 
the others should be pinched out as fast as 
they appear. Take the selected runner, and 
lay it on a small flowerpot full of light potting 
soil, keeping it in place with the aid of a flat 
stone. In a comparatively short time the run- 
ner will have rooted, when it may be severed 
from the parent and 
removed in its pot 
to a shady place to 
mature. By the 
time the best plant- 
i n g - o u t season — 
August and Septem- 
ber — has arrived, it 
will be a sturdy 

Strawberry plants 
reared on this careful 
S3^stem will come to 
earlier productivity, 
and be far more 
robust than those 
treated in the lacka- 
daisical way of being 
allowed to root 
where they please. 

young plant. The selected ruRHer 
flat stone until rooted, when it is 

To be continued. 




This section of Every Woman's Encyclopaedia will prove of great interest to women, con- 

taining as it does practical and authoritative articles on : 

Prize Dogs 

Cats : Good and Bad Points 


Lap Dogs 

Cat Fanciers 

Children's Pets 

Dogs' Points 

Small Cage Birds 

Uncommon Pets 

Dogs' Clothes 


Food for Pets 

Spoiling Dogs 

The Diseases of Pets 

Hotv to 7 'each 7 'ricks 

How lo Exhibit Dogs 


Gold P'ish, etc., etc. 


By E. D. FARRAR, Breeder and Exhibitor 

A Craze Which is Centuries Old — The Toy Dogs of the Ancients — The Sacred Lion Dog of China— 

The ** Spaniel Gentle, or Comforter '*— Foreign and English Toy Dogs — Dogs to Match One's 

Costume — Why Toys are Popular — The Painter and the Pet Dog — The Whims of Fashion 

TThere is, as we all know, 
under the sun. and so 

nothing new 
the superior 

person who contemptuously sneers at the 

" modern " craze for diminutive dogs is 

centuries out in his reckoning. 

Hundreds of years before the Christian 

era there were 

costly wee dogs of 

the lapdog per- 
suasion, and their 

cult was not con- 
fined to fair ladies. 


wrote of the 

"vain man" that 

when his pet dog 

died, he "deposits 

the remains in a 

tomb, and erects 

a monument over 

the grave with the 

inscription ' Off- 
spring of the stock 

of Malta '"^thus 

proving the great 

antiquity of that 

now seldom -seen 

Victorian pet, the 

silky little Maltese 


Possibly, the 

unlucky dog of 

that cynical 

dandy, Alcibiades, 

which had to 

Miss E. Green s minature black-and'tan Toy Terrier, " Misbourne Love Bird-" 

These delicate and dainty little dogs are intelligent and affectionate, and rrake 

ideal pets for ladies 

Photo, Sport and i.nnera/ 

suffer the amputation of its pretty tail in order 
to cause a sensation among the novelty-seek- 
ing Athenians, was of this breed, or, maybe, 
of that equally ancient one, the Toy Pom- 
eranian, a picture of which is depicted on a 
Greek vase of B.C. 400, showing the dainty 
mite as he existed 
twenty-three cen- 
turies ago. To 
the credit of the 
fanciers of those 
days, it must be 
said that he is 
practically as 
good as his de- 
scendants on the 
show bench of 

The most costly 
o f present-d a y 
Toys, the Peking- 
ese, is but the 
fabulously ancient 
Sacred Temple or 
Lion Dog of im- 
memorial China, 
miniature speci- 
mens of which 
were bred speci- 
ally to nestle in 
the wide silken 
sleeves of Royal 
and high-bred 
ladies, and which 
therefore still 

PETS 3934 

retain the name of Sleeve dogs. The wisest 
of Chinese Empresses, that wonderful woman 
of our own age, who, despite her sex, ruled 
an ancient empire as but few men could 
have done, thought it not beneath her to 
write a poetic and enthusiastic appreciation 
of these little Palace dogs, and to lay down 
strict rules as to the colouring of the robes 
which they should adorn. And the present 
Chinese Ambassador to the Court of St. 
James's has been pleased graciously to attend 
a show of the breed over here, and criticise 


Princess Toussoun with her famous prize winning-team of Pekingese, 
little dogs, with their Oriental dignity and supercilious expression, i 
fashionable world. Their colours are varied and beautiful 
Photo, Sport and Getieral 

his national dog with friendly candour and 
in true sportsmanlike fashion. 

The pretty varieties of English toy 
spaniels, too, boast a lineage both Royal and 
ancient. In the pictures of Vandyke, the 
little spaniel is immortalised with his owners, 
and the great painter has dealt lovingly with 
his silky beauties and intelligent, affectionate 
expression. He is " the spaniel gentle, or 
comforter," as Queen Elizabeth's physician, 
Dr. Caius, quaintly, yet aptly, calls him. 
To-day his origin is apparent in the names 
King Charles and Prince Charles spaniels. 

The Blenheim, too, claims a long, heredi- 
tary association with the House of Marl- 
borough, though he now is bred much 
smaller and no longer permitted to go a- 

England prides herself, and with justice, 
upon her skill in dog-breeding, but it is due 
to other nations to acknowledge the debt 
she owes them, and in the region of Toys 
this debt is heavy. France gave us the 
fashionable boule-dogue frauQais, Belgium 
the quaint and monkey-like griffon bruxel- 
lois, Holland the schip- 
perke and pug, China 
the Pekingese, Japan the 
Chin or Japanese spaniel, 
Germany the original 
Pomeranian, Italy the 
ethereal toy greyhound, 
and Malta the fluffy 
Maltese. All these breeds 
are both costly and 
fashionable, except, per- 
haps, the schipperke, a 
hardy and more terrier- 
like dog. 

Of native Toys, the 
little " Yorkie," minia- 
ture bulldog, miniature 
black-and-tan terrier, 
and miniature bull- 
terrier, are chief, but 
they are neither so 
popular nor so costly, as 
a rule, as their exotic 

The reason is not hard 
to find. Most foreign 
Toys are hard to rear, 
therefore costly, and the 
rare will always command 
both devotees and a 

Very often the delicate 
and varied colourings of 
these tiny dogs harmon- 
ises beautifully with the 
dress or the complexion 
of their mistresses. The 
canine press recently 
vouched for the fact 
that fashionable Viennese 
ladies were carrying toy 
dogs dyed in shades 
These beautiful and costly w^hich matched cxactly 

•re the canine darlings of the , , . . -' 

and their size small their COStumeS, Or 

afforded the precise com- 
plement in colour. Pomeranians and Peking- 
ese, but especially the former breed, can be 
had in exquisite colours — blue, orange, sable, 
white, black, chocolate, brown, chestnut, 
parti-colour, and beaver. The canine mites 
are dainty in their habits, of inappreciable 
weight, and usually of dispositions that lend 
themselves to cosseting. 

They do not look grotesque decked out 
in finery, though lace-edged pocket-hand- 
kerchiefs tucked into coats with pockets, 
are apt to raise a derisive smile on the 
spectator's lips, and goggles and laced-up 



or rubber boots do not cnluincc their beauty. 
But a beautiful woman, attired in a Parisian 
or Viennese creation, holding a dainty little 
Pom, or supercilious Pekingese nestling in 
her " fourrures," has added the last note to 
her toilette. 

There is a chicness of effect in the bright 
eyes and the silky or ruffled coat that har- 
monises so cunningly with the rest of the 
beautiful picture, which has been a secret 
known to beauties since Fashion's reign 
began. The painters of old knew this, 
and that, presumably, is why Carlo's 
picture — and he was doubtless a tiresome 
sitter — ^was included with that of his fair 

All down the ages, therefore, Ihe Toy 
dog has reigned supreme, alike with man and 

woman. Henri II. and his tinv " mignons " 
of toy spaniels ; Charles I., Charles II., 
Mary of Modena, the great Duke of Marl- 
borough, and others of renown — poets, 
artists, painters, and fashionable dames — 
all have in their day, and their turn, fallen 
victims to this cult. 

And, in conclusion, let those breeds whose 
doggish day seems over remember that 
Fashion's wheel, like that of Fortune, is ever 
rolling, and the day will surely return when 
the Toys that were the joy of the Early 
Victorian lady will supplant f.ome of their 
foreign rivals, and we shall see the Italian 
greyhound, the pug, and the Maltese again 
lords of the boudoirs and, doubtless, occu- 
pants of the best seats in the aeroplanes of 
Park Lane. 


The Quaint Fishes of the East — Wondcriul Results o£ Pisciculture — Varieties of Japanese Goldfish — 
Their Points — How to Keep Them Successfully — Cost of Good Specimens 

is the great value placed upon them, £},*j 
and £^o of our money being no uncommon 
price for a pair of perfect goldfish of some 
special varieties. 

The Japanese divide these curious breeds 
of goldfish into ten classes — viz., the Wakin. 
the Ryukin, the Ranchu, the Oranda, the 
Demekin, the Deme-ranchu, the Kinranshi, 
the Shukin, the Shubunkin, and the Watonai. 
The " Wakin " is the common goldfish of 
Japan; it is a much larger fish than the ordi- 
nary kind sold by 
aquaria dealers ; 
it occasionally 
attains a length 
of sixteen inches. 
It varies in colour, 

At the Anglo- Japanese Exhibition at the 
White City in 19 lo a considerable amount 
of attention and interest was attracted to the 
many curious products of the natural world 
which were displayed. Among these marvels 
were dwarf forest trees over a century old, 
yet little more than a foot in height, and 
fantastic goldfish, whose bizarre appearance 
had been brought about by long and careful 
selection and breeding. 

These fish had been known in Europe for 
some years, but their pre- 
sence in a public exhibition 
led to many inquiries as to 
where they could be pur- 
chased, and to an increased 
demand for them at the 
various dealers in live stock. 

Although originally brought from China, 
the Japanese have, by careful mating of 
selected specimens, produced examples with 
almost globular bodies, double flowing tails 
and fins, and protruding eyes. Specimens of 
these fish have been brought to this country, 
but the very best never leave Japan ; one 
reason for this — apart from the fact that the 
Japanese rarely permit the best of any of 
their products to leave their native land — 

as specimens may 
be either of the 
normal colour, 
golden- red, or else 
s i I V e r y - w h i t e, 
black, brown, grey, 
olive, yellow, or 
vermilion ; and 
these colours 
again, in some 
examples, may be 
chequered with 
black or silver. 
The caudal fin, or 
tail, is usually of 
normal type, but 
in many of the 
varieties of gold- 
fish the tail is 
divided into three 
or four lobes, and it is an extraordinary 
fact that this division of the caudal fin is 
not a mere splitting of the superficial parts, 
but is actually a bilateral separation of the 
deep-seated bony elements from which the 
fin arises. 

Another variety is the " Ryukin." 
Owing to its globular-shaped body, this breed 
has a very distorted appearance. The fins, 
and especially the tail, are wonderfully 

The Ryukin, one of the quaintest of Japanese goldfish 
with an abnormal development of tail and fins 



The Ranchu, the variety on which Japanese breeders bestow most care. The head should be covered with a 
warty growth, pink or white in colour. As i: has no dorsal fin, it often loses its balance and swims upside down h o o 

developed, and in one now before the writer known in Europe for 
the tail is larger than the body, and is of the 
The Ryukin is nearly always 

reason of the pre- 
sence of the dorsal 
fin and the full 
development of the 
flowing tail. The 
warty excrescences 
may either wholly 
or partially cover 
the top and sides 
of the head. The 
colour is variable, 
some fish being 
quite black, whilst 
others may be var- 
iegated with differ- 
ent tints, such as 
a red head, a 
yellow body,, and 
black fins. 
The "Demekin " 
been well 
many years, under 

treble variety. 

parti-coloured, red and silver. It is not so 
large as the Wakin, being only about six or 
seven inches long when fully grown, of which 
length from three to three and a half inches 
forms the tail. 

The " Ranchu " is the fish to which almost 
greater attention is paid by the Japanese 
than to any other of the varieties. The body 
is, if anything, more spherical than that of 
the Ryukin, but the tail is not a flowing one, 
and the head, in specimens two years old 
and upwards, is covered with a warty growth, 
either pink or white in colour. The fish 
with white papillae are known as " hiraga- 
shira," or " white-heads," or else as "shiraga- 
shira," which signifies " flatheads," the 
growth not being so developed as when red 
in colour. 

The dorsal fin is absent, and this fact 
sometimes causes the Ranchu to lose its 
balance, and to swim 
either in a vertical 
position (head down- 
wards) or else; upside 
down altogether. 

Owing to the diffi- 
culty experienced in 
rearing this breed and 

its generally delicate 

nature, it is rarely 

seen outside Japan. ; 

When fully grown it '^ 

is about six inches in 

length, and uniformly 

coloured examples 

command the highest 

prices. In the " shishi- 

gashira " the warty 

excrescence covers the 

whole head and face as far as the mouth of 

the fish, but where the growth is confined to 

the top of the head the variety is known as 

the " tokin " or " hooded " goldfish. 

The " Oranda " was produced by the 

crossing of the Ranchu and the Ryukin ; 

it more closely resembles the latter, by 

in Europe 
the name of " telescope-eyed" goldfish, the 
name having reference to the abnormally 
protruding eyes which characterise tfiis 

It is according to the amount of its eye 
distortion that the value of the fish is 
gauged, and the shape and size of the fins 
are of secondary importance. 

The eyes should be large, protruding, and 
cone-shaped ; globular and tubular eyes are 
not considered perfect types. The eyes 
ought also to be properly paired, or the 
value of the specimen is much discounted in 
the estimation of fanciers. 

The Oranda, a species produced by the crossing of the 

Ranchu and the Ryukin. It has a wonderfully developed 

flowing tail and warty excrescences on the head 

There are people, especially women, who 
are always on the look - out for new or 
fantastic pets. To their notice one may 
safely recommend Japanese goldfish. Be- 
sides, they really are most interesting little 

To be continued. 





Photo, Rita Martin 



This section of Every Woman's Encyclopedia forms a practical and lucid guide to the many 

branches of needlework. It is fully illustrated by diagrams and photographs, and, as in other 

sections of this book, the directions given are put to a practical test before they are printed. Among 

the subjects dealt with are : 


Knitting ■ Darning with a Sewing \ 

Embroidei-ed Collars and 





What can be done ivith 

Lace Work 

Art Patcktvork 


Drawn Thread Work 

Plain Needlework 

German Applique. Work 



Monogram Designs^ 


Setving' Machines 

etc., etc. 


A Fascinating Form of Ncedlecraft — Method of Using Designs — "Working Shadow Embroidery — 
The Use of Beads and Cabochons — Materials and Uses — An Example from Olden Days 

poR many years we have embroidered 
* materials — fine linens, thick brocade, 
softest velvet, plush, or satin, all have in 
turn served as background for the patterns 
worked in linen thread, in silks or wools, 
beads and sequins, and often the effect 
has been extremely fine. 

There is, however, a subtle charm in a 
veiled colour, giving pleasant changeability 
of tones in the half -concealed beauty beneath 
the veiling which is 
unobtainable by- 
any other means. 

Great delicacy in 
handling is all im- 
portant when deal- 
ing with chiffon, 
ninon, Brussels net, 
mousseline- de-soie, 
and all the other 
exquisite varieties 
of a semi-trans- 
parent nature. 

Though it is quite 
possible to iron off 
patterns on to these 
thin fabrics, or to 
trace designs by 
means of carbon 
paper, the thickness 
of line inevitable 
with such methods 
is a decided draw- 
back when the lines 
of embroidery are 

D 28 

required to be of the fineness of a spider's 

Other means have therefore to be devised, 
so that a simple or most intricate pattern 
may be achieved with no Unes at all to 
mar the finest of material. 

The method is not altogether new, for the 
lace-worker, who must make complicated 
patterns, without tracing on her stuff, has 
long adopted this plan. 

The design tacksd iii position 

y„<jer the materid that is to be wc 



Outline design for shadow embroidery. This should be traced and the tracing pasted on to thin cardboard The material to be worked 
upon is then tacked over it, and the actual embroidery commenced. (Sec page 3937) 



How to Use the Pattern 

Cut out the design given with this number, 
and paste it on to thinnish white cardboard, 
or on to a square of American cloth. Press 
and dry well, then tack Ihe piece of chiffon 
or other thin fabric lo be embroidcrcMl on 
to the pattern, and , 
darn over the lines 
which can be seen 
quite plainly. 

When one section 
is finished, move the 
material along, tack 
down all round as 
before, and darn 
another piece. This 
very firm and care- 
ful tacking is im- 
portant, for only 
workers in chiffon 
and such fabrics 
know how slippery 
and difficult to keep 
in place they are 
unless very firmly 
held. If there is a 
selvedge to the 
material, it is a 
good plan to place 
it lo the edge of the 
card, and tack it 
first in position, as a 
guide to further adjustment. When working 
shadow embroidery on net of the fine 
Brussels or coarse fish net type, great care 
must be used in keeping the mesh straight. 

For embroidery on black chiffon slight 
touches of jet arc extremely handsome and 

It should be remembered that much jet on 
chiffon is liable to tear it away, so that the 
weight of the embroidery must be carefully 
regulated. In the example shown a fine black 
bead edging is employed to hold the cliiffon 
in its place and add \vri;^'hl lolliecf! j 

On chiffon the outline may be carried out in thick ropy silk, tiny jet studs being placed in 
form. A jet beading gives necessary weight to the chiffon 

the flowe 



Shadow embroidery on filet 

worked m fine wool. Such a 
evening frock of net 

in good taste. The pattern is outlined in 
thick ropy silk, and tiny jet studs are placed 
at the extremity of the flower form, and also 
where the circles indicate the position of an 

a design is suitable for bodice drapery, or 
for the long, straight, panel-like pieces worn 
on the front and back of gowns. 

Sew the Beads on Last 

It will be found much easier to complete 
the embroidery be- 
ll fore sewing on the 
HI beads or cabochons. 
;f| They are apt to 
i' ratch on silk, and 
cause trouble if 
worked as each 
piece of embroidery 
is done. The best 
method is to untack 
the work from the 
card before adjust- 
ing t hem , then 
thread the silk or 
cotton up from be- 
hind, put on the 
bead, bring the 
thread to the back, 
and tie on with a 
knot as a milliner 
ties on her trim- 
mings. This tie, 
when securely made, 
is much more satis- 
factory than fasten- 
ing off with a needle 
and thread on very 
thin materials. Another illustration shows 
shadow- work on filet net, and is intended 
for trimming a girl's evening dress. The 
stems and buds are in pale green wool, 
and the flowers in rose pink. 


scheme would look well on 




broidery, it is best 
to adapt oneself 
entirely to the need 
of the moment. If 
the bottom of a 
tunic is to be 
embroidered for a 
light evening dress, 
silk is the most 
effective material. 
An example in the 
illustrations shows 
a fine make of 
grey silk net of a 
real shadow tint, 
the pattern out- 
lined in white silk. 
Large hollow gold 
cabochons are sewn 
where indicated by 
the circles in the 
design. These are 
sewn on with a 
^ few black beads, a 
touch which is most 

A grey silk net worked in white silk. Hollow gold cabochons held in place by tiny jet black beads are re . • r^-i • j 

employed effectively effective. The Wide 

silk selvedge is in 

The half-finished example, shown tacked 
on to the card, is an evening scarf in the 
making. A pale grey filet net is used, to be 
embroidered in silk of a deeper cloud shade. 
This deeper shade of silk will be used also 
for a thick knotted fringe three and a half 
inches in depth at the bottom, the finished 
effect being extremely handsome. 

Many embroidery patterns can be utilised 
for shadow embroidery if light and simple 
in line. 

Materials for Embroidery 

With regard to the materials for em- 

this case used as a finish to the tunic, and 
no hemming up of the bottom is required. 
More of this embroidery would be used at 
the edge of the magyar sleeves, and a 
thick gold clasp should fasten the girdle. 
Such a shadow drapery, with the touches of 
gold worn over white satin, makes a very 
pretty frock for a young girl. 

Every well-filled wardrobe contains at 
least one black evening dress, and the black 
gown of to-day is no longer the hard one 
of satin or brocade, but, like its fellows, is 
partly made of some soft fabric. 

An example of antique darned netting in an elaborate pattern of Spanish origin 



The specimen of antique darned netting 
shows a very elaborate pattern of Spanish 

A Spanish Design 

Green leaves and purple blossoms outlined 
in white decorate this valuable example, 
which is in the form of a two-yard-long 
scarf, embroidered all over. The net used 
is of the softest silken quality. 

This shows what used to be done, and 
its elaborate stitchery may prove suggestive 

for the further enrichment of the simple 
design given for the worker of to-day. 

This method of working a design without 
marking the material opens up possibilities 
for artistic effects. Not only can silk or 
woollen threads be utilised, but narrow 
bebe ribbon would be a charming medium 
on certain fabrics. Tiny blossoms and 
delicate green leaves could thus be poised 
on a fabric seemingly too fragile to support 


Cretonne Veiled with Net— Its Application to the Decoration of a Room — The Glistening Dewdrops 
— Novel Idea for a Competitive Working Party — Original Ideas 

Appliqu^ cretonne work is eminently 
'^ adapted to the decoration of a room, the 
ever necessary soft cushion becoming a 
thing of beauty as well as comfort when 
covered with a veiled cretonne design. 

The cushion illustrated is covered with 
a coarse white net, and shows a cretonne 
design of graceful pale pink roses, buds, and 
foliage, interlaced with soft green ribbons 
of a delicate shade. 

This design was cut from three-quarters 
of a yard of cretonne, and 
placed between double net, 
made up over a white sateen 
cushion pad. A pink cord to 
match the veiled roses is a finish 
to the whole. 

A very pretty fancy is to sew 
on to the roses and foliage a 
few tender pink and leaf-green 
jewels at irregular intervals, 
which, dimly glistening through 
the veiling on the petals and 
leaves, suggest the raindrops 
after a summer shower upon 
the roses in the garden. 

The table-covers, fireplace 
curtains, fire-screens, etc., could 
all be made to match, and with 
a soft rose-coloured or Liberty- 
green carpet would complete a 
very attractive and not expen- 
sive form of decoration for a 

An original competition might 
be arranged by those who are on 
the look-out for something new 
in that way for the coming 
autumn and winter. Cards of 
invitation should be sent out 
two or three weeks before a given date, 
announcing a " Cretonne Competition and 
Tea," proceeding to explain that prizes 
would be given for the best articles made 
from cretonne and net, materials for which 
must not cost more than a certain sum. 
These competition teas prove very popular 
and enjoyable, especially when it is wished 
to arrange something in which philanthropy 

and pleasure may be combined, those invited 
naturally being persons who have a common 
interest in any charitable scheme in opera- 
tion. It would be usual for the organisers 
to provide tea and prizes, and all articles 
made for competition given to be sold for 
the benefit of the cause. 

This would be an exceedingly attractive 
idea, as the things that may be made are so 
many and varied, a few suggestions, in 
addition to those already mentioned, being a 

A cushioo'cover of cretonne roses appliqued upon white satin and covered with 

coarse white net. A few beads sewn on would give the appearance of dewdrops 

upon the roses 

tea-cosy, set of d'oyleys, traycloth (a very 
dainty one seen was of white spotted net, 
with a design of flowers and beautiful little 
blue birds, and a narrow gold trimming as 
a finish to the edge), chair-backs, blotters, 
photo-frames, workbag, pincushion, glove 
and handkerchief sachets ; in fact, almost 
any pretty and useful thing which may occur 
to one can be carried out in this way. 





Cofituitud from fa^e 3^22, i^art ^2 

Desides certain definitely named stitches 
^ which have been described in the fore- 
going articles, a number of patterns may be 
built up by combining one or more of these 

Interlaced Stitches— Surface Stitches— How to Modify the Tones of Embroidery — The Use of Surface 
Stitches — Advantage of Using Contrasting Colours 

This interplay of colour is often very valu* 
able in modifying a shade already worked. 
For instance, a line of stemstitch, or chain 
stitch, may appear too bright when worked, 
but can be toned down by throwing a thread 
of a darker shade over and over it, so that 
the original shade peeps through. 

Two examples of interlaced stitches are 
given in Diagram i. The ground stitch cf 
the first, A, is faggotting, already described 
(see page 3588, Vol. 5) as an insertion 
stitch. Here it is worked on a solid piece of 
material, but in exactly the same way. 
Into it a strand of a different colour is 
threaded in and out, as shown in the drawing. 
To avoid splitting the silk of the first 
stitching, the needle should be inserted eye 
first. It will be understood that here, as in 

Diagram 1. Interlaced stitches. The ground stitch of A is 
faggotting. In B backstitches form the ground stitch 

stitches, according to the ingenuity of the 


Indeed, the number of such interlaced 
and surface stitches is really endless, and it 
is only necessary to describe one or two in 
detail, and to point out other possible 

Interlaced Stitches. — One advantage of 
interlaced stitches is that variety in colour 
may be introduced, for the ground stitches 
are usually worked in one shade, and another 
colour chosen to thread in and out of these. 

Diagram 2. Surface stitches. A solid filling, worked by carrying 

lines of silk diagonally over a square, then interlacing them with 

silk of a contrasting colour 

Diagram 3. Surface stitches. Open squares into each of which 
a weaving stitch is taken across diagonally 

all interlaced stitches, the thread of the 
second colour only pierces the material at 
the start and finish ; everywhere else it lies 
entirely on the surface of the material. 

In the second example, B, the ground 
stitch is backstitch (see page 3404, Vol. 5) 
and the interlaced stitch is carried in and out 
of each backstitch. It may also be doubly 
interlaced by taking another thread and 
running it in and out in the opposite direc- 
tion, so as to form a series of loops round 
each backstitch. 

The various herringbone stitches also 
lend themselves very happily to this method 
of enriching the original stitch. 

Surface Stitches. — Under this heading 
come the lace stitches, m^y of which are 
also very valuable in other kinds of em- 
broidery. As the name implies, nearly all 
the embroidery lies on the top of the material, 



only sufficient stitches being worked into the 
material round the edges to hold it in shape. 
It must be allowed that, in most cases, 
thie kind of stitchery 
is not very durable, 
but it has nevertheless 
the special charm 
often belonging to 
ephemeral things. 

Buttonhole stitches 
(see page 3284, Vol. 
5) adapt themselves 
well to surface em- 
broidery. One method 
has already been de- 
scribed in that article 
as a way of filling a 
flower or leaf, and the 
chequered filling to the 
fritillary flower can 
also be carried out as 
a surface stitch. 

Three other surface 
fillings are illustrated. 

Diagram 4. Surface stitches. Trellis stitch. An old but charming 
stitch when neatly worked 

Diagram 2 shows a 
very solid filling, which has been worked by 
throwing lines of silk diagonally over a 
square, and then interlacing these with silk of 
a contrasting colour, carried diagonally in the 
contrary direction. The lines of silk only 
pierce the material at each end. 

Diagram 3 shows a set of open squares, 
into each of wiiich a weaving stitch is taken 
across diagonally, starting from the angle, 
and only filling half of each square. Another 
way would be to work round and round each 
of the intersecting lines, where they cross, so 
as to form a circle round each, rather like a 
spider's web. This method is often used in 
drawn-thread work. 

An Old Embroidery Stitch 

Trellis stitch (Diagram 4) is an old stitch 
which has been re-discovered, and a very 
charming one it is when neatly worked. It 
has a rather intricate appearance, but is 
not really very difficult to work. It is also a 
very firm stitch, so that the disadvantage 
mentioned above in connection with surface 
stitches cannot be said to apply to it. 

To work it, it is necessary first to make a 
line of chainstitch all round the form to be 
filled in, as trellis stitch itself has no points 
of attachment. Into the first chainstitch, 
to the left-hand side, the needle is brought 
up from below, as shown at A of the diagram. 
For the sake of clearness, the thread is next 
shown working a stitch farther along the 
line, but in reality each stitch follows the 
preceding one. As shown, the thread is 
knotted through itself, and then pulled tight, 
so as to form a knot slanting sharply from 
left to right. This is repeated along the 
row. The next row is worked into the 
heading of the first, from right to left, and 
this time the thread is knotted through the 
opposite side, and the knots pulled from 
right to left. These alternately slanting 
directions, taken by the rows of knots, give 
a kind of lattice, or trelliswork effect, which 
has given the name to the stitch. 

Diagram 5 shows a heart-shaped form, 
with a filling of trellis stitch worked across 
it in bands of different shades. The drawing 
has been purposely 
magnified to show the 
method of working, 
and it is also ad \'isable 
in the actual em- 
broidery to use a 
coarse thread until 
proficiency in the 
stitch has been at- 
tained. Then a finei 
thread should be us^ 
to give the true char- 
acter of the stitch, 
which has a closely 
woven texture, but 
with a pleasant sense 
of pattern given by 
the varied direction 
ofthe rows of 

In taking a new needleful, it is as well 
to start at the beginning or end of a 
row, though if the join has to be made in the 
middle it can be done by tlireading it into 
the back of the filling already worked. In 
working a petal or leaf which decreases 
towards the point, a stitch must be missed 
out occasionally, and it is best to do this at 
the beginning or end of a row. 

Variations of Trellis Stitcli 

Trellis stitch may be varied in several 
ways. The knots can be worked so as to all 
slant the same way ; or a band of several 
rows may be worked all slanting in one 
direction, and then another band slanting the 
opposite way. 

The stitch may also be worked round 
and round, spirally, when, for instance, 
the centre of a daisy is to be filled. The 
stitch when worked in this fashion gives 
a very faithful and somewhat uncommon 
representation of the " machine-turned " 
appearance of the centres of these flowers. 
To be continued. 


A filling of trellis stitch worked in different shades, 
magnified to show method of working 



In this important section of Every Woman's Encyclop./rdia every aspect of dress is being dealt 
with by practical and experienced writers. The history of dress from earliest times is told, and 
practical and useful information given in : 

Home Dressmaking 

How to Cut Patterns Home Tailoring 
Methods of Self-measure- Representative Fashions 

ment Fancy Dress 
Colour Contrasts Alteration of Clothes, etc. 


Lessons in Hat Trimming 
How to Make a Shape 
How to Curl Feathers 
Flowers, Hatpins, Colours, etc\ 

Boots and Shoes 


Hozv to Keep in Good Condition 

How to Soften Leather, etc. 



How to Preserve, etc. 

How to Detect Frauds 



Cleaning, etc. 
Jewellery, etc. 


Cloaks for Different Purses and Purposes— On the Choice of Materials — A Black Satin Model — 
Mantles that Copy Historical Garments — Fashions that Remain Fashionable — The Red Riding- 
hood Design — The Mother Hubbard, Claddagh, and ** Bonne Femmc" Cloaks — Presents from 

the East— How Best to Utilise Them 

T^HE essential quality of the evening cloak 
that is to be worn during a long- 
distance drive over a full-dress toilette on a 
cold winter's night is that it be very warm 
and very light in weight. The heavier furs 
that are suitable for the car in the daytime 
are not suitable at night, because they would 
crush a fragile gown. 

Sable, chinchilla, and ermine are glorious 
possibilities to the few who can afford to 
pay the increasingly high prices charged for 
them, but pony, or any heavy skin of the 
kind, though ideal for day wear, is not 
advisable at night. 

The snowy whiteness of ermine is perfectly 
in accord with the delicacy of an evening 
toilette, and the way in which it is being 
arranged now for the motor wrap has a 
pleasant hint of the practical in it. A broad 
band of black fur is added as a hem to the 
coat, thereby keeping any chance of smirch 
and dirt from the white pelt whilst its wearer 
ascends and descends from her car. As 
for the animals' tails, they may be em- 
ployed as a powdering, but are also used 
to form a fashionable fringe falling over the 
shoulders like epaulets, and to edge the 
sleeves, which should be very wide and 
have big "mouths." This is an essential 
point in all evening coats so that there be 
no crushing of the dress beneath, and is par- 
ticularly important in connection with fur. 

One point the designers of evening mantles 
keep prominently in their minds, whether 
they are thinking of the requirements of the 
wealthy woman or the one of very moderate 
means, and that is not to " date " their 
garments. A full-dress cloak is not the type 
of possession that is worn with the frequency 
of a dress, and therefore it would be unwise 
to impress it with the passing whim of the 
hour, unless it were in such a manner that 
it could be altered easily, and have its place 
supplied by some newer fancy. 

Two most fashionable fabrics m use are 
plush and brocade, and neither the one nor 
the other will decline from the favour of the 
elect in a hurry. Plush has returned to vogue 
this winter with all the vigour it possessed 
a while ago; and as for brocade, it enters 
upon a second season of renown with every 
chance of adding in the future to the honours 
it already possesses. 

The colours that are popular to-day will 
be popular to-morrow, and so will the 
trimmings and linings. A certain beautiful 
pomegranate red, a rich bronze green, the 
bright and regal blue known as Royal, such 
greys as sphynx, cloud, and steel, are a more 
economical choice, be the materials chosen 
what they may, than white, cream, and pearl. 
And, moreover, they are more modish, ex- 
cepting for the debutante and the bride, in 
whose trousseau a white evening mantle 



should find a place, as the covering of the wed- 
ding-gown, when it is worn at the entertain- 
ments given in her honour after her marriage. 

The Black Evening Cloak 

But now let us dwell a little upon the 
rianifest advantages of a black evening 
cloak, which is, after all, the best stand-by 
a woman can possess. It should be made 
of a good material, and therefore it is worth 
purchasing something handsome, because 
the garment is to last a long time. Brocade 
with a large and handsome pattern upon it — 
brocade, that is to say, of the "furniture" 
order so well approved for frocks as well as 
mantles — is an excellent resource. Un- 
patterned satin is almost better for the coat 
that is to be " undated," and there is also 
stamped velvet to remember. As black 
plush is apt to become rather dowdy- 
looking, it should give way before other 
attractions. But black miroir velvet and 
panne are very rich and desirable. 

To add distinction to a black garment of 
any kind should always be the care of the 
designer, since otherwise it will be but a dull 
friend. To do so in the case of a black evening 
mantle is easy enough, both with respect to 
the lining and to the outside. 

The Value of Contrasts 

Nothing would look more splendid than a 
black satin or brocade coat with a broad 
band of gold lace, dividing the coat in two 
as it were, by being placed round the hips. 
In many of their most successful devices, 
the mantle-makers use materials of abso- 
lutely alien appearance for their purpose. 
And why not in this case ? Black brocade 
could be used for the upper half of the wrap 
and black panne for the lower, with a dividing 
line of gold lace, or gold net wrought with 
coloured silks in the Indian manner, inter- 
spersed with handsome jewels, such as tur- 
quoise, moonstone, topaz, emerald, and ruby. 
Or we might turn to account white or cream 

An evening coat of the Burgomaster type is designed on very simple lines, and is easy to fit. The coat on the right illustrates the 
use of brocade in coniunction with wide, richly patterned lace and deep bands of fur 



lace of a handsome heavy description. 
This, and the other materials mentioned, 
the clever shopper v/ill find on the bargain 
counters of great establishments, where silk 
and trimming sales are frequent. 

The Importance of the Lining 

And now for the lining — a most important 
item, especially with the black coat in 
immediate view. Abjuring the beautiful but 
perishable chiffon or lace, if economy be an 
object, it will be well to choose the old- 
fashioned quilted silk should the mantle be 
chosen for very cold weather wear. Next to 
fur, nothing 'is more cosy. Otherwise, the 
selection may well fall upon a thin brocade 
or a plain satin. In any case, let the colour 
scheme lend distinction to the ebon exterior. 
A vivid green or, a brilliant purple will act 
like a charm in the task of giving brightness 
to a black coat, and if at the moment purple 
be the approved choice, there is this much 
to be said for green, that it never goes out 
of fashion. Only see that it is the right 
shade^namely, the full tint called emerald. 
Perchance there may be an opportunity 
in this direction to make manifest a touch of 
reciprocity between the toilette and the coat. 
Perhaps the dress may be of a soft and 
becoming shade of rose, of blue, or of gold, 
or there may be trimmings of those shades, 
in which case they should be repeated in the 
lining, of the coat. I have seen and admired 
more than ""once the excellent effect of grey 
as a lihlng to black, especially when jewelled 
lace has entered into the design, cream or 
ecru in tint for preference, with low-tone 
gems^o decorate it, such as moonstones or 
topaz7and here and there a blazing emerald. 
It is a quaint conceit to trim the lining of 
a coat ^vith the hipband of lace I have 
described already as an exterior decoration, 
and well worth while to think of these little 
exclusive touches — this is one of a very 
clever Parisian maker — which look so effec- 
tive when the wrap is flung back over a 
chair at a restaurant or at the theatre. 

The Burgomaster Coat 

In the most exclusive and beauty-loving 
centres of the modes there is another fabric 
that is deemed very fashionable for the 
evening cloak. This is tapestry, a curtain 
fabric made of wool, and much less costly 
than velvet or silk. An exceedingly hand- 
some Burgomaster coat can be made of it, 
richly furred about the collar and cuffs, 
copied from the pictures of old painters even 
to its colour. Such coats are designed on 
very simple lines, and are very easy in fit. 
The collar is of the loose, broad type, and the 
sleeves have very wide " mouths." Fur 
edgings are given to the fronts and hems of 
such coats in many cases, thus increasing 
their sumptuous beauty, and a brown pelt 
is used in keeping with the style of the coat. 

There is everything to be said for the 
evening mantle that copies, with the neces- 
sary modifications, some national, historical, 
martial, or pictorial design. No pattern has 
ever been more successful for the little girl 

than the good old-fashioned Red Riding- 
hood one. Generation after generation of 
children wear it, made of cashmere, wool- 
backed satin, or reefer — now, of course 
called ratine — and the small girls look as 
bonny as can be with the characteristic 
hoods pulled over their curls, framing the 
little faces so winsomely. 

The edging for the Red Riding- hood 
model is traditionally swansdown. Fur, too, 
is employed, and sometimes there is a silken 
ruche. But in a great many instances there 
is no trimming at all. 

Pictorial Designs 

Then there is the Mother Hubbard model, 
which is extremely attractive made with a 
gauged yoke, from which the material falls 
in comfortable folds ; a homely pattern, but 
one that can be developed very inexpensively 
in faced cloth or cashmere. 

The Irish " claddagh " cloak is of an 
enveloping pattern, less convenient perhaps 
on that account for those who travel by train' 
to evening entertainments than a coat with 
sleeves. The same criticism applies to the 
French "bonne femme" model, which is of 
the same calibre, and of perennial popularity. 

There are, too, many available models 
with sleeves that also recall an historic or 
military pattern. There is, for example, the 
Austrian military coat with a high collar- 
band faced with velvet and overlaid with 
gold embroidery, a model that looks ex- 
tremely well carried out in fine serge or face 
cloth of a pale-blue or soldier-grey shade. 

Embroideries from Japan 

One of the most effective mantles seen 
recently was made of bandana silk, half of it 
the characteristic red-brown shade and the 
other half stencilled with a pattern in which 
green figured largely. The patterned part 
was used for the top of the mantle, and the 
plain for the under half. There was no 
definite fit about the garment, which might 
best be described as a scarf, for the silk was 
folded about the figure in cocoon fashion, and 
one could imagine it as originally merely a 
very long and very broad length of fabric. 

Another magnificent cloak, and by no 
means a very costly one, was made of bril- 
liant purple satin with a stencilled end, the 
heavy black pattern of which was outlined 
with gold braid. The mantle was designed 
in such a way that the arms were free, 
although there were no sleeves. One end was 
thrown over the left shoulder in the Spanish 
manner, thereby protecting the lungs from 
chill, and producing a most artistic impression. 

Happy is the woman who receives from 
Japan or China a coat embroidered after the 
fashion of those lands with sprays of cherry 
blossom, chrysanthemums, or the character- 
istic dragon and tortoise designs. 

Such coats make perfect evening wraps, 
and may be trimmed to advantage with deep 
fringe, if of the Chinese persuasion. Some 
owners of silks so beautiful as these do not 
despise a fur lining for them in the winter, 
and even hem the edges with bands of peltry. 

Plain satin evening coat, tnmmed w,th ermine and wide Oriental embroidery The sleeves are large, to allow the coat to be slipped 

over the gown without crushing it 






Examiner in Dressmaking, Tailoring, French Pattern Modelling, Plain Needlework and Millinery of the 
Teachers tn Training at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff, th; London 
Tech)iical Examination Centre, etc. Author of ^^ Up-to- Date Dresscutting and Drafting^^ also ^'' The Practical 

Work of Dressmaking and Tailoring.'" 

The Skirt Measurements and How to Take Them — Advantage of "Measuring to the Floor — The 

Bodice Measurements— Requisites for Drafting — Plan Lines for Drafting a Bodice Pattern — Drafting 

the Pattern — The Armhole— To Cut Out the Pattern 


Fig. 1 


The Skirt Measures 

TThe necessary 
ments for a 
skirt are : 

Round the 
waist (see Fig. 

Length of 
front (see Fig. 


Length of 

side (see Fig. i). 
Length of 

back (see Fig. 


The length 

measures must 

all be taken 

from the bot- 
tom of the 

waistband to 

the floor. 

N.B.— These 

three length 


should be taken, 

as some figures 

require extra 
length at the side, while 
for others the skirt 
requires to be shorter 
at the back to ensure 
its hanging correctly. 

It is also advisable to 
measure both sides, as 
there is frequently a 
slight difference be- 
tween them. 

The advantage of 
taking the measure- 
ments to the floor is 
that the actual length 
of the person from the 
waist is ascertained, 
Jind any length of skirt 
can be made by adding 
to or deducting from 
these measurements. 

If the skirt is a short 
one it must, when fin- 
ished, reach exactly to 
the same distance from 
the floor all rouwd, or it 
will not hang perfectly. 




The Bodice Measures 

The necessary measurements for drafting 
the bodice are : 

1. Chest (see Fig. i). 

2. Waist (see Fig. i). 

3. Length of back (see Fig. 2). 

4. Half width of back (see Fig. 2). 

5. Half neck (see Figs, i and 2). 

6. Length of front (see Fig. i). 

To Take the Measures 

1. Place a tape measure round the figure 
well up under the arms. See that it is 
straight across the back, and bring it round 
to the front across the chest (see Fig. i), 
holding it rather loosely, and write down 
half the measurement — e.g., if the round 
chest measure is 36 inches, write i8. 

2. Without removing the tape measure 
from round the figure, slip it down to the 
waist, and write down half the waist measure, 
(see Fig. i). 

3. Before taking this measure tie a string 
round the waist of the figure, bring it well 
down into position all round, and measure 
the length of back from the nape of the 
neck to the string. Write down the length 
(see Fig. 2). 

N.B. — It is necessary to see that the person 
being measured is standing erect, not stoop- 
ing, or the measure will be too long, and 
the pattern, when drafted, will be round- 

4. This measure — half width of back — is 
taken from the middle of the back to the 
armhole (see Fig. 2). 

N.B. — Before taking this see that the 
back seam or fastening of the bodice (over 
which it is being taken) is perfectly straight, 
and that the back is neither too wide nor 
too narrow. 

If preferred, the width of the entire back 
— from armhole to armhole — can be taken, 
but only the half width must be written 

5. This half neck measure is taken from 
the nape (see Fig. 2) to the middle of the 
neck in front (see Fig. i), round the bottom 
of the collar-band. Write down the measure. 

6. The length of front is taken from the 
hollow of the neck to the string at the 
waist (see Fig. i). Write down this measure. 

N.B. — The person being measured must 
stand perfectly erect, or the front length 
of the bodice pattern will be found too 

Requisites for Drafting: 

A sheet of brown paper. 

A tailor's square or rule. 

A tape measure. 

A piece of tailor's chalk or pencil. 
The tailor's square and chalk were illus- 
trated on page 73, Vol. i, of Every 
Woman's Encyclopaedia. 

Plan Lines for Drafting a Bodice Pattern (Diagram i) 

Open the sheet of paper, place the square 
on it, and draw the back line by the long 
arm, and the neck line by the short arm, as 
shown on the diagram. 

From the neck line measure and mark on 
the back line the length of back (measure 
No. 3), square the rule, and draw a long 
line for the waist line. 

From the waist line measure and make 
a mark at the half of the back line, square 
the rule, and draw a long line for the chest 
line. This line also denotes the height of 
the underarm, which, in proportionate 
figures, is half the length of back. 

A high-shouldered figure would measure 
rather more than half the length of the back 
for the height of the underarm. 

Pu\K Uhe6 
Neck Lihe 


Back .Shoui^ik. 

Back /Wihoix Lit^m 

Chest Line, 

V^sT Line. 

^agram I,. Plan lines for drafting a bodice patterfv 

From the neck line measure i^ or 2 
inches* down the back line, make a mark, 
and about 3 inches below it make another 
mark, square the rule, and draw two short 
lines for the back shoulder and back arm- 
hole lines. 

* N.B. — This measure varies according to 
the individual figure. The back shoulder 
line requires to be drawn nearer the neck 
line when the figure is high-shouldered than 
for one with sloping shoulders. 

To Draft the Bodice Pattern (Diagram a) 

From the back line measure on the waist 
line I inch inwards, and make a mark. 
From it draw with, the square a sloping 
line to the neck line, for the true back line, 
as shown in Diagram 2. 

From the back line measure on the neck 
line one-third of the half neck measure 
(No. 5), less one-eighth of an inch*, and 
make a mark, and from it draw a straight 
line three-quarters of an inch long. Then 
draw a curving line backwards on to the 
neck line (as per Diagram 2) for the back 

* N.B. — The one-eighth of an inch is 
deducted from the third of the half neck 
measure, because the curved line will 



measure one-eighth of an inch more than a 
straight hne would do. 

From the true back Hne measure on the 
back armhole Hne. the half width of back 
(measure No. 4), plus half an inch, and 
make a mark. From it draw a straight 
line to the shoulder line for a plan Hne for 
the back armhole. 

From the shoulder line draw a line to 
the highest point of the neck for the back 
shoulder. Slightly curve this line inwards, 
as shown on Diagram 2. 

From the true